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  1. 1. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 A STUDY ON EXPECTATION OF RURAL CONSUMERS ON DURABLES (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MUSIRI TALUK) Dr.T.Unnamalai Principal (i/c) Bharathidasan University Constituent Arts & Science College Inamkulathur , Srirangam(Tk) , Tiruchirapalli 621303 ABSTRACT About 70% of India’s population lives in rural areas. Rural population has grown by 12% in last decade. Rural market has distinguished characteristics, accounts for 40% of Indian economy. Rural India has huge, heterogeneous and growing consumer market, which contributes more than 50% to India’s total consumer market size. Rural India has witnessed significant development in last decade, with commitment of financial resources and launch of a range of programmes by government towards physical and social infrastructure development. In rural areas there is no supermarkets and malls within the radius of 30 to 40 K.m. With this background the study is to be considered to be an important one. Key Words: Rural population, rural market, national income, consumer market, supermarkets Introduction by India’s premier economic research entity, National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER) indicates that rise in rural incomes is keeping pace with the rise in urban incomes. The rural middle class is growing at 12 per cent, close to the urban middle class which is growing at 13 per cent. The increased purchasing power of the rural consumer has enhanced rural demand for several products. With this back ground, Indian rural market has caught the eye of multinational corporations across the globe as a place of opportunity for exploring new markets. In this paper an attempt is made to study the rural consumer’s characteristics. The Indian rural market has a huge demand base and offers great opportunities to marketers. Two-thirds of Indian consumers live in rural areas and almost half of the national income is generated from there. 742 million Indians constituting 138 million households reside in 6, 38,365 villages (Census, 2001). The size of rural market itself speaks of its potential. The rural market consist 70 percent population, twice as entire market of USA and would become bigger than total consumer market in countries like South Kor ea/Canada in another 20 years. The income of the rural has been incr eased significantly due to green revolution. A survey SELP Journal of Social Science 1 July -September 2013 99
  2. 2. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Objectives of the Study detergents, tooth paste, tooth powder, vessels, bicycles, motor cycle, scooters, television sets, etc. But all such products which are available in the market are of only from a few brands. There is no choice for selecting from among different types of goods. The main objectives of the study are: 1. To know about the availability of the consumer products in Musiri market. 2. To find out the inherent problems associated with Musiri market. Methodology of the study: 3. To find out the opinion of the Musiri consumers about the consumer goods. Both primary data and secondary data are collected for the study. Primary data are collected from the 250 consumers. The sample consumer s ar e selected using stratified random sampling method. The secondary data are collected from books and census book in Musiri. Study Area For this study Musiri is selected. Musiri taluk is located on the river bed of Cauvery. It is in the central region of the Tiruchirapalli District. The total population of the taluk is 221055 lakhs. Out of which 110763 are males and 110292 are female. The taluk has 64 villages. The literate people in this taluk are 145866. (Nearly 63.36 per cent) (Sour ce: census book 2001) The district has an excellent links with all the districts in the state. The economy of the taluk mainly depends upon agriculture. Nearly 65 per cent of the work forces depend upon agriculture. Age wise classification of the respondent T he age of the consumer s ar e classified and presented in the following table. Table-1 Age wise classification of the consumers Source primary data Distribution channel for consumer goods in Musiri taluk : Fair price shops in this taluk are mainly deal with the distr ibution of essential commodities like rice, wheat, edible oil, kerosene, sugar etc. The co-operative banks deal with the distribution of agricultural inputs. T he village shanty (usually on Wednesday) is widely used channel for vegetables and fruits. The private shops are the main channel for consumer products. A few branded products are available in their shops. There is no a departmental store or showrooms in Musiri. The products available in market includes different kinds of textiles, Jewellery, bathing shops, washing shops, SELP Journal of Social Science With the help of the above table, it is observed that 10 per cent of the consumer from the age group of 20-30, 26 per cent of them from the age group of 30-40, 32 per cent of them from 40-50, 16 percent of them from the age group of 50-60 and remaining 16 percent of them are above the age of sixty. T his shows that the major ity of the consumers are in the age group of 30-50. 2 July -September 2013
  3. 3. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Table-2 Educational qualification of the Table-4 Income of the consumer consumer Source: primary data With the above table, it is observed that majority of consumers (nearly 105) earning between Rs. 2,000-5,000, nearly 54 consumers are getting up to Rs. 10,000, 47 consumers are getting up to Rs.15,000 and 36 of the consumers are earning nearly 15,000-20,000 Rs. Per month. Only 8 of the consumers are getting more than Rs.20, 000 per month. Source primary data With the above table, it is observed that 39 per cent of the consumers completed their S.S.L.C. level, 29 percent of them completed their higher secondary education18 per cent of the consumers finished their graduations. 12 per cent of them completed at their post graduation and remaining 2 percent of them completed their certificate course, I.I.T, poly technique etc. With the above analysis, it is observed that majority of them completed at their S.S.L.C. Table-5 Total income of the family Table-3 Number of the family members of the consumers Source: primary data With the help of the above table, it is observed that 55 per cent of the families are ear ning between Rs. 5,000-10,00015,000per month and remaining 24 per cent of the families have the income of more than Rs.l5, 000 per month. It is observed that in rural areas each family has more than single earning members. Source: primary data. The above table reveals that 12 per cent of the consumer have 4 members in their families, 25 per cent of them have 5, 30 per cent of them are having 6 members and remaining 33 per cent of them having 7 and more than 7 members in their family. It is also observed that there still exists of joint family system in rural areas. SELP Journal of Social Science Table-6 Consumer articles in their home 3 July -September 2013
  4. 4. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 With the help of the above table, it is obser ved that major ity (40 %) of the customers are purchased the particular brand of the products with the advice and the experience from their friends and relatives. In case of consumer durables, advice of friends and neighbors is found to be a major source, while family member s, opinion leaders and shopkeepers are other important source influencing the buying decisions. Source: primary data. With the above table, it is observed that 100 percent of the consumers are having Radio, fan, television sets and furniture’s. 70 per cent of them are having cooker, 40 per cent of them are having two wheeler, 44 percent of them having sewing machine, 16 per cent of them having CD/DVD players, 1 per cent of them having car and 4 per cent of them having air condition and Air cooler and 24 percent of them having inverter at their houses. Table-9 Place of Market Table- 7 Awareness about the products Source primary data With the help of the above table, it is observed that air condition, car, furniture, Fridge, CD/DVD players, sewing machines were purchased by the respondent (100 per cent of them) other than Musiri. Majority of the Respondent have purchased their articles like Television set, cooker, Radio and Two wheeler other than cycle in the urban market. Table-10 Reasons for purchasing the products outside Musiri With the help of the above table, it is observed that majority (74%) of the customers known about the product through news paper and television. The mass media is the power full media to the companies to create the awareness about the availabity of the products in the market. Now a day’s internet also has the power. But the user of the internet is very marginal Table-8 Factor influencing consumer purchase decision Source Primary data Sources Primary data SELP Journal of Social Science 4 July -September 2013
  5. 5. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 With the above table, it is observed that 39 per cent of the consumers purchased the articles in urban markets due to the main reason of price differences, 29 per cent of them for the availability of different kinds of brands, 14 percent of them for quality of the products, 10 percent of them for trust, and 8 percent of them for going out of Musiri, exchange offer etc. In Musiri there is no entertainment facility. Here the table value is lesser than the calculated value. So, the null hypothesis is rejected. The opinion of the respondent depends upon the marital status of them. This is observed that the married persons have the tendency to purchase the products and majority of them are not satisfied with the Musiri market due to the following reasons. (1) Price (2) Branded products (3) service facility (4) choice to select etc. Table-11 Rural Consumers Experiences on As per the analysis of the primary data on consumption pattern, as a whole, they spend nearly 60 percent of their income on food items, like rice, milk, sugar, oil etc. About 10 percent of their total income is accounted for clothing and other things, nearly 10 percent for transport and 15 percent for rent, medical expenses, and educations and repay their debts, etc. Nearly 2 to 5 percent of their income is for savings for their future. This habit is spread not only among the salaried people but also among the business and agricultur al people. The analysis shows that great changes are taking place in life style and buying habits. Yesterday’s luxuries are becoming today’s necessities for the rural consumers. Now a day the banks are giving loans to buy household articles. With the help of the analysis, it is observed that each and every house in Musiri has household articles like television, Fridge, cooker, etc. All such articles are also available on credit in the Market. Purchase Table-12 Opinion regarding the availability of the product and Martial status of the consumers With the help of the above table, it is observed that 219 of the consumer are married and remaining 31 of them are unmarried. It shows that the majority of them are married. With the help of X2 test an analysis is carried out whether the opinion of the respondent depends upon the marital status of the consumers. The null hypothesis is taken as HO: The opinion of the respondent does not depend upon the marital status of them. SELP Journal of Social Science Findings of the study (1)Non availability of choices of brands In each and every consumer product there are different brands. In musiri only a few brands are available. There is no choice for the consumers. If they wish to buy a specific brand, they have to travel nearly 50 k.m to purchase the products. 5 July -September 2013
  6. 6. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 (2)Price of the products: The prices of the products in Musiri are higher. In order to buy the same brand at lesser price the consumers have to travel to buy such products. in rural areas are fairly homogenous in nature. It should be segmented. Reference Books  Bedi, R. V., and Badi, N. V. (1999). Rural Marketing. Himalya Publishing house, New Delhi. (3)Non availability of Quality products: Many misbranded products are available in the market at cheaper rate.  Chunawala, S. A., and Kumar, K. J. Advertising Theory and Practice. Himalya Publishing house, Delhi. (4)Non availability of high cost products Now a day the purchasing power of the r ur al consumer s has incr eased considerably. If they want to buy an air conditioner, wooden furniture, computers, show case items they have to travel to buy such a type of products.  Davar and Davar. Salesmanship and Publicity. Vikas Publishing N. Delhi.  Gupta, S. L. Rural Marketing – Text and Cases. Wisdom Publications Delhi.  Gopalaswamy, T. P. Rural Marketing— Environment, Problems and Strategies. Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi. Suggestion of study The progress of rural consumers has led to a major transformation from a tradition bound, poverty stricken life to one of the new hopes. The expectation of the population has also changed. Now there is a large scope for the companies to sell their products in the rural market. In Musiri taluk there is no direct company owned show rooms, dealers other departmental stores or any big show rooms. The salesmen in Musiri are very small in number, have to cover large territories and scattered customers. There is great demand for products. It is time for the companies to open show r ooms or appoint dealers to capture the rural markets like Musiri taluk.  Saxena, H. M. Rur al Mar kets and Development. Rawat Publ. Jaipur.  Shiffman, L. G, and kanu k, L. L. Consumer Behaviour. Prentice-Hall of India.  Sontakki, C.N. Advertising and Sales Management Marketing Management. Kalyani publishers, Ludhiyana. Websites    Conclusion final-pro.doc With the above analysis, it is observed that the standard of living and purchasing power of the people in Musiri has increased. They want choice. There is no choice to them to select the products. Most of the interested persons usually travel nearly 30 to 50 km to purchase expensive house hold articles like T.V; Fridge, washing machines etc. Markets SELP Journal of Social Science  eco-ruraleco.htm  6 July -September 2013
  7. 7. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CHANNEL EFFICIENCY IN MARKETING OF TEA IN IDUKKI DISTRICT P.V Anil Ph.D Research Scholar Dr.M.P Mahesh Associate Professor in Commerce, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar Tamil Nadu. ABSTRACT There is large number of market intermediaries in the study area and most of them are unorganised and hence convenient sampling method was adopted to collect data from them. Accordingly, a sample of ten village traders and ten primary wholesalers was chosen. In addition, service co-operatives and primary co-operative marketing societies numbering five each in the study area were chosen for collecting the marketing information. Key words: Tea Board, channels of distribution, Exporters’ License also for consuming tea for producing tea products. Introduction Tea is a controlled commodity in India. Its pr oduction, consumption and sales ar e governed under licences issued by the Tea Board, it plays a key role in the industry as a r egulator y and pr omoting body. It is a statutory body set up under the Tea Act, 1953 to promote all round development of the tea industry and comes under the administrative control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Commerce. It also has certain regulatory functions such as issue of Exporters’ License, Tea Waste License and Tea Warehousing License. By these Acts, all the activities connected with tea, right from the production till consumption is regulated. A license from the Tea Board is a mandatory requirement to plant tea, deal in tea, process tea into consumable or marketable forms and SELP Journal of Social Science Objectives The main objectives of the study are: 1. To identify the most dominant problems in marketing of Tea in Idukki district of Kerala and 2. To measure the efficiency of different channels of distribution of Tea to highlight the most efficient one. Methodology Survey method was adopted to collect required data from the sample respondents. The data were collected from farmers of small holding and estates in the four revenue taluks of Devikulam, Udumpanchola, Peerumedu and T hodu puzha of Idukkidis tr ict and therefore, the four taluks have been taken as 7 July -September 2013
  8. 8. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 sample taluks for the study. The sample taluks, which have been tea-growing regions for centuries, are the main areas growing Tea in the State of Kerala players and on economic forces like supply and demand. Major consumers of Tea used to wait to make their purchase till the prices come down to their favour. The scrapping of port restrictions followed by the slashing of export subsidy by 50 per cent, dispensing of Tea Board’s inspection of imported tea, abolition of purchase tax on imports and the like attract the importers to import more tea in recent years. Such practices on the part of major consumers have made the domestic tea market to stagger and resulted in down fall of prices of Tea in domestic market. Further, the monsoon rain during the months from June to August slows down the process of harvesting and becomes the cause for poor arrival of Tea to the market. This leads to an uncertainty in the supply of Tea. The above ups and downs in the demand and supply position make the market for Tea more vulnerable and unpredictable. Two separate interview schedules one for pr oducer s and another for mar ket intermediaries were used. At the time of conducting sur vey, ther e wer e 71,676(56.8%)tea plantations registered with the Tea Boar d. Out of which, 240tea plantations (5%) were chosen as sample for the study.Devikulam, Udumpanchola, Peer made and T hodupuzha, t he taluks selected for the study have 12, 19, 23 and 10 villages respectively, out of which six top ranking villages *in each taluk identified by theTea Board, were selected for the field sur vey. From each of the villages thus selected, eight owners of small holdings and two managers / owner s of estates were selected to form a total of 240 respondents consisting of 192 owners and 48 managers of small holdings and estates respectively using multi-stage random sampling method. Dominance of Private dealers: Tea is bought and sold at the primary market level by the dealers authorised by the Tea Board. Apart from those authorised dealers, there are large numbers of private dealers who advance money to the owners of plantation at the time of emergency with the condition that all production must be sold to them at the prevailing prices. Charging exorbitant rate of interest for the advance money, compelling the producers to sell their produces at the prices lower than market prices and making unwanted rejections and deduction are the common practices followed by those private dealers. Frame work of analysis The predominant marketing problems traced by the producers of Tea in the study area were highlighted with the help of Garrett Ranking Techniques. .The channel efficiency of the different channels was analyed using Shepherd’s method and Composite Index method. The economic efficiency of the marketing system can be measured as the ratio of the consumer price per unit of Tea to the marketing cost per unit. The higher the ratio, the higher is the efficiency of the marketing system. Inadequate Market Finance: T he producers of Tea always prefer to sell their produce immediately after harvesting in order to settle the earlier loans and advances or to meet domestic expenditure. Finance required Results and Discussion Price Fluctuations: The prices of Tea fluctuate based on sentiments of the market SELP Journal of Social Science 8 July -September 2013
  9. 9. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 to meet out the expenses in connection with performance of major marketing functions was scarce and costly and hence many of the respondents did not spend sufficient money to make their products fit for marketing. towar ds impor t of Tea has undergone considerable changes during the recent past. The import of Teawas allowed free of license from SAARC countries during 1988. Tea was under ‘restricted items’ of the ‘negative list’ of imports under Export - Import Policy for the period 1992-97 which was amended by permitting the import against the freely transferable Special Import License (SIL). Under the Export - Import Policy for the period 1997-2002 also Teas continued to be restricted items of import. The removal of quantitative restriction on import of Tea in 2001 resulted in free import by paying the prevailing customs duty. Lack of Standardisation and Grading: It is highly essential to r estr ucture the processing and marketing activities to make the Indian Tea internationally competitive. Converting into technically specified tea grades is an essential function to maintain consistency in the quality of Tea. Many of the r espondents wer e unaware of these processes and even if aware of, they did not venture up due to lack of knowledge of the technique. Thus, the problems faced by the producers in marketing Tea are many. In or der to identify the most dominant marketing problem in the Idukki District, the respondents were asked to assign rank to each of the identified problems in their order of priority. These ranks were converted into scores using Garrett Ranking Technique and the results obtained are shown in Table A. Lack of Market Information: Market information about the availability of buffer stock of Tea, periodical inflow and outflow in different neighbouring markets and the details about the prevailing price level are a few important parameters that may help the producers to plan their activities in such a manner that gives maximum benefit. Unfortunately, the IdukkiDistrict lacks this facility making the producers to live at the mercy of a few vested interest groups. Table A Problems faced by the Producers in Marketing of Tea in Idukki District Inadequate Storage Facility: Adequate stor age fa cility is yet anot her vital requirement to seasonal products like Tea. This will help the producers in level playing in the pricing area. However, the owners of small holdings do not have enough storage facility either of their own or for lease for storing Tea particularly during the harvesting period. This is one of the reasons why the pr oducers instantly sell their pr oduces immediately after harvesting. Source: Primary data. Table A shows that the problem due to price fluctuation’ of Tea was the immediate concern to owners of small holdings and estates. This problem ranked top in the list Changes in the Import Policy of the Government: The policy of the Government SELP Journal of Social Science 9 July -September 2013
  10. 10. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 with the mean score of 57.45 and 61.58 for owner s of small holdings and estates respectively. The second important problem was the ‘dominance of private dealers’ in the case of owners of small holdings with the mean score of 55.35 and ‘changes in the import policy of the Government’ in the case of estate owners with the mean score 59.72. In the order of priority, ‘inadequate market finance’ ‘lack of standardisation and grading’ ‘lack of market information’, ‘lack of storage facility’ were the other prominent problems of owners of small holdings which ranked third, fourth and fifth. In the case of estate owners, ‘lack of standardisation and grading’, ‘lack of market information’ and ‘dominance of private dealers’ were the most influential problems which ranked third, fourth and fifth. Changes in the impor t policy of the Government in case of owners of small holdings and ‘lack of storage facility’ in case of owners of estates were not treated as important problems. operative Marketing Society - Secondary Wholesaler - Ultimate Consumer. T he village tr ader s and ser vice cooperatives operate in the primary market to collect Tea from the producers. A majority of the producers prefer to sell their produce to the village traders who visit the interior areas of cultivation. Besides, they advance money to the growers on condition that the produce should be sold to them only. They assemble the produce purchased from the producers and sort and grade the Tea. They open the bundle and test the grading and repack it and pass on to primary wholesalers in the market. The service co-operatives also purchase Tea directly from the producers. But a very few service co-operatives functioning in the study area could purchase only a limited quantity of the produce, which they sold to the primary co-operative marketing societies operating in the market. The primary wholesalers and primary cooperative marketing societies operate in the assembling market. The primary wholesalers purchase Tea both from the village traders and producers. Producers having large stock and good holding capacity contact the primary wholesalers and sell their produce directly. These producers are in a position to take advantage of the better price offers. The primary wholesalers do not hold Tea stock for a long duration. They transport the stock to the ter minal market as soon as they accumulate enough for a full truck load. At the terminal market primary wholesalers deposit t he stock in the godowns of Marketing Channels of Tea T he channels of mar keting of Tea identified in the study area are given below: Channel I Producer - Village Trader Primary Wholesaler Secondary Wholesaler – Ultimate Consumer. Channel II Pr oducer - Pr imar y Wholesaler – Secondar y Wholesaler UltimateConsumer. Channel III Producer - Service Cooperative –Primary Co-operative Marketing Society – Secondary Wholesaler - Ultimate Consumer. Channel IV Producer - Primary CoSELP Journal of Social Science 10 July -September 2013
  11. 11. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 commission agents and entrust the task of selling it to them. The commission agents make an advance of about 60 per cent to 80 per cent of market value of tea deposited by the primary wholesalers. The commission agents have to identify suitable buyers with price offers that are acceptable to their clients. The buyers are secondary wholesalers. change that reduces cost as well as consumer The secondary wholesalers operating in the terminal market make use of the services of brokers to purchase tea. The brokers contact the commission agents and purchase the quantity r equir ed by the secondar y wholesalers. The brokers are paid brokerage for the services render ed by them. T he secondary wholesalers sell the produce to the Ultimateconsumers. Figure 1 shows different participants in the four channels of marketing of Tea explained above. Channels Channel Efficiency The results reveal that amongst the four channels, Channel IV was the most efficient. The efficiency index for Channel IV was the maximum with 12.75, followed by Channel II with 12.67. The channel efficiency in Channel IV was better than that of the other thr ee because of lower marketing cost. Shepher d’s method does not take into account pr oducers share and marketing margin which ar e also the impor tant components for calculating the channel efficiency. The composite index method covers those two factors. Therefore to test the channel efficiency composite index method was applied. satisfaction may not indicate increase in the channel efficiency. The channel efficiency of the different channels was worked out using Shepherd’s Method and the results obtained are shown below: Table B Efficiency Analysis of various Distribution ofTea (Shepherds’ Method) Source: Primary Data. T he channel efficiency r efers to the effectiveness or competence with which intermediaries in the channel perform their designated functions. It is directly related to the cost involved in moving goods from the producer to the consumer and the level of service offered. A reduction in marketing cost without reduction in the level of consumer satisfaction indicates impr ovement in efficiency. A higher level of consumer satisfaction at higher marketing cost might have been the result of increased efficiency The results of the analysis of channel efficiency for differ ent cha nnels ar e furnished in Table C. if the additional satisfaction derived by consumer outweighs the additional cost incurred on the marketing process. But a SELP Journal of Social Science of 11 July -September 2013
  12. 12. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Table C Channel Efficiency Analysis References Using Composite Index Method Asian Dipped Goods Handbook and Directory 2012, Dhanam Publication Private Limited, Kochi, 2012. Asian Tea Handbook and Directory 2010, Dhanam Publications Pr ivate Limited, Kochi, 2010. Desalphine, S.M. Souvenir, Indian Tea Industr y Elastic Enough to Face the Challenges, Tea Board, Idukki, Dec, 2008. Source: Primary data. The producers’ share, marketing cost and marketing margin were ranked according to their expenses per tonne. It is inferred from Table B that Channel IV was the most efficient, with mean score of 1.67, followed by Channel II with mean scor e of 2. Compar ing Shepher d’s method and Composite Index method the Channel IV again proves to be the most efficient. Government of India, Tea Statistical News, Monthly issues from 1992 to 2008, Tea Board Kolkatta, 1992 - 2008. Gupta, S.P. Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi 2005. Ideen, H. Marketing Efficiency and Paddy Farm Economy in Alternative Channels, Indian J our nal of Agr icultur al Marketing,4(1), 1973. Conclusion Indian Tea Statistics, Vol. No.1 to 27, Tea Board, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, Tea Board, Kolkatta. 1992-2008. The foregoing analysis reveals that among the problems faced by the producers in marketing of Tea, price fluctuation is found to be the major problem and the Channel No IV comprises of producer – primary cooperative marketing society – secondary wholesalers – industrial consumer is most efficient. Philip, K.M. The Evaluation of the Indian Tea Industry, All India, Tea Industries Association, Mumbai, 2003. Shepherd, G.S.Marketing Farm Products – Economic Analysis, IOWA State University Press Limited, USA, 1965. SELP PUBLICATION SELP Trust established the publication division in the name of SELP Publication devoted to education and research with the ISBN and published 20 educational books and propose to publish 50 books in a calendar year 2013.So, if you have a proposal or manuscript (Including edited volume) in your area of specialization, please contact or write to us. we are happy to publish your books with ISBN. SELP Journal of Social Science 12 July -September 2013
  13. 13. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 E-CRM GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIAN BANKS A CRITICAL ANALYSIS Dr.C.Mathanakamaraj Associate Professor of Economics, Department of Economics Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi ABSTRACT e-CRM s 360 degree customer view provides a comprehensive, upto date profile that is as reliable as it is easy to create. The e -CRM is also allowing sales representative to view customer information from any where, anytime and has freed up customer service representatives to focus on obtaining new customer (Mc -Call, 2002). Businesses have become impersonalized with vary powerful means of communication like body language and judgement skills becoming non-existent. These channels help the banks in understanding their needs and wants and providing them various services. In this way with the utilization of various electronic, automated channels banks are making long term relationship with their customers and gets various benefits. Key words: e-CRM, customer information , automated channels , Introduction the r ise of Customer Relationship Management (abbreviated CRM) as an important business approach. Its objective is to r etu r n to the wor ld of per sonal marketing. The concept itself is relatively simple. Rather than market to a mass of people or firms, market to each customer individually. Over a century ago, in a small-town of India, before the advent of the super-market, the shopping mall, and the automobile ,weekly haat or gener al, people went to their neighbourhood weekly haat or general store to purchase goods. The proprietor/owner and the small staff recognized the customers by name and knew the customer’s preferences, needs, likings and wants. The customer, in turn, remained loyal to the store and made repeated purchases. This idyllic customer relationship disappeared as the nation grew, the population moved from the far ming community to large urban areas, the consumer became mobile, and super ma r kets and depar tmental stores were established to achieve economies of scale through mass marketing. The last several years witnessed SELP Journal of Social Science Statement of the Problem: The first surf of CRM solutions came in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Exhibit No. 1.0). The providers of these products were clarify (now owned by Nortel Networks Corp.), Onyx Software, Oracle, Vantive (acquired by PeopleSoft) and Siebel Systems. T hese packaged s olutions emphasized automating and standardizing the internal processes which related to 13 July -September 2013
  14. 14. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 acquiring, servicing and keeping customers. These processes ranged from capturing sales leads to creating scripts for customer service agents to enable consistent service and support across product lines and divisions. The focus for these CRM solutions were on automating and standardizing the internal processes to make the customers an asset. Although these pr ocesses addressed the companies’ needs, they were very expensive and not easy to maintain. An attempt has been made in this paper to anlyse the concept of CRM, and its various dimensions covering evolution, objectives, areas, Techniques and draw backs. 1. Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) : An ATM is a machine that can deliver cash to the customers on demand after authentication. This service is made available 24 hours a day. 7 days in a week and 365 days of the year through ATMs. 2. Phone Banking / Tele Banking : The face of banking industry has totally changed by the technology . Phone/ tele banking means carrying out of banking transaction through telephone. A customer can call up the banks help line or phone banking number to conduct transactions 3. Internet Banking – e-Banking : Net banking means carrying out banking transactions through the Internet. It comprises a variety of projects that aim to improve not only the bank s efficiency, but customer service levels as well. E-Banking program allows customers to use the Internet for basic functions in corporate and retail banking and cr edit car ds. Thus the technology has completed eliminated the need for branch . 4. Mobile Banking : Now banks help the customers to conduct certain transactions through mobile phone with the help of technologies like WAP, SMS etc. This helps a bank to combine the Internet and telephone and leverage it to cut costs and at the same time provide its customer the convenience. 5. Total Branch Mechanization (TBM) : Dr. Rangrajan Committee – II in 1988 had suggested TBM . Local Area Network has installed by banks at the major centres of the countr y t o make all banking ser vices available at single window to their customers. Concept of CRM T hus “e-CRM is the phenomenon of building relationship with customers via the internet or the relationship that is web-based is known as electronic CRM (e-CRM)”. eCRM focuses on electronic channels mainly on the Internet and on technologies that enable automated and electronic management of customer relations.e-CRM s 360 degree customer view provides a comprehensive, upto date profile that is as reliable as it is easy to create. The e -CRM is also allowing sales representative to view customer information from any where, anytime and has freed up customer service representatives to focus on obtaining new customer (Mc -Call, 2002 ). e-CRM concentrates on the retention of customers by collecting all the data f r om ever y interaction, every customer makes with a company from „all access point whether they are – Online : E-mail, website, call centres, online chat. Offline : Phone, mobile phones, fax, face to face through sales agent. The following techniques are used by Indian banks :SELP Journal of Social Science 6. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) : The RBI has introduced Electronic fund transfer technique for public sector banks to 14 July -September 2013
  15. 15. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 help them offer their customer money transfer service from any bank s branch to any other bank s branch. EFT system presently covers more than 4800 branches of PSB s at four metro cities. purchase. 11. Data Warehousing and Data Mining: This technique is used to develop and use customer data to check their profile, retention and loyalty patterns. They provide valuable inputs for r etaining cust omer s and developing products and services for the future. 7. Communication Technology (SWIFT) : International banks and foreign investors has forms a cooperative organization SWIFT . It stands for Society for Worldwide Inter Bank Financial Tele Communication (SWIFT. It provides a computerized network for stage transmission amongst international banks in the member countries. This technology made available the fastest banking ser vices/ facilities to customers who are engaged in international business. Draw tacks: However there are some drawbacks which are common to all e-CRM dependent businesses. There is no personal interaction between the cus tomer and the supplier. Businesses have become impersonalized with vary powerful means of communication like body language and judgement skills becoming non-existent. Banks are not able to gauge their customers at all since the complete process has become over the computer screen. 8. Wireless Banking Services : Wireless banking services is an imaging trend in banking. Wireless banking service enables one to manage their accounts with GSM/GPPS WAP (Wir eless application protocol) technology to allow access to accounts mor e convenient, s ecur e and flexible. Conclusion e-CRM in banks has enabled banks to get a global presence. They become customer focused organizations by using the various electronic channels. These channels help the banks in understanding their needs and wants and providing them various services. All this make the customers loyal and happy. In this way with the utilization of various electronic, automated channels banks are making long term relationship with their customers and gets various benefits. 9. Electronic Clearing Services : Electronic clearing service is a simple, reliable and cost effective solution for bulk and repetitive payment transactions like salar y, pension, inter est, commission, dividend etc. by public or private companies and government departments through banks. 10. Point of Sale Terminal : References: It consists of two key components a computer terminal that is linked on line to computerized customer information file in a bank and a plastic magnetically encoded transaction card that identify the customer s account is debited and the retailer s account is credited by the computer for the amount of SELP Journal of Social Science      15 July -September 2013
  16. 16. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 LEARNING FROM EVALUATIVE RESEARCH A DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH Dr. Kankipati Srinivasa Rao Assitant Professor of Commerce VivekVardhini PG College (AN), (Affiliated to Osmania University) Jambagh, Koti, Hyderabad-500095 ABSTRACT Teaching for successful learning cannot occur without high quality evaluation. Evaluation, therefore, needs to be integrated with the process of teaching and learning. The first and foremost shortcoming of the evaluation system is that it focuses only on cognitive learning outcomes and completely ignores the non-cognitive aspects which are a vital component of human personality. The present paper analyses various Learning, Evaluation research methods, shortcomings and suggestive steps to improve the situation in the process of learning from evaluation research. Key words: Learning, Evaluation research teachers use teaching aids, like, charts, models – static & working, specimen, slides, etc. because teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids. They provide a means to judge actions and activities in terms of values, criteria and standards. At the same time evaluation is also a practice that seeks to enhance effectiveness in the public sphere and policy making. methods, cognitive and non-cognitive areas of learning Introduction Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing and inter pr eting evidences of students’ pr ogr ess and achievement both in cognitive and noncognitive areas of learning for the purpose of taking a variety of decisions. Evaluation, thus, involves gather ing and pr ocessing of information and decision-making. Evaluation, therefore, needs to be integrated with the process of teaching and learning. Hence, evaluation has to be so designed that it can be used as a powerful means of influencing the quality of what teachers teach and what students learn. To enhance the quality, some SELP Journal of Social Science It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A – V Aids during teaching. The use of A – V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated per sons becoming teacher s. The education system should provide positive learning experiences so that learners become responsible citizens. The present paper analyses various Learning, 16 July -September 2013
  17. 17. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 needs and ar e fr om diver se cultur al backgrounds. Evaluation research methods, shortcomings and suggestive steps to improve the situation in the process of learning from evaluation research. Teaching and learning strategies The 6 E+S Model of instruction Cognitive learning The 6 E’s and S (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate, Extend, and Standards) lesson plan format was developed by teachers in consultation with faculty from schools of education and is based on a constructivist model of teaching. The lesson plans are based on constructivist instructional models with activities and sections of the plan designed to have the students continually add (or construct) new knowledge on top of existing knowledge. Cognitive learning is the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive pr ocesses, the pr ocedur es we have for manipulating information ‘in our heads’. Human beings can lear n efficiently by observation, taking instruction, and imitating the behavior of others. “Cognitive learning is the result of listening, watching, touching or experiencing.” It is a powerful mechanism that provides the means of knowledge, and goes well beyond simple imitation of others. Cognitive processes include creating mental repr esentations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing. Each of the 6 E’s describes a phase of learning, and each phase begins with the letter “E”: Engage, Explor e, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate and Extend. The 6 E’s allows students and teachers to experience common activities, to use and build on prior knowledge and exper ience, to construct meaning, and to continually assess their understanding of a concept. Teaching and Learning Teaching and learning is a process that includes many variables. These variables interact as learners work toward their goals and incorporate new knowledge, behaviors, and skills that add to their range of learning experiences. Over the past century, various perspectives on learning have emerged, among them —cognitive (learning as a mental operation); and constructivist (knowledge as a constructed element resulting from the learning process). Rather than considering these theories separately, it is best to think of them together as a range of possibilities that can be integrated into the learning experience. During the integration process, it is also important to consider a number of other factors — cognitive style, learning style, the multiple natures of our intelligences, and learning as it relates to those who have special SELP Journal of Social Science Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is one of the best researched of all teaching strategies. The r esults s how that students who have opportunities to work collaboratively, learn faster and more efficiently, have greater retention, and feel more positive about the learning experience. This is not to say that students can just be put into a group and assigned a project to complete. There are very specific methods to assure the success of group work, and it is essential that both teachers and students are aware of them. Role of ICT in the learning process IT has opened new avenues, like, Online 17 July -September 2013
  18. 18. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 learning, e-learning, Virtual University, ecoaching, e-education, e-journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in imparting information fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can access it anywhere. It will be cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. It has broken the monotony and provided variety in the teaching – learning situation. examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object — they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object. Evaluation & Decision making Suggestions The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide “useful feedback” to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, clientgroups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. Most often, feedback is perceived as “useful” if it aids in decisionmaking. But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one — studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that the major goal of evaluation An individual student can evaluate his learning through Understanding Test the student can instantaneously get the feedback about the status of his understanding. If the answer is wrong, he even can get the correct answer. It goes a long way in improving the learning and teacher has no role to play in it. T he pr oper implementa tion of Cooperative Learning can make learning enjoyable and helps the retention of students. Create an environment conducive for learning by developing relevant curricula, lear ning/ teaching mater ial, teaching methodology, teacher orientation and any other should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through the provision of empirically-driven feedback. appropriate inputs to retain all children in schools till they complete at least the upper primary stage of education. Diversified Evaluation T her e ar e many differ ent ways of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that between formative and summat ive evaluation. For mative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated — they help form it by SELP Journal of Social Science Reach ou t to the communities by facilitating existing bodies including Gram Panchayats, and self-help groups to take responsibility for all children in the local area thr ough appropriate support pr ocesses, especially in terms of consolidating the resource bank. 18 July -September 2013
  19. 19. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 when and why they are effective. Educational Institutions and Non Gover nment Or ganizations t o conduct Research Studies on Learning Programs and Elementary Education related activities, innovative practices to understand the impact of the programs and also the bottlenecks, findings, suggestions to over come the problems. References Ainley J. Pratt D. & Hansen A, (2006). Connecting Engagement and Focus in Pedagogic Task Design, British Educational Research Journal, 32(1), 23-38. Brophy, J. (1999). Teaching, Educational Practices Series 1, International Academy of Education & International Bureau of Education. Chunawala, S., & Pradhan, H. C. (1993).AStudy of Students Attitudes towards School Subjects:APreliminary Report, Journal of Education and Social Change 7(2&3), 52-60. Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, A., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design Experiments in Educational Research, Educational Researcher, 32(1), 9-13. Charles, C., & Mertler, C. (2002). Introduction to Educational Research. Boston:Allyn & Bacon. Downs, R. M. (1994). The Need for Research in Geography Education: It would be nice to have some Data. Journal of Geography, 93(1), 57-60. ECD-LRC. Trial for Improved Practices for Evolving ECCSGD program. Ed. Mohite P. Early Child Development – Learning Resource Center,Department of Human Developmentand Family Studies, Faculty ofHome Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat. Supported by UNICEF, Gandhinagar, 2003 . Gall, J., Gall, M., & Borg, W.(1999). Applying Educational Research: APractical Guide. Boston:Allyn & Bacon. Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2000). Educational Research: Qualitative and QuantitativeApproaches. Boston:Allyn & Bacon. Maharashtra Textbook (2007). Physical Environment Geography -Standard IX, Pune: Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Reeves, T. (2000). Enhancing the Worth of Instructional Technology Research through “Design Experiments” and Other Development Research Strategies. Paper presented at International Perspectives on Instructional Technology Research for the 21st Century – A Symposium Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Saxena R.R, Satvir Singh, and V.K Jain. 1995. “Impact of Operation Blackboard Scheme on Learner’s Achievement – A DPEP Baseline Study”. Department Of Measurement, Evaluation, And Data Processing, National Council Of Education Research And Training, New Delhi, Processed. Vosniadou, S. (2001). How Children Learn, Educational Practices Series 7, International Academy of Education & International Bureau of Education. A periodical meetings and workshops of the Resea r ch, Evaluation, Lear ning, Monitoring committees and sub committees were organized at State & national level in reviewing the progress of the intervention. The crucial determining factor for success is the interest and efforts of the teacher. If the teacher is convinced and committed, the school has efficient program implementation and if the teacher views the program as ‘additional responsibility thrust upon her/ him’, the program suffers. Concluding Remarks Educational theory does provide insights about lear ning conditions that can be productive, but these are not commonly practiced. This study provides an exemplar of an evidence based practice of reflective teaching in an integrated learning context that is essentially activity-based. The thematic learning activities developed during this research study will serve as an exemplar to enrich and improve the teaching of physical geography in secondary schools. A teaching strategy is evolving, which develops students’ skills and facilitates active cognitive engagement of students in understanding explanations involving the integrated content. The theory driven design of innovations thus enables us to create opportune lear ning conditions, so as to conduct empir ical educational research for understanding how, SELP Journal of Social Science 19 July -September 2013
  20. 20. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CREDIT RECEIVABLES MANAGEMENT IN STAINLESS STEEL SALEM R.Leelavathi, Ph.d Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, Periyar University, Salem ABSTRACT SAIL’s wide range of long and flat steel products is much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. The Environment Management Division and Growth Division of SAIL operate from their headquarters in Kolkata. Salem Steel Plant, a special steels unit of Steel Authority of India Ltd., pioneered the supply of wider width stainless steel sheets / coils in India . The plant can produce austenitic, ferrite, martensitic and low-nickel stainless steel in the form of coils and sheets with an installed capacity of 70,000 tonnes / year in Cold Rolling Mill and 1, 86,000 tonnes / year in Hot Rolling Mill. In addition, the plant has country’s first top-of-theline stainless steel blanking facility with a capacity of 3,600 tonnes / year of coin blanks and utility blanks / circles. The study highlights about the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers and t the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers. The customers who are availing credit family from the company are bound to repay it in pre specified duration in agreed installments and interest rates. Key words: SAIL, steel plants, galvanized sheets, stainless steel, alloy steels Introduction distinction of being India’s second largest producer of ir on or e and of having the country’s second largest mines network. This vital responsibility is carried out by SAIL’s own Central Marketing Organization (CMO) that transacts business through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions, 25 Departmental Warehouses, 42 Consignment Agents and 27 Customer Contact Offices. CMO’s domestic marketing effort is supplemented by its ever widening network of rural dealers who meet the demands of the smallest customers in the remotest corners of the country. With the total number of dealers over 2000, SAIL’s wide SAIL is also among the five Maharatnas of the countr y’s Centr al Public Sector Enterprises. SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products, including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanized sheets, electrical sheets, structural’s, railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and other alloy steels. SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions of India and situated close to domestic sour ces of r aw mater ials, including the Company’s iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the SELP Journal of Social Science 20 July -September 2013
  21. 21. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 In or der to study and ana lyze the receivables management of the company following tools are used Ratio analysis, Compar ison analysis, Cr edit analysis marketing spread ensures availability of quality steel in virtually all the districts of the country. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defense industries and for sale in export markets. Objectives of the Study To study and analyse the effectiveness of receivables management in Salem steel plant during the year 2006-2011 Importance of Study The study highlight on the various aspects like company’s ability to get back their receivables at agreed duration and installments, the company’s ability to retrieve their money fr om the defaulter or any compensation for the same and legal actions taken against default customer for the same about the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers. The study says about the various credit proposals applied t o the company to differ ent customers. The study says about the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers. The customers who are availing credit family from the company are bound to repay it in pre specified duration in agreed installments and interest rates. To do a comparative analysis between the year 2006-2011 for discount sales. Tabulation : Inventory The above table displays that during the year 2006-2007, inventory was low so liquidity of the firm was high, where it gave the company an edge to convert assets in to quick cash. During the period 2009-2010, there was decr ease in sales and so the inventory level was destabilized, which lead to decline in quick ratio. Type of Study The method for the study of past and cur rent r ecor ds of existing delinquents customer to analyze the default status of their account and its significant in order to draw a conclusion. The research is descriptive in nature as they were done on the existing date. The search design used in this study is descriptive research design. Descriptive is undertaken in order to study and analyze the receivables of the company with the available data. Tabulation: Buyer Discount Offer The above table shown that during the year 2010-2011, the company had increased sales due to development in its scheme where it save the buyer an option “ If they pay credit before the dead line they would be offered discount”. This gave rise to incr eased It was from the published annual report and other report of the company for the corresponding year for which study has been made. SELP Journal of Social Science 21 July -September 2013
  22. 22. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 business. During the year 2006-2007, the company had decreased growth in business as it followed stringent rules, where they did not offer buyer discount steps for collection debt amount to improve the Business Performance. Reference: Prasanna Chandra “Fundamental of Financial Management” by Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi. 2001 Conclusion: During the year of 2007-2008 the current r atio, quick ratios ar e maintained ver y effectively due to collection of receivables within the duration. In the year of 20092010 the company sales was high because of high discount rate (8%). In the year 20092010 the r eceivables ar e not collected properly. So the company should be properly maintained current ratio and quick ratio more effectively. The company takes necessary I.M Pandey “Financial Management By Vikas publishing house, Delhi Eugene F.Brigham “Fundamental of corporate Finance by Standard Publication, Indore, 1998 John.G ,Account Receivable Best Pr actices by Pr actical accountant, jun2004,vol 37,page no:14-45 RESEARCH EXPLORER (A refereed Bi Annual International Research Journal on multidisciplinary) ISSN: 2250-1940 Articles are invited from the academician, research scholars and subject experts for the next issue of the RESEARCH EXPLORER (January - April 2013) which will be published in the month of October 2013. RESEARCH EXPLORER is an official publication of the SELP Trust. It features the original research in all branches of Commerce, Business Management and other cognate branches of sufficient relevance. The manuscripts should be submitted through mail to the Managing Editor to . To facilitate an editorial decision on the acceptability, or otherwise, of their manuscript, and to speed-up subsequent publication, authors are strongly advised to consult the format of papers in a recent issue of Research Explorer. Review/Strategy/Case study etc should be comprehensive, up-to-date and critical on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 10 double spaced typed pages including tables and figures. At the bottom of first page, Postal address of the corresponding author and coauthor(s), and also Departmental address with designation, Tel. No. Fax No. and Email ID etc. must be specified. SELP Journal of Social Science 22 July -September 2013
  23. 23. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN CHENGALPATTU RTO DIVISION, KANCHEEPURAM DISTRICT OF TAMIL NADU C.Nedumaran Research Scholar Dr.T.Ramachandran Professor School of Management, SRM University, Kattakulathur, Chennai. ABSTRACT There is an increasing trend in the statistics of accidents and fatal deaths in India, As per the global status on road safety 60 percent of road accident deaths belong to small group of 10 countries which includes India. The main thrust of accident prevention and control across the world has been on “4 Es”, mainly Education, Enforcement, Engineering and Environment and emergency care of road accident victims. Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country to have brought out a Road Safety Policy At this crucial juncture, this study made an attempt to testify the knowledge and awareness of the road safety management systems by the road users of the Chengalpattu RTO division of Kancheepuram district and their suggestions to reduce the accidents. Key words : Road Safety Management, Road accidents , The Road Safety Fund Introduction Government on all policies and programmes relating to Road Safety at the State level. The Government have constituted “The Road Safety Fund” from out of the receipts of compounding fees and spot fines collected by Transport/Police departments to finance road safety activities. Ensuring road safety is one of the priority ar eas r eceiving Gover nment’s constant attention. Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country to have brought out a Road Safety Policy. This policy has been brought out with a vision to stop and reverse the increasing trend in the number of accidents, through adoption of compr ehensive measur es covering engineering, education, emergency care and enforcement measures. The State Road Safety Committee has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Honourable Minister f or Tr anspor t, to a dvise the SELP Journal of Social Science Need for the study In Tami Nadu more accidents are taken place in the capital city and its outskirts especially Sub-urban places that are located in the Ka ncheepur am and T hir uvallur districts. In this context it is an urgent need 23 July -September 2013
  24. 24. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Data Collection tool: A str uctured questionnair e (See appendix) has been designed and administered to the respondents of the study. And the administration of the questionnaire was carried out during morning time between 10.A.M. to 11 A.M for a period of one week time. to reduce the no. of accidents in the state, though various measures are taken by the government and NGOs to create awareness on r oad safety management. But, these measures are not given expected results. At this crucial juncture, this study made an attempt t o testify the knowledge and awareness of the road safety management systems by the r oad user s of the Kancheepuram district and their suggestions to reduce the accidents. Based on the results of the study a report (viz., inclusion of road safety education in the curriculum of the schools and colleges, and enhancing of the enfor cement aspects and so on) may be submitted to the state/central governments so as to enhancing existing r oad safety management. Tools for data analysis: SPSS software is used for the data analysis. The following tools are employed data analysis of the study – Simple percentage methods – Cluster Analysis Table No1 –Knowledge about road safety signals Objectives of the study  To study the public knowledge and awareness of road safety regulations The road safety signals are five but the data presented in the table no – 1 indicate that only 28 percent of the respondents are opined correctly about it and remaining 72 percent of the respondents are not having clear ideas about the safety signals which are very important while driving a vehicle on the road.  To identify the pattern of road safety driving sense among the publics/drivers of the vehicles To identify the public opinions on the role of mass media for creating road safety awareness  To study the opinions of the public’s to improve the road safety measures Table No2 – Hand to be used for signaling Research Design Sampling Design: This study is the pilot study of the on the going research project on road safety management in the School of Management of SRM University. Thus, a sample of 100 road users by the purposive sampling who are coming for various reasons for the RTO of Chengalpattu. Further this study will be extended for the road users of other RTO offices of the district along with th , road safety managers and enforcement officials. SELP Journal of Social Science The right hand is used for signaling since India follows right side driving procedure but the data presented in the table no – 2 indicate that 33 percent of the r espondents ar e confused with the left and both the hands which can not be used for signaling. 24 July -September 2013
  25. 25. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 The data related to the knowledge of changing vehicle position (Right or Left) have been presented in the table no – 5. It is seen from the table that only 40 percent of the respondents are correctly said ‘See the following vehicle position through rear view mirror well in advance say 30 feet and show the signal and then turn or change the vehicle position’ and r emaining p er cent of respondents are lack of knowledge about this aspect. Table No – 3 Awareness on the Hand signal to turn right The table no 3 presents the data related to the hand signal to turn right while driving. It is seen from the table that 31 percent of the respondents alone said correctly that ‘Extend right arm with palm of the hand turned to the fr ont. And r emaining per cent of the respondents have confusion over the use of hand signals to turn the vehicle while driving. Table No – 6 Awareness about MSM Table No –4 Awareness on the Hand signal to turn left side The table no – 6 presents the respondents awareness on MSM. And interesting to note that 77 percent of the respondents are aware of the MSM. Table No – 7 Following MSM while driving The table no -4 presents the data related turning the vehicle left side while driving. It is seen from the table that only 36 percent of the respondents opined properly that ‘Extend right arm and rotate in an anti-clock wise direction. And remaining 64 percent of the respondents are confused with the signaling at the left turning. It is found out that 77 percent of the respondents opined that they aware of the MSM but as per the data presented in the table no – 7 shows that 64 percent of the respondents are un answered for the query that following of MSM while driving and only a minimum of 14 percent answered ‘Yes’ for the query. It indicates that almost all the respondents of the study are confused with the MSM Table No – 5 Knowledge on changing of vehicle position (Right or left) SELP Journal of Social Science 25 July -September 2013
  26. 26. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Table No – 8 Road safety awareness through mass media As per the data presented in the table no – 8, 96 percent of the respondents are opined that mass media is r ight choice for the propagating/creating awareness on the road safety. In the first cluster there are 5 variables are grouped, thus most of the respondents are suggested for the induction of health education in the school and higher education curriculum, More fine for the offenders and enhancing the existing road safety awareness programs. In the cluster – II only three variables are grouped. It shows that they are not favor for the severe punishments and content with the existing p unishment procedures. Suggestions to improve the road safety Road users suggestions are also sought through the questionnaire with two point scale for the analysis of the data emerged out of this has been analysed with Cluster Analysis which is a sophisticated Multivariate tool to deal with large data that can be reduced into inter pr eta ble cluster s in the for m of Dendrogram. The variables that are used for the analysis is presented in the table no – 33. Findings The major findings of the study are as follows:  The road safety signals are five but a very minimum percent of the respondents are said exactly though they are experienced drivers. And most of them are unaware of the right and left turning signaling procedures and MSM.  And almost all the respondents are opined that mass media is right choice for the propagating/creating awareness on the road safety. Table No – 9 Variables related to the improvement of road safety Suggestions Based on the results of the study the following suggestions are made for the improvement of the road safety measures.  Most of them are experienced drivers but In the dendrogram at 70 percent distance level two interpretable clusters are formed. SELP Journal of Social Science they do not know the basics of the road 26 July -September 2013
  27. 27. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 safety mea sur es. So it is an ur gent immediate need to induct road safety education in the school and college curriculum. accidents occur per thousand vehicles. More over road crashes cost approximately one to three percent of a country’s Gross Nation Product. So, it is high time that we have to take appropriate steps in a quick manner to make road safety awareness among public through mass media viz Television, Cinema, News Paper and so on.  Most of them learned the driving through driving schools, but they unaware of the road safety procedures. So, it is an urgent need to r evamp the pr ocedur es and modalities of the functioning of these schools References 1. Depar tment of Road Tr anspor t and Highways (2008b), ‘Annual report 20072008’, New Delhi: Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways.  Majority of the respondents opined the cancellation of the driving license of the drivers who are involved in the severe accidents but they sought for three months cancellation only. And it is suggested to study the feasibilities of implementing the developed nations enfor cement procedures. 2. Depar tment of Road Tr anspor t and Highways (2008c), Basic road statistics, retrieved July 21, 2008, from http:// sublinkid= 157&langid=2  In Indian context most of the road users 3. Depar tment of Road Tr anspor t and Highways (2008d), Tr aff ic data, Retrieved August 24, 2008, from http:// mo r t h . n ic. in/ in dex 2 . a s p ?s u b li nk id =369&langid=2 are expecting the other road users are take care of their safety, thus, most percent of the respondents opined this phenomena. So, it is suggested to create awareness to change this type of attitudes of the road users. 4. Gururaj, G., 2006, Road traffic injury prevention in India’, Bangalore: National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences.  It is also suggested to the license issuing authority not only making physical test while iss uing the license but also theoretical/oral test may also conducted before issuing the license. 5. Horberry,,2006, ‘Driver distraction: the effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance’, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38 (1): 185–191.  It is right time to study and enhance the roles of mass media to create awareness on road safety measures along with the enhancing the roles of the road safety agencies in order to create awareness among the public. 6. Matthews , G., 2002, ‘Towar ds a transactional ergonomics for driver stress and Fatigue’, T heor etical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3 (2): 195–211. 7. Saija, K. K. and Patel C. D. 2002, ‘Micro level study of accidents on NH-8 passing thr ough Valsad Distr ict’ , Indian Highways,30: 43-51. Conclusion India is a more populous country in the world and a statistics says that one road accident happens in every minute and one fatal accident happens every 4 ½ minute. 35 SELP Journal of Social Science 27 July -September 2013
  28. 28. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SHG Dr.C.Paramasivan, Assistant Professor of Commerce Periyar EVR College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu ABSTRACT Empowerment of women in the third world countries is important because the benefits will be felt not only by the women themselves, but by their households as well. It may take a more enlightened approach to ensure the empowerment of women in developing countries, but the returns to their families and even the societies as a whole will be worth it. The conceptual development of the subject matter of research shall be arranged in a chronological order. This Paper highlighted the Conceptual framework which was earlerly undertaken by various researchers. Key words: Empowerment, welfare programme, social systems,SHG Introduction Empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared to be. It is now recognized that empower ment involves advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well-being of the empowered. The Benefits derived from the empowerment programmes must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be made to ensure that the target population is also able to retain the benefits. This is particularly significant for women. Empowerment becomes a popular word which dominates the overall growth and development of any developing society. Since Independence India has been changing in all fields including social systems but still a group of people still struggle to acquire equal rights in the society. All the so-called changes in the developing economy has not touched the major part of their lives as the social welfare programmes have not trickled down to certain parts of the society. It does not mean that the policy makers and the government have not drawn any welfare schemes but the schemes and programmes have not reached in whole for whom it was designed and hence it has lost its vigor and charm thus not bringing any benefits to the society for which it was planned and women sector is the most affected population of that society. SELP Journal of Social Science Murlidhar A. Lokhande (2009) said that, micro finance programme has a significant role to play in Indian economy for booting micro entrepreneurial activities for creating productive assets coupled with employment generation. So, in order to cover all the poor households, particularly BPL households, 28 July -September 2013
  29. 29. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 there is need for providing full support by the government, financial institutions and NGOs to SHGs programme. So far the SHGs bank linkage programme has been much successful in achieving quantitative targets. The need of the hour is to make the programme more quantitative, that is, enriching the lives of poor est of the poor in the context of globalised socio – economic environment political interference in the functioning if self – help groups should be avoided. reported now and then. Hence, transforming the prevailing social discrimination against women must become the top priority in our policy and it must happen concurrently with increased direct action to rapidly improve the social and economic status of women is India. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh (2008) said that, the meeting at length discussed the role/ functions of federations in sustainability of SHGs, the future structure and legal status of the feder ations, how to ensur e the autonomous functioning of federation ; sour ces of financial sustainability of federations including founds required for capacity building and mana gement of federations; accountability, transparency; should federations be involved in financial intermediation; type of common grading system for federations; role of NGOs and collabor ating agencies and NGOs federations; relations with panchayat raj institutions (PRIs) at differ ent levels, Gover nment r ole and suppor t to the federations and institutional mechanism for evaluation of federations. Mohantry B.K. (2009) observed that, rural India is first emerging as a prospect for the bankers. This had become possible because banks have taken the extr a step in rediscovering their customers. They have stepped out from their narrow confines of their br a nches to natur e SH Gs, which ultimately give the feed back to the survival and growth of banking business. This is a good opportunity of the public sector banks to boost the SHG movement to enable the villages to absor b the benefits of globalization. Jitendra Ahirrao (2009) Explained that, the SGHs of rural women consists of members who are the poor, having low saving capacity and who depend on money lender s for meeting their consumption needs and social obligations. Formation of women into self help groups paved a way to develop their economic standards, thereby building self confidence. Women in SHGs have been encouraged by the government as well as NGOs to undertake self employment ventures with locally available resources. Tangirala.H.S.K. (2008) Explained that, for the purpose of economic development, the co-operatives have to form the SHGs with the help of t he member s, incr ease their competencies and capabilities. The support, advice and coaching is required from the cooper atives thr ough for mal or infor mal network, to the SHGs to get the business from all the local people. The activities might be deposit mobilization, recovery management is case of credit co-operatives, procurement and sale activities in case of manufacture – based co–operatives. However, even the related diversifications of the activities are justified, provided the needs of the members fulfilled and the ultimate goal of poverty Muthalagu.K. (2008) noted that, what my conclusion is that there is no doubt that status of women in India is developing over the per iod of time though ther e ar e many incidence of crimes against women have been SELP Journal of Social Science 29 July -September 2013
  30. 30. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Shyedra.H.S. (2008) noted that, there is a massive mobilization of women taking place as a result of the SHG movement. The growth of SHGs incidentally has occurred during the economic r efor ms per iods. T he SHG movement has a good potential to serve both as a human face of the economic reforms as well as contr ibute towar ds women’s emancipation. There is a major onus on all actors involved in SHGs promotion and development to further intensity their efforts in enabling SHGs to reach a mature stage. We need a major investment in capacity building of SHGs and proactive policies to help overcome the constraints faced by SHGs to integrate them fully into the development pr ogr ammer aimed at women’s empowerment. alleviation take place. Amarjeet kour (2008) reveals that, it is deducted from the present research that the scheme of SHGs has not played a significant role in rural development in this particulars research area. However it is generalized that, effective, functioning and implementation of SHGs can lead to social change, mobilization and involvement of people and thus, to the over all development. This scheme in the pr esent r esear ch has pr oblem at the implementation level. There would be a different situation if the local people were pr oper ly motivated and inf or med and implement ed whole hear tely by the implementing agency. Ramachandran.T. and Balakrishnan.S (2008) noted that, SHGs have the power to create a socio – economic revolution in the rural areas of our country. SHGs have not only produced tangible assets and improved living conditions of the members. But also, helped in changing much of their social outlook and activities. In the study area SHGs have served the cause of women empowerment, social solidarity and socio – economic betterment of the poor. Khullar.K.K (2007) observed that, the greatest achievement of the mahila samakhaya is to create an awareness of the need to struggle for a gender just society where women can lead a life of dignity, for a gender just society where reliant India by 2010. It has increased women’s recognition and visibility both within the family and community. Pargunan.M. (2007) explained that, the strategies above would really empower women and bring them into the mainstream development. If employment, income and social security were improved, women would automatically stronger which will lead them to become powerful in contributing to social and economic development of India. Sivachithappa.K (2008) said that, A number of important results have emerged out of the study. These results are in contrast to the findings of a number of earlier studies. Some of the disagreements of this study with the earlier studies are: the income impact of the extr eme poor is lower, the poorest borrowers may tend to have lower levels of asset accumulation, borrowers taking more number of loans generate more income, larger organizations have larger out reach and formal schooling is an essential critical criterion for exerting better effect of SHGs on income generation. SELP Journal of Social Science Snehalata panda (2007) noted that, women members have played a key role in the gram sabha decision making in matters relating to use of forest, community land, irrigation, marketing of local products and construction of roads and design of work for the newly implemented employment guarantee etc., 30 July -September 2013
  31. 31. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Santosh gupta (2003) noted that, the personality of a celebrity plays an important part in a successful endorsement. The companies must have deep pockets to be able to afford the best available celebrities. Recently a report showed how co firms had gone beyond their advertising budgets to get the best celebrities. But the company should see whether it suits their products & the sales results. have saved them from social and economic empowerment. Self help groups have saved them from social and economic exploitation and the additional income has provided them moral support to initiate new changes in the grassroots. Vijayanthi.K.N. noted that, “Women empowerment through self help groups a participatory approach” attempts to explain the process of women’s empowerment and find out the levels of a awareness creation, decision making self and gr oups empowerment among women from self help gr oups for med under compr ehensive communit y development p r ogr amme implemented in five slum areas of Chennai. Empowerment should give women freedom of choice, equal access to domestic and community resources, opportunities and powers, the programmes of NGOs improving income for providing new opportunities of skills tr a ining, additional employment providing credit and market facilities were the main areas of concern of SEWA. Suneetha. R (2007) said t hat, the empowerment of women become necessary as they ar e almost fifty percent of the population and are being discriminated at all fronts. Women play a vital role in the social and economic transformation of a country. Kala G.S. (2004) said that, “Economic empowerment of women through SHGs”, highlights mahalial thittam which is being implement in erode district since 01.05.1998 to promote self help groups over a project period of five years in rural areas the self help groups are not only engaged in saving internal lending activities b ut also function as important on health and nutrition. Literacy education, adoption of new agricultural practices farm and non farm sector economic activities and help to prepare women to take up leadership position. Till the end of may 2003, 4372 self help groups have been formed in rural areas and 159 self help groups in urban areas taking the total to 592 self help groups with membership of 85,530. Debotosh sinha (2008) s aid the, empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared to be. It is now recognized that empowerment involves an advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well being of the empower ed. Benefits der ived fr om the empowerment programmes must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be ensure that the target population is also able to retain the benefits this is particularly significant for women. Rangi and Siddhuy M.S and Harjit Singh (2002) have revealed that, women under indira mahila yojana have borrowed both from internal sources of self help group, and banks for productive and non productive. Purpose which have benefited directed and indirectly their economic empowerment self help gr ou ps have saved women fr om exploitative money lenders and land lords and SELP Journal of Social Science Tygai.D, Mitali chatterjee (2008) noted that, “there is a need is a need for improving the position of women and empowering them 31 July -September 2013
  32. 32. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 with more opportunities, greater access to resources and equal participation with in decision making processes. Empowerment is to share power. The different stages are power over, power to, power with and power within. motivation and confidence, and more say in the family matters. Women should be willing to take additional effort for building a mind set which is suitable for their over all empowerment. Sundar raj.D, Venkata Ravi. R, Hema latha.H.M., (2008) said that, “Women and empowerment” empower ment of women means enhancing awareness of individual household and community level. This helps women to be mor e awar e of their constitutional, legal rights, opportunities. Available for them to make their lines better. Mor e impor tantly, the str ategy of empowerment also helps women to achieve comprehensive development. David Jarachar.P, Usha Nandhini .S and Shivachandran.M (2005) Noted that, though the SHG movement has made an impact on the lives of a number of individuals and communities, there are many pockets of societies which have not been involved in the movement. Micro financing is yet to reach the needy. An encouraging feature is that several commercial banks including ICICI have made a foray into this segment and are actively applying the Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques and SHG concept to achieve rural information. But one aspect stands ou t demanding our immediate attention and action-rural transformation needs to be done on a war footing. Ranjit karmakar and Bholanath ghose (2008) Expressed that, the “Role of women in the self help group” is self – help groups enhanced the quality of status of women as par ticipa nts, decision ma ker s and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic and social activities, involvement of women becomes essential. They encourage women to take active part in the socio – economic progress in the nation. Pankaj Naithani (2001) viewed that, micro financing has developed the self employment activities in rural areas over the last twenty year s. Micr o financing mea ns making provisions for smaller working capital loans to the self employment seeking poor. However, some strategic planners are fearing that micro financing drive may seek. Reallocation of anti-poverty programmes like basic health, education, infr astr uctur e development etc., are found to be suffering they may be true to some extent as target beneficiaries in most of the micro finance project are women. Ruby J.A. James Devassia and Abraham George ( 2009) said tha t, women empowerment aims enabling them to realize their identity, aims enabling them to realize their identity, potentiality and power in all spheres of their lives. It has mainly five dimensions viz., economics, political, social / cultur al, per sonal and familial. Each dimension is very important because the real empowerment of women is possible only when a woman has increased access to economic r esour ces, more strength and courage for entering into the power structure, more involvement through social / cultural relationships and participation, more selfSELP Journal of Social Science Stephen .J.K (2005) concluded, It is realized that NGO’s can play a decisive role as an effective delivery mechanism in rural development they have innate advantage to involve people and ensure their participation in the agencies and fellow NGO’s is added 32 July -September 2013
  33. 33. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 advantage to them. The NGO’s are taking keen interest in providing micro financing poor women. The success of NGO’s in helping rural poor to organize SHG’s for cr edit deliver y in a way highlights the importance of NGO-SHG’s linkage for the betterment of the later. increased rate of divorce , as is evident from cases pending and cases ever increasing in family courts to the conditions and shape them in their favour. Monetar y empowerment alone will not make the women empowered. A total empowerment is required that is cognitive, behavioral and affective. There is a proverb that if six to nine is okay, then nine to six will be okay. It means that if family life is okay, work life is better both are related. Thus women empowerment is an unavoidable element, if family is to be empowered, the society is to be empowered people. Behavioral empowerment of women which will permit them to utilize their own unique potential to the point of excellence. Ashokan R.ponnar asu , kalavathi .M.S.(2 005) concluded, women empowerment depends upon the success of women development programmer in terms of women SHG’s. Many studies have shown that SHG’s contribute scientifically to the over all development of women.To understand the level of success of SHG’, this paper analyses the Inter-district variations of SHG’s through performance index. Results have shown that out of twenty-eight districts in Tamilnadu half them performed well. As far as Tamilnadu self help experiment has no far been successful in few pockets. Debotash sinha .R (2005) expressed that, empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared be. It is now recognized the empowerment involves an advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well-being of the empower ed. Benefits der ived fr om the empowerment programmer must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be made to ensure that the target population is also able to r etain the benefits. Empowerment of women in the thir d wor ld countr ies is important because the benefits will be felt not only by the women themselves but by their households as well. It may take a more enlightened appr oach to ensur e the empower ment of women in developing countries, but the returns to their families and even the societies as a whole will be worth it. Khanka S.S. (2006) suggested, Different people have defined entrepreneur different the commonest definition of an entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages and takes the risk of running an enterprise. He arranges everything required to set up an enterprise (i.e) funds, lad people mat er ial and machiner y. T hey entr epr eneur r etain common character istics, Independence, motivation, optimistic, dynamic, innovating and risk-bearing ability.An entrepreneur differs from a manager on various counts. The farmer is owner where as the latter is a servant entrepreneur are rewarded with profit, which is highly uncertain. On the other hand, Manager gets salary as a reward for the ser vices r ender ed by him in the enterprise. Abdul raheem.A&Yasmeen sultana .H (2005) noted that, the unemployment problem prevalent in india sharply differs from that which prevails in the western Suseela menon .R (2003) said that, India is now facing a lot of family disputes and SELP Journal of Social Science 33 July -September 2013
  34. 34. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 nations. There are a number of possible routes to the pr omotion of self employment promotion and strengthening of self help groups is one of them. So more and more self help groups should be encouraged in order to eradicate poverty through self employment and at the same time empower women which in turn lead to overall economic development. Amarjeet Kour (2008), Self Help Group (SHG) and Group Development, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.25. Arujn. Y. Pangannavar (2008), Self Help Groups and Poverty, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.12. Ashokan.R, Ponnarasu .S , Kalavathi.M.S, Inter District Variations in the Performance of self-help gr oups in Tamilnadu, cooperative perspective , vol.40_No.2 , JulySep: 2005. Lamaan s ami (2008) obser ved that micr ofina nce has been fou nd as the appropriate approach and effective tool for poverty alleviation and empowerment, which can be internalized into cooperative system through strategic and legal support, keeping in view long ter m sustaina bility of microfinance within cooperative functioning. David Jarachar. P , Usha Nandhini .S, and Shivachandran .M , Women Entrepreneurship leading of rural transformation , the ICFAI Journal of Entrepreneurship Development , Vol.2, Vol.1, March 2005. Conclusion Debotash sinha.R (2005), Women in Develop ment (Challenges and Achievements) , serials publications , New Delhi , 1st published 2005 , P. 3 to 19. It has encouraged many to form SHG’s and avail the benefit since the scheme provides finance to a SHG rather than to an individual borrower as earlier done under Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). Meghalaya as one of the average state in terms of resource base, population and socio economic infr astr uctur e is also experiencing similar type of upsurge in SHGbank linkage activities in recent years. The analysis of the linkage activities in the foregoing clearly brings some general issues which need to be addressed. Jitendra Ahittrao (2009), Rural Women Empower ment T hr ough Micr ofinance, Kurushetra, Feb 2006, Vol.57, No.4, P.23. Kala G.S. (2004), “Economic of Women Through Self Help Groups” Kisan Word Nov.2004, Vol.31, No.11, P.26. Khanka S.S , Entr epr eneur, entrepreneurial Development , S. Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nagar , New Delhi (2006). Acknowledgement Khullar K.K. (2007), Mahila Samakhya Empower ment of Women T hr ough Education, Kurushetra (A journal r ural development), March 207, Vol.55, P.9. The author is greatly thankful to UGC for financial assistance to conduct this research under the major research project scheme 2012-14. Lamaan sami (2008), “ Self help groups and rural development “ , the Indian Journal of Commer ce, Vol.61-No.4 , OctoberDecember 2008, P. 212 to 217. References. Abdul Raheem and yasmeen sultana .H (2007), Empowerment of women through Self help group : A view , Kisan world, Vol.34No.03 P. 48 to 52. SELP Journal of Social Science Mohantry.B.K. (2009), SHG movement an emerging social innovation of micr o 34 July -September 2013
  35. 35. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 financing in orssia, kurushetra, February 2009, Vol.57, No.4, P.19. marketing, Vol. XXXIII, No.6, June 2003, P.26. Mur lidhar.A.Lokhande (2009), Microfinance Initiatives in India, Kurushetra, Febuary 2009, Vol.57, No.4, P.16. Shyledra .H.S. (2008), Role of Self Help Gr oups, Yojana Januar y 2008 (Micr o finance) P.25. Muthalagu.K (2008), Indian women in Development Perspective, Kurushetra, Sep. 2008, Vol.56, No.11, P.18. Sivachithappa .K (2008), Success Story Poverty Alleviation T hrough Self-Help Groups, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, Vol.No.2, P.35. Narayana Reddy, V.Vijiyakumar .S and Nalini. B , Women Development (Challenges and achievements) ,serial publications , New Delhi , First Published 2-2005 – P.18. Snehalata Panda (2007), P olitical Empowerment of Tribal Women in Orissa, Kurushetra, March2007, ( A Journal Rural Development) Vol.55, No.5, P.29. Pankaj Naithani , “ NGO and Rural Development” , kurukshetra , April 2001, Vol.49_ No. 12 , P. 35-37. Stephen J.K, Selian .A, Role of NGO’s in micro financing through SHG’s , Indian Journal of marketing , Vol.No.8 , August 2005. Parguna .M.(2007), Political Empower ment of Women in I llusion, Kurushetra, March 2007, (A journal rural development) Vol.55, No.5, P .12. Sundar Raj. D, Venkata Ravi.R, Hema latha. H.M. “Women and Empowerment”, Women in Development (Challenges and Achievements) Serials Publications, P.45 to 59. Pati .A.P., “ Subsidised Micro financing and financial sustainability of SHG’s” , the Indian Journal of commerce , Vol.61-No.4 , Oct-Dec 2008, P.137 to149. Suneetha .R (2007) is DWCR Programme Empowering The Rural Women, Kurushetra ( A Journal Rural Development) March, 2007, Vol. 55, No.5, P.17. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh (2008), SHG Federations Should Play Proactive Role for the Economic Empower ment of Rur al Masses, Kurushetra, December 2008, Vol.57, No.2,P.11. Suseela Menon R. “Women empowerment through India tr aditional classical art forms”, Kisan world , Sep 2007 , Vol.34-No.09 P. 60 to 62. Ramachandran .T and Balakrishnan .S (2008) of Self Help Groups on Women’s Empowerment a Study in Kanyakumari District, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.31. Tangirala .H.S.K.(2008) , SHG is a Tool of Economic Development of Co-operatives and its Members, Kurushetra, Dec.2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.22. Ruby . J.A., James Devassia and Abraham George ,Women empowerment : Meaning , Characteristics and Dimensions , Southern Economist , May1, 2009 , P. 41 & 42 Tyadi. D, Mitali Chetterjee, “Women in Development”, Women is Development (Challenges and Achievement), Narayana Reddy, V. Vijaya Kumar.S, Nalini B, Serials Publications P. 35 to 44. Santhosh Gupta (2003), Strategy for Empowerment of Women Indian Journal of SELP Journal of Social Science 35 July -September 2013
  36. 36. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 BRAND LOYALTY OF HORLICKS - A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO SALEM CITY S.Kavitha Assistant Professor Department of Commerce, Mahendra College of Arts and Science Kalipatti, Namakkal District ABSTRACT Brands are said to be one of the important asset of any organization because it creates a value for them. Almost all the organizations are always wanted to create that value through various loyalty programmes. Horlicks is one of the world renowned brands of health drink for a long period of time. In this empirical work an attempt has been made to find the brand loyalty of horlicks in Salem city in order to know the various factors influencing the purchase of horlicks and the customer’s opinion about the brand. A purposive sampling has been adopted in the study and suggestions also provided in a brief manner. Keywords: brand loyalty, brand equity, brand recognition, brand insistence, perceived value Introduction badge of or igin and also a pr omise of India is witnessing change in life styles of per for mance .Br and manager s