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  • 1. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 A STUDY ON EXPECTATION OF RURAL CONSUMERS ON DURABLES (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MUSIRI TALUK) Dr.T.Unnamalai Principal (i/c) Bharathidasan University Constituent Arts & Science College Inamkulathur , Srirangam(Tk) , Tiruchirapalli 621303 ABSTRACT About 70% of India’s population lives in rural areas. Rural population has grown by 12% in last decade. Rural market has distinguished characteristics, accounts for 40% of Indian economy. Rural India has huge, heterogeneous and growing consumer market, which contributes more than 50% to India’s total consumer market size. Rural India has witnessed significant development in last decade, with commitment of financial resources and launch of a range of programmes by government towards physical and social infrastructure development. In rural areas there is no supermarkets and malls within the radius of 30 to 40 K.m. With this background the study is to be considered to be an important one. Key Words: Rural population, rural market, national income, consumer market, supermarkets Introduction by India’s premier economic research entity, National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAER) indicates that rise in rural incomes is keeping pace with the rise in urban incomes. The rural middle class is growing at 12 per cent, close to the urban middle class which is growing at 13 per cent. The increased purchasing power of the rural consumer has enhanced rural demand for several products. With this back ground, Indian rural market has caught the eye of multinational corporations across the globe as a place of opportunity for exploring new markets. In this paper an attempt is made to study the rural consumer’s characteristics. The Indian rural market has a huge demand base and offers great opportunities to marketers. Two-thirds of Indian consumers live in rural areas and almost half of the national income is generated from there. 742 million Indians constituting 138 million households reside in 6, 38,365 villages (Census, 2001). The size of rural market itself speaks of its potential. The rural market consist 70 percent population, twice as entire market of USA and would become bigger than total consumer market in countries like South Kor ea/Canada in another 20 years. The income of the rural has been incr eased significantly due to green revolution. A survey SELP Journal of Social Science 1 July -September 2013 99
  • 2. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Objectives of the Study detergents, tooth paste, tooth powder, vessels, bicycles, motor cycle, scooters, television sets, etc. But all such products which are available in the market are of only from a few brands. There is no choice for selecting from among different types of goods. The main objectives of the study are: 1. To know about the availability of the consumer products in Musiri market. 2. To find out the inherent problems associated with Musiri market. Methodology of the study: 3. To find out the opinion of the Musiri consumers about the consumer goods. Both primary data and secondary data are collected for the study. Primary data are collected from the 250 consumers. The sample consumer s ar e selected using stratified random sampling method. The secondary data are collected from books and census book in Musiri. Study Area For this study Musiri is selected. Musiri taluk is located on the river bed of Cauvery. It is in the central region of the Tiruchirapalli District. The total population of the taluk is 221055 lakhs. Out of which 110763 are males and 110292 are female. The taluk has 64 villages. The literate people in this taluk are 145866. (Nearly 63.36 per cent) (Sour ce: census book 2001) The district has an excellent links with all the districts in the state. The economy of the taluk mainly depends upon agriculture. Nearly 65 per cent of the work forces depend upon agriculture. Age wise classification of the respondent T he age of the consumer s ar e classified and presented in the following table. Table-1 Age wise classification of the consumers Source primary data Distribution channel for consumer goods in Musiri taluk : Fair price shops in this taluk are mainly deal with the distr ibution of essential commodities like rice, wheat, edible oil, kerosene, sugar etc. The co-operative banks deal with the distribution of agricultural inputs. T he village shanty (usually on Wednesday) is widely used channel for vegetables and fruits. The private shops are the main channel for consumer products. A few branded products are available in their shops. There is no a departmental store or showrooms in Musiri. The products available in market includes different kinds of textiles, Jewellery, bathing shops, washing shops, SELP Journal of Social Science With the help of the above table, it is observed that 10 per cent of the consumer from the age group of 20-30, 26 per cent of them from the age group of 30-40, 32 per cent of them from 40-50, 16 percent of them from the age group of 50-60 and remaining 16 percent of them are above the age of sixty. T his shows that the major ity of the consumers are in the age group of 30-50. 2 July -September 2013
  • 3. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Table-2 Educational qualification of the Table-4 Income of the consumer consumer Source: primary data With the above table, it is observed that majority of consumers (nearly 105) earning between Rs. 2,000-5,000, nearly 54 consumers are getting up to Rs. 10,000, 47 consumers are getting up to Rs.15,000 and 36 of the consumers are earning nearly 15,000-20,000 Rs. Per month. Only 8 of the consumers are getting more than Rs.20, 000 per month. Source primary data With the above table, it is observed that 39 per cent of the consumers completed their S.S.L.C. level, 29 percent of them completed their higher secondary education18 per cent of the consumers finished their graduations. 12 per cent of them completed at their post graduation and remaining 2 percent of them completed their certificate course, I.I.T, poly technique etc. With the above analysis, it is observed that majority of them completed at their S.S.L.C. Table-5 Total income of the family Table-3 Number of the family members of the consumers Source: primary data With the help of the above table, it is observed that 55 per cent of the families are ear ning between Rs. 5,000-10,00015,000per month and remaining 24 per cent of the families have the income of more than Rs.l5, 000 per month. It is observed that in rural areas each family has more than single earning members. Source: primary data. The above table reveals that 12 per cent of the consumer have 4 members in their families, 25 per cent of them have 5, 30 per cent of them are having 6 members and remaining 33 per cent of them having 7 and more than 7 members in their family. It is also observed that there still exists of joint family system in rural areas. SELP Journal of Social Science Table-6 Consumer articles in their home 3 July -September 2013
  • 4. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 With the help of the above table, it is obser ved that major ity (40 %) of the customers are purchased the particular brand of the products with the advice and the experience from their friends and relatives. In case of consumer durables, advice of friends and neighbors is found to be a major source, while family member s, opinion leaders and shopkeepers are other important source influencing the buying decisions. Source: primary data. With the above table, it is observed that 100 percent of the consumers are having Radio, fan, television sets and furniture’s. 70 per cent of them are having cooker, 40 per cent of them are having two wheeler, 44 percent of them having sewing machine, 16 per cent of them having CD/DVD players, 1 per cent of them having car and 4 per cent of them having air condition and Air cooler and 24 percent of them having inverter at their houses. Table-9 Place of Market Table- 7 Awareness about the products Source primary data With the help of the above table, it is observed that air condition, car, furniture, Fridge, CD/DVD players, sewing machines were purchased by the respondent (100 per cent of them) other than Musiri. Majority of the Respondent have purchased their articles like Television set, cooker, Radio and Two wheeler other than cycle in the urban market. Table-10 Reasons for purchasing the products outside Musiri With the help of the above table, it is observed that majority (74%) of the customers known about the product through news paper and television. The mass media is the power full media to the companies to create the awareness about the availabity of the products in the market. Now a day’s internet also has the power. But the user of the internet is very marginal Table-8 Factor influencing consumer purchase decision Source Primary data Sources Primary data SELP Journal of Social Science 4 July -September 2013
  • 5. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 With the above table, it is observed that 39 per cent of the consumers purchased the articles in urban markets due to the main reason of price differences, 29 per cent of them for the availability of different kinds of brands, 14 percent of them for quality of the products, 10 percent of them for trust, and 8 percent of them for going out of Musiri, exchange offer etc. In Musiri there is no entertainment facility. Here the table value is lesser than the calculated value. So, the null hypothesis is rejected. The opinion of the respondent depends upon the marital status of them. This is observed that the married persons have the tendency to purchase the products and majority of them are not satisfied with the Musiri market due to the following reasons. (1) Price (2) Branded products (3) service facility (4) choice to select etc. Table-11 Rural Consumers Experiences on As per the analysis of the primary data on consumption pattern, as a whole, they spend nearly 60 percent of their income on food items, like rice, milk, sugar, oil etc. About 10 percent of their total income is accounted for clothing and other things, nearly 10 percent for transport and 15 percent for rent, medical expenses, and educations and repay their debts, etc. Nearly 2 to 5 percent of their income is for savings for their future. This habit is spread not only among the salaried people but also among the business and agricultur al people. The analysis shows that great changes are taking place in life style and buying habits. Yesterday’s luxuries are becoming today’s necessities for the rural consumers. Now a day the banks are giving loans to buy household articles. With the help of the analysis, it is observed that each and every house in Musiri has household articles like television, Fridge, cooker, etc. All such articles are also available on credit in the Market. Purchase Table-12 Opinion regarding the availability of the product and Martial status of the consumers With the help of the above table, it is observed that 219 of the consumer are married and remaining 31 of them are unmarried. It shows that the majority of them are married. With the help of X2 test an analysis is carried out whether the opinion of the respondent depends upon the marital status of the consumers. The null hypothesis is taken as HO: The opinion of the respondent does not depend upon the marital status of them. SELP Journal of Social Science Findings of the study (1)Non availability of choices of brands In each and every consumer product there are different brands. In musiri only a few brands are available. There is no choice for the consumers. If they wish to buy a specific brand, they have to travel nearly 50 k.m to purchase the products. 5 July -September 2013
  • 6. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 (2)Price of the products: The prices of the products in Musiri are higher. In order to buy the same brand at lesser price the consumers have to travel to buy such products. in rural areas are fairly homogenous in nature. It should be segmented. Reference Books  Bedi, R. V., and Badi, N. V. (1999). Rural Marketing. Himalya Publishing house, New Delhi. (3)Non availability of Quality products: Many misbranded products are available in the market at cheaper rate.  Chunawala, S. A., and Kumar, K. J. Advertising Theory and Practice. Himalya Publishing house, Delhi. (4)Non availability of high cost products Now a day the purchasing power of the r ur al consumer s has incr eased considerably. If they want to buy an air conditioner, wooden furniture, computers, show case items they have to travel to buy such a type of products.  Davar and Davar. Salesmanship and Publicity. Vikas Publishing N. Delhi.  Gupta, S. L. Rural Marketing – Text and Cases. Wisdom Publications Delhi.  Gopalaswamy, T. P. Rural Marketing— Environment, Problems and Strategies. Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi. Suggestion of study The progress of rural consumers has led to a major transformation from a tradition bound, poverty stricken life to one of the new hopes. The expectation of the population has also changed. Now there is a large scope for the companies to sell their products in the rural market. In Musiri taluk there is no direct company owned show rooms, dealers other departmental stores or any big show rooms. The salesmen in Musiri are very small in number, have to cover large territories and scattered customers. There is great demand for products. It is time for the companies to open show r ooms or appoint dealers to capture the rural markets like Musiri taluk.  Saxena, H. M. Rur al Mar kets and Development. Rawat Publ. Jaipur.  Shiffman, L. G, and kanu k, L. L. Consumer Behaviour. Prentice-Hall of India.  Sontakki, C.N. Advertising and Sales Management Marketing Management. Kalyani publishers, Ludhiyana. Websites  www.nacer.org  www.apastyle.org/style.htm  www.bmsgroup.blog.co.in/files/2008/07/ Conclusion final-pro.doc With the above analysis, it is observed that the standard of living and purchasing power of the people in Musiri has increased. They want choice. There is no choice to them to select the products. Most of the interested persons usually travel nearly 30 to 50 km to purchase expensive house hold articles like T.V; Fridge, washing machines etc. Markets SELP Journal of Social Science  http://www.indiatogether.org/2009/apr/ eco-ruraleco.htm  www.zenithresearch.org.in 6 July -September 2013
  • 7. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CHANNEL EFFICIENCY IN MARKETING OF TEA IN IDUKKI DISTRICT P.V Anil Ph.D Research Scholar Dr.M.P Mahesh Associate Professor in Commerce, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar Tamil Nadu. ABSTRACT There is large number of market intermediaries in the study area and most of them are unorganised and hence convenient sampling method was adopted to collect data from them. Accordingly, a sample of ten village traders and ten primary wholesalers was chosen. In addition, service co-operatives and primary co-operative marketing societies numbering five each in the study area were chosen for collecting the marketing information. Key words: Tea Board, channels of distribution, Exporters’ License also for consuming tea for producing tea products. Introduction Tea is a controlled commodity in India. Its pr oduction, consumption and sales ar e governed under licences issued by the Tea Board, it plays a key role in the industry as a r egulator y and pr omoting body. It is a statutory body set up under the Tea Act, 1953 to promote all round development of the tea industry and comes under the administrative control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Commerce. It also has certain regulatory functions such as issue of Exporters’ License, Tea Waste License and Tea Warehousing License. By these Acts, all the activities connected with tea, right from the production till consumption is regulated. A license from the Tea Board is a mandatory requirement to plant tea, deal in tea, process tea into consumable or marketable forms and SELP Journal of Social Science Objectives The main objectives of the study are: 1. To identify the most dominant problems in marketing of Tea in Idukki district of Kerala and 2. To measure the efficiency of different channels of distribution of Tea to highlight the most efficient one. Methodology Survey method was adopted to collect required data from the sample respondents. The data were collected from farmers of small holding and estates in the four revenue taluks of Devikulam, Udumpanchola, Peerumedu and T hodu puzha of Idukkidis tr ict and therefore, the four taluks have been taken as 7 July -September 2013
  • 8. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 sample taluks for the study. The sample taluks, which have been tea-growing regions for centuries, are the main areas growing Tea in the State of Kerala players and on economic forces like supply and demand. Major consumers of Tea used to wait to make their purchase till the prices come down to their favour. The scrapping of port restrictions followed by the slashing of export subsidy by 50 per cent, dispensing of Tea Board’s inspection of imported tea, abolition of purchase tax on imports and the like attract the importers to import more tea in recent years. Such practices on the part of major consumers have made the domestic tea market to stagger and resulted in down fall of prices of Tea in domestic market. Further, the monsoon rain during the months from June to August slows down the process of harvesting and becomes the cause for poor arrival of Tea to the market. This leads to an uncertainty in the supply of Tea. The above ups and downs in the demand and supply position make the market for Tea more vulnerable and unpredictable. Two separate interview schedules one for pr oducer s and another for mar ket intermediaries were used. At the time of conducting sur vey, ther e wer e 71,676(56.8%)tea plantations registered with the Tea Boar d. Out of which, 240tea plantations (5%) were chosen as sample for the study.Devikulam, Udumpanchola, Peer made and T hodupuzha, t he taluks selected for the study have 12, 19, 23 and 10 villages respectively, out of which six top ranking villages *in each taluk identified by theTea Board, were selected for the field sur vey. From each of the villages thus selected, eight owners of small holdings and two managers / owner s of estates were selected to form a total of 240 respondents consisting of 192 owners and 48 managers of small holdings and estates respectively using multi-stage random sampling method. Dominance of Private dealers: Tea is bought and sold at the primary market level by the dealers authorised by the Tea Board. Apart from those authorised dealers, there are large numbers of private dealers who advance money to the owners of plantation at the time of emergency with the condition that all production must be sold to them at the prevailing prices. Charging exorbitant rate of interest for the advance money, compelling the producers to sell their produces at the prices lower than market prices and making unwanted rejections and deduction are the common practices followed by those private dealers. Frame work of analysis The predominant marketing problems traced by the producers of Tea in the study area were highlighted with the help of Garrett Ranking Techniques. .The channel efficiency of the different channels was analyed using Shepherd’s method and Composite Index method. The economic efficiency of the marketing system can be measured as the ratio of the consumer price per unit of Tea to the marketing cost per unit. The higher the ratio, the higher is the efficiency of the marketing system. Inadequate Market Finance: T he producers of Tea always prefer to sell their produce immediately after harvesting in order to settle the earlier loans and advances or to meet domestic expenditure. Finance required Results and Discussion Price Fluctuations: The prices of Tea fluctuate based on sentiments of the market SELP Journal of Social Science 8 July -September 2013
  • 9. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 to meet out the expenses in connection with performance of major marketing functions was scarce and costly and hence many of the respondents did not spend sufficient money to make their products fit for marketing. towar ds impor t of Tea has undergone considerable changes during the recent past. The import of Teawas allowed free of license from SAARC countries during 1988. Tea was under ‘restricted items’ of the ‘negative list’ of imports under Export - Import Policy for the period 1992-97 which was amended by permitting the import against the freely transferable Special Import License (SIL). Under the Export - Import Policy for the period 1997-2002 also Teas continued to be restricted items of import. The removal of quantitative restriction on import of Tea in 2001 resulted in free import by paying the prevailing customs duty. Lack of Standardisation and Grading: It is highly essential to r estr ucture the processing and marketing activities to make the Indian Tea internationally competitive. Converting into technically specified tea grades is an essential function to maintain consistency in the quality of Tea. Many of the r espondents wer e unaware of these processes and even if aware of, they did not venture up due to lack of knowledge of the technique. Thus, the problems faced by the producers in marketing Tea are many. In or der to identify the most dominant marketing problem in the Idukki District, the respondents were asked to assign rank to each of the identified problems in their order of priority. These ranks were converted into scores using Garrett Ranking Technique and the results obtained are shown in Table A. Lack of Market Information: Market information about the availability of buffer stock of Tea, periodical inflow and outflow in different neighbouring markets and the details about the prevailing price level are a few important parameters that may help the producers to plan their activities in such a manner that gives maximum benefit. Unfortunately, the IdukkiDistrict lacks this facility making the producers to live at the mercy of a few vested interest groups. Table A Problems faced by the Producers in Marketing of Tea in Idukki District Inadequate Storage Facility: Adequate stor age fa cility is yet anot her vital requirement to seasonal products like Tea. This will help the producers in level playing in the pricing area. However, the owners of small holdings do not have enough storage facility either of their own or for lease for storing Tea particularly during the harvesting period. This is one of the reasons why the pr oducers instantly sell their pr oduces immediately after harvesting. Source: Primary data. Table A shows that the problem due to price fluctuation’ of Tea was the immediate concern to owners of small holdings and estates. This problem ranked top in the list Changes in the Import Policy of the Government: The policy of the Government SELP Journal of Social Science 9 July -September 2013
  • 10. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 with the mean score of 57.45 and 61.58 for owner s of small holdings and estates respectively. The second important problem was the ‘dominance of private dealers’ in the case of owners of small holdings with the mean score of 55.35 and ‘changes in the import policy of the Government’ in the case of estate owners with the mean score 59.72. In the order of priority, ‘inadequate market finance’ ‘lack of standardisation and grading’ ‘lack of market information’, ‘lack of storage facility’ were the other prominent problems of owners of small holdings which ranked third, fourth and fifth. In the case of estate owners, ‘lack of standardisation and grading’, ‘lack of market information’ and ‘dominance of private dealers’ were the most influential problems which ranked third, fourth and fifth. Changes in the impor t policy of the Government in case of owners of small holdings and ‘lack of storage facility’ in case of owners of estates were not treated as important problems. operative Marketing Society - Secondary Wholesaler - Ultimate Consumer. T he village tr ader s and ser vice cooperatives operate in the primary market to collect Tea from the producers. A majority of the producers prefer to sell their produce to the village traders who visit the interior areas of cultivation. Besides, they advance money to the growers on condition that the produce should be sold to them only. They assemble the produce purchased from the producers and sort and grade the Tea. They open the bundle and test the grading and repack it and pass on to primary wholesalers in the market. The service co-operatives also purchase Tea directly from the producers. But a very few service co-operatives functioning in the study area could purchase only a limited quantity of the produce, which they sold to the primary co-operative marketing societies operating in the market. The primary wholesalers and primary cooperative marketing societies operate in the assembling market. The primary wholesalers purchase Tea both from the village traders and producers. Producers having large stock and good holding capacity contact the primary wholesalers and sell their produce directly. These producers are in a position to take advantage of the better price offers. The primary wholesalers do not hold Tea stock for a long duration. They transport the stock to the ter minal market as soon as they accumulate enough for a full truck load. At the terminal market primary wholesalers deposit t he stock in the godowns of Marketing Channels of Tea T he channels of mar keting of Tea identified in the study area are given below: Channel I Producer - Village Trader Primary Wholesaler Secondary Wholesaler – Ultimate Consumer. Channel II Pr oducer - Pr imar y Wholesaler – Secondar y Wholesaler UltimateConsumer. Channel III Producer - Service Cooperative –Primary Co-operative Marketing Society – Secondary Wholesaler - Ultimate Consumer. Channel IV Producer - Primary CoSELP Journal of Social Science 10 July -September 2013
  • 11. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 commission agents and entrust the task of selling it to them. The commission agents make an advance of about 60 per cent to 80 per cent of market value of tea deposited by the primary wholesalers. The commission agents have to identify suitable buyers with price offers that are acceptable to their clients. The buyers are secondary wholesalers. change that reduces cost as well as consumer The secondary wholesalers operating in the terminal market make use of the services of brokers to purchase tea. The brokers contact the commission agents and purchase the quantity r equir ed by the secondar y wholesalers. The brokers are paid brokerage for the services render ed by them. T he secondary wholesalers sell the produce to the Ultimateconsumers. Figure 1 shows different participants in the four channels of marketing of Tea explained above. Channels Channel Efficiency The results reveal that amongst the four channels, Channel IV was the most efficient. The efficiency index for Channel IV was the maximum with 12.75, followed by Channel II with 12.67. The channel efficiency in Channel IV was better than that of the other thr ee because of lower marketing cost. Shepher d’s method does not take into account pr oducers share and marketing margin which ar e also the impor tant components for calculating the channel efficiency. The composite index method covers those two factors. Therefore to test the channel efficiency composite index method was applied. satisfaction may not indicate increase in the channel efficiency. The channel efficiency of the different channels was worked out using Shepherd’s Method and the results obtained are shown below: Table B Efficiency Analysis of various Distribution ofTea (Shepherds’ Method) Source: Primary Data. T he channel efficiency r efers to the effectiveness or competence with which intermediaries in the channel perform their designated functions. It is directly related to the cost involved in moving goods from the producer to the consumer and the level of service offered. A reduction in marketing cost without reduction in the level of consumer satisfaction indicates impr ovement in efficiency. A higher level of consumer satisfaction at higher marketing cost might have been the result of increased efficiency The results of the analysis of channel efficiency for differ ent cha nnels ar e furnished in Table C. if the additional satisfaction derived by consumer outweighs the additional cost incurred on the marketing process. But a SELP Journal of Social Science of 11 July -September 2013
  • 12. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Table C Channel Efficiency Analysis References Using Composite Index Method Asian Dipped Goods Handbook and Directory 2012, Dhanam Publication Private Limited, Kochi, 2012. Asian Tea Handbook and Directory 2010, Dhanam Publications Pr ivate Limited, Kochi, 2010. Desalphine, S.M. Souvenir, Indian Tea Industr y Elastic Enough to Face the Challenges, Tea Board, Idukki, Dec, 2008. Source: Primary data. The producers’ share, marketing cost and marketing margin were ranked according to their expenses per tonne. It is inferred from Table B that Channel IV was the most efficient, with mean score of 1.67, followed by Channel II with mean scor e of 2. Compar ing Shepher d’s method and Composite Index method the Channel IV again proves to be the most efficient. Government of India, Tea Statistical News, Monthly issues from 1992 to 2008, Tea Board Kolkatta, 1992 - 2008. Gupta, S.P. Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi 2005. Ideen, H. Marketing Efficiency and Paddy Farm Economy in Alternative Channels, Indian J our nal of Agr icultur al Marketing,4(1), 1973. Conclusion Indian Tea Statistics, Vol. No.1 to 27, Tea Board, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, Tea Board, Kolkatta. 1992-2008. The foregoing analysis reveals that among the problems faced by the producers in marketing of Tea, price fluctuation is found to be the major problem and the Channel No IV comprises of producer – primary cooperative marketing society – secondary wholesalers – industrial consumer is most efficient. Philip, K.M. The Evaluation of the Indian Tea Industry, All India, Tea Industries Association, Mumbai, 2003. Shepherd, G.S.Marketing Farm Products – Economic Analysis, IOWA State University Press Limited, USA, 1965. SELP PUBLICATION SELP Trust established the publication division in the name of SELP Publication devoted to education and research with the ISBN and published 20 educational books and propose to publish 50 books in a calendar year 2013.So, if you have a proposal or manuscript (Including edited volume) in your area of specialization, please contact or write to us. we are happy to publish your books with ISBN. SELP Journal of Social Science 12 July -September 2013
  • 13. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 E-CRM GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIAN BANKS A CRITICAL ANALYSIS Dr.C.Mathanakamaraj Associate Professor of Economics, Department of Economics Kamaraj College, Thoothukudi ABSTRACT e-CRM s 360 degree customer view provides a comprehensive, upto date profile that is as reliable as it is easy to create. The e -CRM is also allowing sales representative to view customer information from any where, anytime and has freed up customer service representatives to focus on obtaining new customer (Mc -Call, 2002). Businesses have become impersonalized with vary powerful means of communication like body language and judgement skills becoming non-existent. These channels help the banks in understanding their needs and wants and providing them various services. In this way with the utilization of various electronic, automated channels banks are making long term relationship with their customers and gets various benefits. Key words: e-CRM, customer information , automated channels , Introduction the r ise of Customer Relationship Management (abbreviated CRM) as an important business approach. Its objective is to r etu r n to the wor ld of per sonal marketing. The concept itself is relatively simple. Rather than market to a mass of people or firms, market to each customer individually. Over a century ago, in a small-town of India, before the advent of the super-market, the shopping mall, and the automobile ,weekly haat or gener al, people went to their neighbourhood weekly haat or general store to purchase goods. The proprietor/owner and the small staff recognized the customers by name and knew the customer’s preferences, needs, likings and wants. The customer, in turn, remained loyal to the store and made repeated purchases. This idyllic customer relationship disappeared as the nation grew, the population moved from the far ming community to large urban areas, the consumer became mobile, and super ma r kets and depar tmental stores were established to achieve economies of scale through mass marketing. The last several years witnessed SELP Journal of Social Science Statement of the Problem: The first surf of CRM solutions came in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Exhibit No. 1.0). The providers of these products were clarify (now owned by Nortel Networks Corp.), Onyx Software, Oracle, Vantive (acquired by PeopleSoft) and Siebel Systems. T hese packaged s olutions emphasized automating and standardizing the internal processes which related to 13 July -September 2013
  • 14. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 acquiring, servicing and keeping customers. These processes ranged from capturing sales leads to creating scripts for customer service agents to enable consistent service and support across product lines and divisions. The focus for these CRM solutions were on automating and standardizing the internal processes to make the customers an asset. Although these pr ocesses addressed the companies’ needs, they were very expensive and not easy to maintain. An attempt has been made in this paper to anlyse the concept of CRM, and its various dimensions covering evolution, objectives, areas, Techniques and draw backs. 1. Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) : An ATM is a machine that can deliver cash to the customers on demand after authentication. This service is made available 24 hours a day. 7 days in a week and 365 days of the year through ATMs. 2. Phone Banking / Tele Banking : The face of banking industry has totally changed by the technology . Phone/ tele banking means carrying out of banking transaction through telephone. A customer can call up the banks help line or phone banking number to conduct transactions 3. Internet Banking – e-Banking : Net banking means carrying out banking transactions through the Internet. It comprises a variety of projects that aim to improve not only the bank s efficiency, but customer service levels as well. E-Banking program allows customers to use the Internet for basic functions in corporate and retail banking and cr edit car ds. Thus the technology has completed eliminated the need for branch . 4. Mobile Banking : Now banks help the customers to conduct certain transactions through mobile phone with the help of technologies like WAP, SMS etc. This helps a bank to combine the Internet and telephone and leverage it to cut costs and at the same time provide its customer the convenience. 5. Total Branch Mechanization (TBM) : Dr. Rangrajan Committee – II in 1988 had suggested TBM . Local Area Network has installed by banks at the major centres of the countr y t o make all banking ser vices available at single window to their customers. Concept of CRM T hus “e-CRM is the phenomenon of building relationship with customers via the internet or the relationship that is web-based is known as electronic CRM (e-CRM)”. eCRM focuses on electronic channels mainly on the Internet and on technologies that enable automated and electronic management of customer relations.e-CRM s 360 degree customer view provides a comprehensive, upto date profile that is as reliable as it is easy to create. The e -CRM is also allowing sales representative to view customer information from any where, anytime and has freed up customer service representatives to focus on obtaining new customer (Mc -Call, 2002 ). e-CRM concentrates on the retention of customers by collecting all the data f r om ever y interaction, every customer makes with a company from „all access point whether they are – Online : E-mail, website, call centres, online chat. Offline : Phone, mobile phones, fax, face to face through sales agent. The following techniques are used by Indian banks :SELP Journal of Social Science 6. Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) : The RBI has introduced Electronic fund transfer technique for public sector banks to 14 July -September 2013
  • 15. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 help them offer their customer money transfer service from any bank s branch to any other bank s branch. EFT system presently covers more than 4800 branches of PSB s at four metro cities. purchase. 11. Data Warehousing and Data Mining: This technique is used to develop and use customer data to check their profile, retention and loyalty patterns. They provide valuable inputs for r etaining cust omer s and developing products and services for the future. 7. Communication Technology (SWIFT) : International banks and foreign investors has forms a cooperative organization SWIFT . It stands for Society for Worldwide Inter Bank Financial Tele Communication (SWIFT. It provides a computerized network for stage transmission amongst international banks in the member countries. This technology made available the fastest banking ser vices/ facilities to customers who are engaged in international business. Draw tacks: However there are some drawbacks which are common to all e-CRM dependent businesses. There is no personal interaction between the cus tomer and the supplier. Businesses have become impersonalized with vary powerful means of communication like body language and judgement skills becoming non-existent. Banks are not able to gauge their customers at all since the complete process has become over the computer screen. 8. Wireless Banking Services : Wireless banking services is an imaging trend in banking. Wireless banking service enables one to manage their accounts with GSM/GPPS WAP (Wir eless application protocol) technology to allow access to accounts mor e convenient, s ecur e and flexible. Conclusion e-CRM in banks has enabled banks to get a global presence. They become customer focused organizations by using the various electronic channels. These channels help the banks in understanding their needs and wants and providing them various services. All this make the customers loyal and happy. In this way with the utilization of various electronic, automated channels banks are making long term relationship with their customers and gets various benefits. 9. Electronic Clearing Services : Electronic clearing service is a simple, reliable and cost effective solution for bulk and repetitive payment transactions like salar y, pension, inter est, commission, dividend etc. by public or private companies and government departments through banks. 10. Point of Sale Terminal : References: It consists of two key components a computer terminal that is linked on line to computerized customer information file in a bank and a plastic magnetically encoded transaction card that identify the customer s account is debited and the retailer s account is credited by the computer for the amount of SELP Journal of Social Science      15 www.delhibusinessreview.org/ www.domsnitt.in www.soliloquy.com en.wikipedia.org www.underwired.com July -September 2013
  • 16. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 LEARNING FROM EVALUATIVE RESEARCH A DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH Dr. Kankipati Srinivasa Rao Assitant Professor of Commerce VivekVardhini PG College (AN), (Affiliated to Osmania University) Jambagh, Koti, Hyderabad-500095 ABSTRACT Teaching for successful learning cannot occur without high quality evaluation. Evaluation, therefore, needs to be integrated with the process of teaching and learning. The first and foremost shortcoming of the evaluation system is that it focuses only on cognitive learning outcomes and completely ignores the non-cognitive aspects which are a vital component of human personality. The present paper analyses various Learning, Evaluation research methods, shortcomings and suggestive steps to improve the situation in the process of learning from evaluation research. Key words: Learning, Evaluation research teachers use teaching aids, like, charts, models – static & working, specimen, slides, etc. because teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids. They provide a means to judge actions and activities in terms of values, criteria and standards. At the same time evaluation is also a practice that seeks to enhance effectiveness in the public sphere and policy making. methods, cognitive and non-cognitive areas of learning Introduction Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing and inter pr eting evidences of students’ pr ogr ess and achievement both in cognitive and noncognitive areas of learning for the purpose of taking a variety of decisions. Evaluation, thus, involves gather ing and pr ocessing of information and decision-making. Evaluation, therefore, needs to be integrated with the process of teaching and learning. Hence, evaluation has to be so designed that it can be used as a powerful means of influencing the quality of what teachers teach and what students learn. To enhance the quality, some SELP Journal of Social Science It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A – V Aids during teaching. The use of A – V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated per sons becoming teacher s. The education system should provide positive learning experiences so that learners become responsible citizens. The present paper analyses various Learning, 16 July -September 2013
  • 17. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 needs and ar e fr om diver se cultur al backgrounds. Evaluation research methods, shortcomings and suggestive steps to improve the situation in the process of learning from evaluation research. Teaching and learning strategies The 6 E+S Model of instruction Cognitive learning The 6 E’s and S (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate, Extend, and Standards) lesson plan format was developed by teachers in consultation with faculty from schools of education and is based on a constructivist model of teaching. The lesson plans are based on constructivist instructional models with activities and sections of the plan designed to have the students continually add (or construct) new knowledge on top of existing knowledge. Cognitive learning is the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive pr ocesses, the pr ocedur es we have for manipulating information ‘in our heads’. Human beings can lear n efficiently by observation, taking instruction, and imitating the behavior of others. “Cognitive learning is the result of listening, watching, touching or experiencing.” It is a powerful mechanism that provides the means of knowledge, and goes well beyond simple imitation of others. Cognitive processes include creating mental repr esentations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing. Each of the 6 E’s describes a phase of learning, and each phase begins with the letter “E”: Engage, Explor e, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate and Extend. The 6 E’s allows students and teachers to experience common activities, to use and build on prior knowledge and exper ience, to construct meaning, and to continually assess their understanding of a concept. Teaching and Learning Teaching and learning is a process that includes many variables. These variables interact as learners work toward their goals and incorporate new knowledge, behaviors, and skills that add to their range of learning experiences. Over the past century, various perspectives on learning have emerged, among them —cognitive (learning as a mental operation); and constructivist (knowledge as a constructed element resulting from the learning process). Rather than considering these theories separately, it is best to think of them together as a range of possibilities that can be integrated into the learning experience. During the integration process, it is also important to consider a number of other factors — cognitive style, learning style, the multiple natures of our intelligences, and learning as it relates to those who have special SELP Journal of Social Science Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is one of the best researched of all teaching strategies. The r esults s how that students who have opportunities to work collaboratively, learn faster and more efficiently, have greater retention, and feel more positive about the learning experience. This is not to say that students can just be put into a group and assigned a project to complete. There are very specific methods to assure the success of group work, and it is essential that both teachers and students are aware of them. Role of ICT in the learning process IT has opened new avenues, like, Online 17 July -September 2013
  • 18. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 learning, e-learning, Virtual University, ecoaching, e-education, e-journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in imparting information fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can access it anywhere. It will be cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. It has broken the monotony and provided variety in the teaching – learning situation. examining the delivery of the program or technology, the quality of its implementation, and the assessment of the organizational context, personnel, procedures, inputs, and so on. Summative evaluations, in contrast, examine the effects or outcomes of some object — they summarize it by describing what happens subsequent to delivery of the program or technology; assessing whether the object can be said to have caused the outcome; determining the overall impact of the causal factor beyond only the immediate target outcomes; and, estimating the relative costs associated with the object. Evaluation & Decision making Suggestions The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide “useful feedback” to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, clientgroups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies. Most often, feedback is perceived as “useful” if it aids in decisionmaking. But the relationship between an evaluation and its impact is not a simple one — studies that seem critical sometimes fail to influence short-term decisions, and studies that initially seem to have no influence can have a delayed impact when more congenial conditions arise. Despite this, there is broad consensus that the major goal of evaluation An individual student can evaluate his learning through Understanding Test the student can instantaneously get the feedback about the status of his understanding. If the answer is wrong, he even can get the correct answer. It goes a long way in improving the learning and teacher has no role to play in it. T he pr oper implementa tion of Cooperative Learning can make learning enjoyable and helps the retention of students. Create an environment conducive for learning by developing relevant curricula, lear ning/ teaching mater ial, teaching methodology, teacher orientation and any other should be to influence decision-making or policy formulation through the provision of empirically-driven feedback. appropriate inputs to retain all children in schools till they complete at least the upper primary stage of education. Diversified Evaluation T her e ar e many differ ent ways of evaluations depending on the object being evaluated and the purpose of the evaluation. Perhaps the most important basic distinction in evaluation types is that between formative and summat ive evaluation. For mative evaluations strengthen or improve the object being evaluated — they help form it by SELP Journal of Social Science Reach ou t to the communities by facilitating existing bodies including Gram Panchayats, and self-help groups to take responsibility for all children in the local area thr ough appropriate support pr ocesses, especially in terms of consolidating the resource bank. 18 July -September 2013
  • 19. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 when and why they are effective. Educational Institutions and Non Gover nment Or ganizations t o conduct Research Studies on Learning Programs and Elementary Education related activities, innovative practices to understand the impact of the programs and also the bottlenecks, findings, suggestions to over come the problems. References Ainley J. Pratt D. & Hansen A, (2006). Connecting Engagement and Focus in Pedagogic Task Design, British Educational Research Journal, 32(1), 23-38. Brophy, J. (1999). Teaching, Educational Practices Series 1, International Academy of Education & International Bureau of Education. Chunawala, S., & Pradhan, H. C. (1993).AStudy of Students Attitudes towards School Subjects:APreliminary Report, Journal of Education and Social Change 7(2&3), 52-60. Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, A., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design Experiments in Educational Research, Educational Researcher, 32(1), 9-13. Charles, C., & Mertler, C. (2002). Introduction to Educational Research. Boston:Allyn & Bacon. Downs, R. M. (1994). The Need for Research in Geography Education: It would be nice to have some Data. Journal of Geography, 93(1), 57-60. ECD-LRC. Trial for Improved Practices for Evolving ECCSGD program. Ed. Mohite P. Early Child Development – Learning Resource Center,Department of Human Developmentand Family Studies, Faculty ofHome Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Gujarat. Supported by UNICEF, Gandhinagar, 2003 . Gall, J., Gall, M., & Borg, W.(1999). Applying Educational Research: APractical Guide. Boston:Allyn & Bacon. Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2000). Educational Research: Qualitative and QuantitativeApproaches. Boston:Allyn & Bacon. Maharashtra Textbook (2007). Physical Environment Geography -Standard IX, Pune: Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Reeves, T. (2000). Enhancing the Worth of Instructional Technology Research through “Design Experiments” and Other Development Research Strategies. Paper presented at International Perspectives on Instructional Technology Research for the 21st Century – A Symposium Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Saxena R.R, Satvir Singh, and V.K Jain. 1995. “Impact of Operation Blackboard Scheme on Learner’s Achievement – A DPEP Baseline Study”. Department Of Measurement, Evaluation, And Data Processing, National Council Of Education Research And Training, New Delhi, Processed. Vosniadou, S. (2001). How Children Learn, Educational Practices Series 7, International Academy of Education & International Bureau of Education. A periodical meetings and workshops of the Resea r ch, Evaluation, Lear ning, Monitoring committees and sub committees were organized at State & national level in reviewing the progress of the intervention. The crucial determining factor for success is the interest and efforts of the teacher. If the teacher is convinced and committed, the school has efficient program implementation and if the teacher views the program as ‘additional responsibility thrust upon her/ him’, the program suffers. Concluding Remarks Educational theory does provide insights about lear ning conditions that can be productive, but these are not commonly practiced. This study provides an exemplar of an evidence based practice of reflective teaching in an integrated learning context that is essentially activity-based. The thematic learning activities developed during this research study will serve as an exemplar to enrich and improve the teaching of physical geography in secondary schools. A teaching strategy is evolving, which develops students’ skills and facilitates active cognitive engagement of students in understanding explanations involving the integrated content. The theory driven design of innovations thus enables us to create opportune lear ning conditions, so as to conduct empir ical educational research for understanding how, SELP Journal of Social Science 19 July -September 2013
  • 20. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CREDIT RECEIVABLES MANAGEMENT IN STAINLESS STEEL SALEM R.Leelavathi, Ph.d Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, Periyar University, Salem ABSTRACT SAIL’s wide range of long and flat steel products is much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. The Environment Management Division and Growth Division of SAIL operate from their headquarters in Kolkata. Salem Steel Plant, a special steels unit of Steel Authority of India Ltd., pioneered the supply of wider width stainless steel sheets / coils in India . The plant can produce austenitic, ferrite, martensitic and low-nickel stainless steel in the form of coils and sheets with an installed capacity of 70,000 tonnes / year in Cold Rolling Mill and 1, 86,000 tonnes / year in Hot Rolling Mill. In addition, the plant has country’s first top-of-theline stainless steel blanking facility with a capacity of 3,600 tonnes / year of coin blanks and utility blanks / circles. The study highlights about the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers and t the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers. The customers who are availing credit family from the company are bound to repay it in pre specified duration in agreed installments and interest rates. Key words: SAIL, steel plants, galvanized sheets, stainless steel, alloy steels Introduction distinction of being India’s second largest producer of ir on or e and of having the country’s second largest mines network. This vital responsibility is carried out by SAIL’s own Central Marketing Organization (CMO) that transacts business through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions, 25 Departmental Warehouses, 42 Consignment Agents and 27 Customer Contact Offices. CMO’s domestic marketing effort is supplemented by its ever widening network of rural dealers who meet the demands of the smallest customers in the remotest corners of the country. With the total number of dealers over 2000, SAIL’s wide SAIL is also among the five Maharatnas of the countr y’s Centr al Public Sector Enterprises. SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products, including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanized sheets, electrical sheets, structural’s, railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and other alloy steels. SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions of India and situated close to domestic sour ces of r aw mater ials, including the Company’s iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the SELP Journal of Social Science 20 July -September 2013
  • 21. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 In or der to study and ana lyze the receivables management of the company following tools are used Ratio analysis, Compar ison analysis, Cr edit analysis marketing spread ensures availability of quality steel in virtually all the districts of the country. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defense industries and for sale in export markets. Objectives of the Study To study and analyse the effectiveness of receivables management in Salem steel plant during the year 2006-2011 Importance of Study The study highlight on the various aspects like company’s ability to get back their receivables at agreed duration and installments, the company’s ability to retrieve their money fr om the defaulter or any compensation for the same and legal actions taken against default customer for the same about the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers. The study says about the various credit proposals applied t o the company to differ ent customers. The study says about the various credit proposals applied to the company to different customers. The customers who are availing credit family from the company are bound to repay it in pre specified duration in agreed installments and interest rates. To do a comparative analysis between the year 2006-2011 for discount sales. Tabulation : Inventory The above table displays that during the year 2006-2007, inventory was low so liquidity of the firm was high, where it gave the company an edge to convert assets in to quick cash. During the period 2009-2010, there was decr ease in sales and so the inventory level was destabilized, which lead to decline in quick ratio. Type of Study The method for the study of past and cur rent r ecor ds of existing delinquents customer to analyze the default status of their account and its significant in order to draw a conclusion. The research is descriptive in nature as they were done on the existing date. The search design used in this study is descriptive research design. Descriptive is undertaken in order to study and analyze the receivables of the company with the available data. Tabulation: Buyer Discount Offer The above table shown that during the year 2010-2011, the company had increased sales due to development in its scheme where it save the buyer an option “ If they pay credit before the dead line they would be offered discount”. This gave rise to incr eased It was from the published annual report and other report of the company for the corresponding year for which study has been made. SELP Journal of Social Science 21 July -September 2013
  • 22. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 business. During the year 2006-2007, the company had decreased growth in business as it followed stringent rules, where they did not offer buyer discount steps for collection debt amount to improve the Business Performance. Reference: Prasanna Chandra “Fundamental of Financial Management” by Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi. 2001 Conclusion: During the year of 2007-2008 the current r atio, quick ratios ar e maintained ver y effectively due to collection of receivables within the duration. In the year of 20092010 the company sales was high because of high discount rate (8%). In the year 20092010 the r eceivables ar e not collected properly. So the company should be properly maintained current ratio and quick ratio more effectively. The company takes necessary I.M Pandey “Financial Management By Vikas publishing house, Delhi Eugene F.Brigham “Fundamental of corporate Finance by Standard Publication, Indore, 1998 John.G ,Account Receivable Best Pr actices by Pr actical accountant, jun2004,vol 37,page no:14-45 RESEARCH EXPLORER (A refereed Bi Annual International Research Journal on multidisciplinary) ISSN: 2250-1940 Articles are invited from the academician, research scholars and subject experts for the next issue of the RESEARCH EXPLORER (January - April 2013) which will be published in the month of October 2013. RESEARCH EXPLORER is an official publication of the SELP Trust. It features the original research in all branches of Commerce, Business Management and other cognate branches of sufficient relevance. The manuscripts should be submitted through mail to the Managing Editor to tamilselp@yahoo.in . To facilitate an editorial decision on the acceptability, or otherwise, of their manuscript, and to speed-up subsequent publication, authors are strongly advised to consult the format of papers in a recent issue of Research Explorer. Review/Strategy/Case study etc should be comprehensive, up-to-date and critical on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 10 double spaced typed pages including tables and figures. At the bottom of first page, Postal address of the corresponding author and coauthor(s), and also Departmental address with designation, Tel. No. Fax No. and Email ID etc. must be specified. SELP Journal of Social Science 22 July -September 2013
  • 23. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ON ROAD SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN CHENGALPATTU RTO DIVISION, KANCHEEPURAM DISTRICT OF TAMIL NADU C.Nedumaran Research Scholar Dr.T.Ramachandran Professor School of Management, SRM University, Kattakulathur, Chennai. ABSTRACT There is an increasing trend in the statistics of accidents and fatal deaths in India, As per the global status on road safety 60 percent of road accident deaths belong to small group of 10 countries which includes India. The main thrust of accident prevention and control across the world has been on “4 Es”, mainly Education, Enforcement, Engineering and Environment and emergency care of road accident victims. Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country to have brought out a Road Safety Policy At this crucial juncture, this study made an attempt to testify the knowledge and awareness of the road safety management systems by the road users of the Chengalpattu RTO division of Kancheepuram district and their suggestions to reduce the accidents. Key words : Road Safety Management, Road accidents , The Road Safety Fund Introduction Government on all policies and programmes relating to Road Safety at the State level. The Government have constituted “The Road Safety Fund” from out of the receipts of compounding fees and spot fines collected by Transport/Police departments to finance road safety activities. Ensuring road safety is one of the priority ar eas r eceiving Gover nment’s constant attention. Tamil Nadu is the first state in the country to have brought out a Road Safety Policy. This policy has been brought out with a vision to stop and reverse the increasing trend in the number of accidents, through adoption of compr ehensive measur es covering engineering, education, emergency care and enforcement measures. The State Road Safety Committee has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Honourable Minister f or Tr anspor t, to a dvise the SELP Journal of Social Science Need for the study In Tami Nadu more accidents are taken place in the capital city and its outskirts especially Sub-urban places that are located in the Ka ncheepur am and T hir uvallur districts. In this context it is an urgent need 23 July -September 2013
  • 24. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Data Collection tool: A str uctured questionnair e (See appendix) has been designed and administered to the respondents of the study. And the administration of the questionnaire was carried out during morning time between 10.A.M. to 11 A.M for a period of one week time. to reduce the no. of accidents in the state, though various measures are taken by the government and NGOs to create awareness on r oad safety management. But, these measures are not given expected results. At this crucial juncture, this study made an attempt t o testify the knowledge and awareness of the road safety management systems by the r oad user s of the Kancheepuram district and their suggestions to reduce the accidents. Based on the results of the study a report (viz., inclusion of road safety education in the curriculum of the schools and colleges, and enhancing of the enfor cement aspects and so on) may be submitted to the state/central governments so as to enhancing existing r oad safety management. Tools for data analysis: SPSS software is used for the data analysis. The following tools are employed data analysis of the study – Simple percentage methods – Cluster Analysis Table No1 –Knowledge about road safety signals Objectives of the study  To study the public knowledge and awareness of road safety regulations The road safety signals are five but the data presented in the table no – 1 indicate that only 28 percent of the respondents are opined correctly about it and remaining 72 percent of the respondents are not having clear ideas about the safety signals which are very important while driving a vehicle on the road.  To identify the pattern of road safety driving sense among the publics/drivers of the vehicles To identify the public opinions on the role of mass media for creating road safety awareness  To study the opinions of the public’s to improve the road safety measures Table No2 – Hand to be used for signaling Research Design Sampling Design: This study is the pilot study of the on the going research project on road safety management in the School of Management of SRM University. Thus, a sample of 100 road users by the purposive sampling who are coming for various reasons for the RTO of Chengalpattu. Further this study will be extended for the road users of other RTO offices of the district along with th , road safety managers and enforcement officials. SELP Journal of Social Science The right hand is used for signaling since India follows right side driving procedure but the data presented in the table no – 2 indicate that 33 percent of the r espondents ar e confused with the left and both the hands which can not be used for signaling. 24 July -September 2013
  • 25. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 The data related to the knowledge of changing vehicle position (Right or Left) have been presented in the table no – 5. It is seen from the table that only 40 percent of the respondents are correctly said ‘See the following vehicle position through rear view mirror well in advance say 30 feet and show the signal and then turn or change the vehicle position’ and r emaining p er cent of respondents are lack of knowledge about this aspect. Table No – 3 Awareness on the Hand signal to turn right The table no 3 presents the data related to the hand signal to turn right while driving. It is seen from the table that 31 percent of the respondents alone said correctly that ‘Extend right arm with palm of the hand turned to the fr ont. And r emaining per cent of the respondents have confusion over the use of hand signals to turn the vehicle while driving. Table No – 6 Awareness about MSM Table No –4 Awareness on the Hand signal to turn left side The table no – 6 presents the respondents awareness on MSM. And interesting to note that 77 percent of the respondents are aware of the MSM. Table No – 7 Following MSM while driving The table no -4 presents the data related turning the vehicle left side while driving. It is seen from the table that only 36 percent of the respondents opined properly that ‘Extend right arm and rotate in an anti-clock wise direction. And remaining 64 percent of the respondents are confused with the signaling at the left turning. It is found out that 77 percent of the respondents opined that they aware of the MSM but as per the data presented in the table no – 7 shows that 64 percent of the respondents are un answered for the query that following of MSM while driving and only a minimum of 14 percent answered ‘Yes’ for the query. It indicates that almost all the respondents of the study are confused with the MSM Table No – 5 Knowledge on changing of vehicle position (Right or left) SELP Journal of Social Science 25 July -September 2013
  • 26. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Table No – 8 Road safety awareness through mass media As per the data presented in the table no – 8, 96 percent of the respondents are opined that mass media is r ight choice for the propagating/creating awareness on the road safety. In the first cluster there are 5 variables are grouped, thus most of the respondents are suggested for the induction of health education in the school and higher education curriculum, More fine for the offenders and enhancing the existing road safety awareness programs. In the cluster – II only three variables are grouped. It shows that they are not favor for the severe punishments and content with the existing p unishment procedures. Suggestions to improve the road safety Road users suggestions are also sought through the questionnaire with two point scale for the analysis of the data emerged out of this has been analysed with Cluster Analysis which is a sophisticated Multivariate tool to deal with large data that can be reduced into inter pr eta ble cluster s in the for m of Dendrogram. The variables that are used for the analysis is presented in the table no – 33. Findings The major findings of the study are as follows:  The road safety signals are five but a very minimum percent of the respondents are said exactly though they are experienced drivers. And most of them are unaware of the right and left turning signaling procedures and MSM.  And almost all the respondents are opined that mass media is right choice for the propagating/creating awareness on the road safety. Table No – 9 Variables related to the improvement of road safety Suggestions Based on the results of the study the following suggestions are made for the improvement of the road safety measures.  Most of them are experienced drivers but In the dendrogram at 70 percent distance level two interpretable clusters are formed. SELP Journal of Social Science they do not know the basics of the road 26 July -September 2013
  • 27. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 safety mea sur es. So it is an ur gent immediate need to induct road safety education in the school and college curriculum. accidents occur per thousand vehicles. More over road crashes cost approximately one to three percent of a country’s Gross Nation Product. So, it is high time that we have to take appropriate steps in a quick manner to make road safety awareness among public through mass media viz Television, Cinema, News Paper and so on.  Most of them learned the driving through driving schools, but they unaware of the road safety procedures. So, it is an urgent need to r evamp the pr ocedur es and modalities of the functioning of these schools References 1. Depar tment of Road Tr anspor t and Highways (2008b), ‘Annual report 20072008’, New Delhi: Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways.  Majority of the respondents opined the cancellation of the driving license of the drivers who are involved in the severe accidents but they sought for three months cancellation only. And it is suggested to study the feasibilities of implementing the developed nations enfor cement procedures. 2. Depar tment of Road Tr anspor t and Highways (2008c), Basic road statistics, retrieved July 21, 2008, from http:// morth.nic.in/index2.asp? sublinkid= 157&langid=2  In Indian context most of the road users 3. Depar tment of Road Tr anspor t and Highways (2008d), Tr aff ic data, Retrieved August 24, 2008, from http:// mo r t h . n ic. in/ in dex 2 . a s p ?s u b li nk id =369&langid=2 are expecting the other road users are take care of their safety, thus, most percent of the respondents opined this phenomena. So, it is suggested to create awareness to change this type of attitudes of the road users. 4. Gururaj, G., 2006, Road traffic injury prevention in India’, Bangalore: National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences.  It is also suggested to the license issuing authority not only making physical test while iss uing the license but also theoretical/oral test may also conducted before issuing the license. 5. Horberry, et.al.,2006, ‘Driver distraction: the effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance’, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38 (1): 185–191.  It is right time to study and enhance the roles of mass media to create awareness on road safety measures along with the enhancing the roles of the road safety agencies in order to create awareness among the public. 6. Matthews , G., 2002, ‘Towar ds a transactional ergonomics for driver stress and Fatigue’, T heor etical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 3 (2): 195–211. 7. Saija, K. K. and Patel C. D. 2002, ‘Micro level study of accidents on NH-8 passing thr ough Valsad Distr ict’ , Indian Highways,30: 43-51. Conclusion India is a more populous country in the world and a statistics says that one road accident happens in every minute and one fatal accident happens every 4 ½ minute. 35 SELP Journal of Social Science 27 July -September 2013
  • 28. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SHG Dr.C.Paramasivan, Assistant Professor of Commerce Periyar EVR College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu ABSTRACT Empowerment of women in the third world countries is important because the benefits will be felt not only by the women themselves, but by their households as well. It may take a more enlightened approach to ensure the empowerment of women in developing countries, but the returns to their families and even the societies as a whole will be worth it. The conceptual development of the subject matter of research shall be arranged in a chronological order. This Paper highlighted the Conceptual framework which was earlerly undertaken by various researchers. Key words: Empowerment, welfare programme, social systems,SHG Introduction Empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared to be. It is now recognized that empower ment involves advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well-being of the empowered. The Benefits derived from the empowerment programmes must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be made to ensure that the target population is also able to retain the benefits. This is particularly significant for women. Empowerment becomes a popular word which dominates the overall growth and development of any developing society. Since Independence India has been changing in all fields including social systems but still a group of people still struggle to acquire equal rights in the society. All the so-called changes in the developing economy has not touched the major part of their lives as the social welfare programmes have not trickled down to certain parts of the society. It does not mean that the policy makers and the government have not drawn any welfare schemes but the schemes and programmes have not reached in whole for whom it was designed and hence it has lost its vigor and charm thus not bringing any benefits to the society for which it was planned and women sector is the most affected population of that society. SELP Journal of Social Science Murlidhar A. Lokhande (2009) said that, micro finance programme has a significant role to play in Indian economy for booting micro entrepreneurial activities for creating productive assets coupled with employment generation. So, in order to cover all the poor households, particularly BPL households, 28 July -September 2013
  • 29. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 there is need for providing full support by the government, financial institutions and NGOs to SHGs programme. So far the SHGs bank linkage programme has been much successful in achieving quantitative targets. The need of the hour is to make the programme more quantitative, that is, enriching the lives of poor est of the poor in the context of globalised socio – economic environment political interference in the functioning if self – help groups should be avoided. reported now and then. Hence, transforming the prevailing social discrimination against women must become the top priority in our policy and it must happen concurrently with increased direct action to rapidly improve the social and economic status of women is India. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh (2008) said that, the meeting at length discussed the role/ functions of federations in sustainability of SHGs, the future structure and legal status of the feder ations, how to ensur e the autonomous functioning of federation ; sour ces of financial sustainability of federations including founds required for capacity building and mana gement of federations; accountability, transparency; should federations be involved in financial intermediation; type of common grading system for federations; role of NGOs and collabor ating agencies and NGOs federations; relations with panchayat raj institutions (PRIs) at differ ent levels, Gover nment r ole and suppor t to the federations and institutional mechanism for evaluation of federations. Mohantry B.K. (2009) observed that, rural India is first emerging as a prospect for the bankers. This had become possible because banks have taken the extr a step in rediscovering their customers. They have stepped out from their narrow confines of their br a nches to natur e SH Gs, which ultimately give the feed back to the survival and growth of banking business. This is a good opportunity of the public sector banks to boost the SHG movement to enable the villages to absor b the benefits of globalization. Jitendra Ahirrao (2009) Explained that, the SGHs of rural women consists of members who are the poor, having low saving capacity and who depend on money lender s for meeting their consumption needs and social obligations. Formation of women into self help groups paved a way to develop their economic standards, thereby building self confidence. Women in SHGs have been encouraged by the government as well as NGOs to undertake self employment ventures with locally available resources. Tangirala.H.S.K. (2008) Explained that, for the purpose of economic development, the co-operatives have to form the SHGs with the help of t he member s, incr ease their competencies and capabilities. The support, advice and coaching is required from the cooper atives thr ough for mal or infor mal network, to the SHGs to get the business from all the local people. The activities might be deposit mobilization, recovery management is case of credit co-operatives, procurement and sale activities in case of manufacture – based co–operatives. However, even the related diversifications of the activities are justified, provided the needs of the members fulfilled and the ultimate goal of poverty Muthalagu.K. (2008) noted that, what my conclusion is that there is no doubt that status of women in India is developing over the per iod of time though ther e ar e many incidence of crimes against women have been SELP Journal of Social Science 29 July -September 2013
  • 30. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Shyedra.H.S. (2008) noted that, there is a massive mobilization of women taking place as a result of the SHG movement. The growth of SHGs incidentally has occurred during the economic r efor ms per iods. T he SHG movement has a good potential to serve both as a human face of the economic reforms as well as contr ibute towar ds women’s emancipation. There is a major onus on all actors involved in SHGs promotion and development to further intensity their efforts in enabling SHGs to reach a mature stage. We need a major investment in capacity building of SHGs and proactive policies to help overcome the constraints faced by SHGs to integrate them fully into the development pr ogr ammer aimed at women’s empowerment. alleviation take place. Amarjeet kour (2008) reveals that, it is deducted from the present research that the scheme of SHGs has not played a significant role in rural development in this particulars research area. However it is generalized that, effective, functioning and implementation of SHGs can lead to social change, mobilization and involvement of people and thus, to the over all development. This scheme in the pr esent r esear ch has pr oblem at the implementation level. There would be a different situation if the local people were pr oper ly motivated and inf or med and implement ed whole hear tely by the implementing agency. Ramachandran.T. and Balakrishnan.S (2008) noted that, SHGs have the power to create a socio – economic revolution in the rural areas of our country. SHGs have not only produced tangible assets and improved living conditions of the members. But also, helped in changing much of their social outlook and activities. In the study area SHGs have served the cause of women empowerment, social solidarity and socio – economic betterment of the poor. Khullar.K.K (2007) observed that, the greatest achievement of the mahila samakhaya is to create an awareness of the need to struggle for a gender just society where women can lead a life of dignity, for a gender just society where reliant India by 2010. It has increased women’s recognition and visibility both within the family and community. Pargunan.M. (2007) explained that, the strategies above would really empower women and bring them into the mainstream development. If employment, income and social security were improved, women would automatically stronger which will lead them to become powerful in contributing to social and economic development of India. Sivachithappa.K (2008) said that, A number of important results have emerged out of the study. These results are in contrast to the findings of a number of earlier studies. Some of the disagreements of this study with the earlier studies are: the income impact of the extr eme poor is lower, the poorest borrowers may tend to have lower levels of asset accumulation, borrowers taking more number of loans generate more income, larger organizations have larger out reach and formal schooling is an essential critical criterion for exerting better effect of SHGs on income generation. SELP Journal of Social Science Snehalata panda (2007) noted that, women members have played a key role in the gram sabha decision making in matters relating to use of forest, community land, irrigation, marketing of local products and construction of roads and design of work for the newly implemented employment guarantee etc., 30 July -September 2013
  • 31. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Santosh gupta (2003) noted that, the personality of a celebrity plays an important part in a successful endorsement. The companies must have deep pockets to be able to afford the best available celebrities. Recently a report showed how co firms had gone beyond their advertising budgets to get the best celebrities. But the company should see whether it suits their products & the sales results. have saved them from social and economic empowerment. Self help groups have saved them from social and economic exploitation and the additional income has provided them moral support to initiate new changes in the grassroots. Vijayanthi.K.N. noted that, “Women empowerment through self help groups a participatory approach” attempts to explain the process of women’s empowerment and find out the levels of a awareness creation, decision making self and gr oups empowerment among women from self help gr oups for med under compr ehensive communit y development p r ogr amme implemented in five slum areas of Chennai. Empowerment should give women freedom of choice, equal access to domestic and community resources, opportunities and powers, the programmes of NGOs improving income for providing new opportunities of skills tr a ining, additional employment providing credit and market facilities were the main areas of concern of SEWA. Suneetha. R (2007) said t hat, the empowerment of women become necessary as they ar e almost fifty percent of the population and are being discriminated at all fronts. Women play a vital role in the social and economic transformation of a country. Kala G.S. (2004) said that, “Economic empowerment of women through SHGs”, highlights mahalial thittam which is being implement in erode district since 01.05.1998 to promote self help groups over a project period of five years in rural areas the self help groups are not only engaged in saving internal lending activities b ut also function as important on health and nutrition. Literacy education, adoption of new agricultural practices farm and non farm sector economic activities and help to prepare women to take up leadership position. Till the end of may 2003, 4372 self help groups have been formed in rural areas and 159 self help groups in urban areas taking the total to 592 self help groups with membership of 85,530. Debotosh sinha (2008) s aid the, empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared to be. It is now recognized that empowerment involves an advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well being of the empower ed. Benefits der ived fr om the empowerment programmes must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be ensure that the target population is also able to retain the benefits this is particularly significant for women. Rangi and Siddhuy M.S and Harjit Singh (2002) have revealed that, women under indira mahila yojana have borrowed both from internal sources of self help group, and banks for productive and non productive. Purpose which have benefited directed and indirectly their economic empowerment self help gr ou ps have saved women fr om exploitative money lenders and land lords and SELP Journal of Social Science Tygai.D, Mitali chatterjee (2008) noted that, “there is a need is a need for improving the position of women and empowering them 31 July -September 2013
  • 32. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 with more opportunities, greater access to resources and equal participation with in decision making processes. Empowerment is to share power. The different stages are power over, power to, power with and power within. motivation and confidence, and more say in the family matters. Women should be willing to take additional effort for building a mind set which is suitable for their over all empowerment. Sundar raj.D, Venkata Ravi. R, Hema latha.H.M., (2008) said that, “Women and empowerment” empower ment of women means enhancing awareness of individual household and community level. This helps women to be mor e awar e of their constitutional, legal rights, opportunities. Available for them to make their lines better. Mor e impor tantly, the str ategy of empowerment also helps women to achieve comprehensive development. David Jarachar.P, Usha Nandhini .S and Shivachandran.M (2005) Noted that, though the SHG movement has made an impact on the lives of a number of individuals and communities, there are many pockets of societies which have not been involved in the movement. Micro financing is yet to reach the needy. An encouraging feature is that several commercial banks including ICICI have made a foray into this segment and are actively applying the Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques and SHG concept to achieve rural information. But one aspect stands ou t demanding our immediate attention and action-rural transformation needs to be done on a war footing. Ranjit karmakar and Bholanath ghose (2008) Expressed that, the “Role of women in the self help group” is self – help groups enhanced the quality of status of women as par ticipa nts, decision ma ker s and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic and social activities, involvement of women becomes essential. They encourage women to take active part in the socio – economic progress in the nation. Pankaj Naithani (2001) viewed that, micro financing has developed the self employment activities in rural areas over the last twenty year s. Micr o financing mea ns making provisions for smaller working capital loans to the self employment seeking poor. However, some strategic planners are fearing that micro financing drive may seek. Reallocation of anti-poverty programmes like basic health, education, infr astr uctur e development etc., are found to be suffering they may be true to some extent as target beneficiaries in most of the micro finance project are women. Ruby J.A. James Devassia and Abraham George ( 2009) said tha t, women empowerment aims enabling them to realize their identity, aims enabling them to realize their identity, potentiality and power in all spheres of their lives. It has mainly five dimensions viz., economics, political, social / cultur al, per sonal and familial. Each dimension is very important because the real empowerment of women is possible only when a woman has increased access to economic r esour ces, more strength and courage for entering into the power structure, more involvement through social / cultural relationships and participation, more selfSELP Journal of Social Science Stephen .J.K (2005) concluded, It is realized that NGO’s can play a decisive role as an effective delivery mechanism in rural development they have innate advantage to involve people and ensure their participation in the agencies and fellow NGO’s is added 32 July -September 2013
  • 33. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 advantage to them. The NGO’s are taking keen interest in providing micro financing poor women. The success of NGO’s in helping rural poor to organize SHG’s for cr edit deliver y in a way highlights the importance of NGO-SHG’s linkage for the betterment of the later. increased rate of divorce , as is evident from cases pending and cases ever increasing in family courts to the conditions and shape them in their favour. Monetar y empowerment alone will not make the women empowered. A total empowerment is required that is cognitive, behavioral and affective. There is a proverb that if six to nine is okay, then nine to six will be okay. It means that if family life is okay, work life is better both are related. Thus women empowerment is an unavoidable element, if family is to be empowered, the society is to be empowered people. Behavioral empowerment of women which will permit them to utilize their own unique potential to the point of excellence. Ashokan R.ponnar asu , kalavathi .M.S.(2 005) concluded, women empowerment depends upon the success of women development programmer in terms of women SHG’s. Many studies have shown that SHG’s contribute scientifically to the over all development of women.To understand the level of success of SHG’, this paper analyses the Inter-district variations of SHG’s through performance index. Results have shown that out of twenty-eight districts in Tamilnadu half them performed well. As far as Tamilnadu self help experiment has no far been successful in few pockets. Debotash sinha .R (2005) expressed that, empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared be. It is now recognized the empowerment involves an advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well-being of the empower ed. Benefits der ived fr om the empowerment programmer must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be made to ensure that the target population is also able to r etain the benefits. Empowerment of women in the thir d wor ld countr ies is important because the benefits will be felt not only by the women themselves but by their households as well. It may take a more enlightened appr oach to ensur e the empower ment of women in developing countries, but the returns to their families and even the societies as a whole will be worth it. Khanka S.S. (2006) suggested, Different people have defined entrepreneur different the commonest definition of an entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages and takes the risk of running an enterprise. He arranges everything required to set up an enterprise (i.e) funds, lad people mat er ial and machiner y. T hey entr epr eneur r etain common character istics, Independence, motivation, optimistic, dynamic, innovating and risk-bearing ability.An entrepreneur differs from a manager on various counts. The farmer is owner where as the latter is a servant entrepreneur are rewarded with profit, which is highly uncertain. On the other hand, Manager gets salary as a reward for the ser vices r ender ed by him in the enterprise. Abdul raheem.A&Yasmeen sultana .H (2005) noted that, the unemployment problem prevalent in india sharply differs from that which prevails in the western Suseela menon .R (2003) said that, India is now facing a lot of family disputes and SELP Journal of Social Science 33 July -September 2013
  • 34. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 nations. There are a number of possible routes to the pr omotion of self employment promotion and strengthening of self help groups is one of them. So more and more self help groups should be encouraged in order to eradicate poverty through self employment and at the same time empower women which in turn lead to overall economic development. Amarjeet Kour (2008), Self Help Group (SHG) and Group Development, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.25. Arujn. Y. Pangannavar (2008), Self Help Groups and Poverty, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.12. Ashokan.R, Ponnarasu .S , Kalavathi.M.S, Inter District Variations in the Performance of self-help gr oups in Tamilnadu, cooperative perspective , vol.40_No.2 , JulySep: 2005. Lamaan s ami (2008) obser ved that micr ofina nce has been fou nd as the appropriate approach and effective tool for poverty alleviation and empowerment, which can be internalized into cooperative system through strategic and legal support, keeping in view long ter m sustaina bility of microfinance within cooperative functioning. David Jarachar. P , Usha Nandhini .S, and Shivachandran .M , Women Entrepreneurship leading of rural transformation , the ICFAI Journal of Entrepreneurship Development , Vol.2, Vol.1, March 2005. Conclusion Debotash sinha.R (2005), Women in Develop ment (Challenges and Achievements) , serials publications , New Delhi , 1st published 2005 , P. 3 to 19. It has encouraged many to form SHG’s and avail the benefit since the scheme provides finance to a SHG rather than to an individual borrower as earlier done under Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). Meghalaya as one of the average state in terms of resource base, population and socio economic infr astr uctur e is also experiencing similar type of upsurge in SHGbank linkage activities in recent years. The analysis of the linkage activities in the foregoing clearly brings some general issues which need to be addressed. Jitendra Ahittrao (2009), Rural Women Empower ment T hr ough Micr ofinance, Kurushetra, Feb 2006, Vol.57, No.4, P.23. Kala G.S. (2004), “Economic of Women Through Self Help Groups” Kisan Word Nov.2004, Vol.31, No.11, P.26. Khanka S.S , Entr epr eneur, entrepreneurial Development , S. Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nagar , New Delhi (2006). Acknowledgement Khullar K.K. (2007), Mahila Samakhya Empower ment of Women T hr ough Education, Kurushetra (A journal r ural development), March 207, Vol.55, P.9. The author is greatly thankful to UGC for financial assistance to conduct this research under the major research project scheme 2012-14. Lamaan sami (2008), “ Self help groups and rural development “ , the Indian Journal of Commer ce, Vol.61-No.4 , OctoberDecember 2008, P. 212 to 217. References. Abdul Raheem and yasmeen sultana .H (2007), Empowerment of women through Self help group : A view , Kisan world, Vol.34No.03 P. 48 to 52. SELP Journal of Social Science Mohantry.B.K. (2009), SHG movement an emerging social innovation of micr o 34 July -September 2013
  • 35. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 financing in orssia, kurushetra, February 2009, Vol.57, No.4, P.19. marketing, Vol. XXXIII, No.6, June 2003, P.26. Mur lidhar.A.Lokhande (2009), Microfinance Initiatives in India, Kurushetra, Febuary 2009, Vol.57, No.4, P.16. Shyledra .H.S. (2008), Role of Self Help Gr oups, Yojana Januar y 2008 (Micr o finance) P.25. Muthalagu.K (2008), Indian women in Development Perspective, Kurushetra, Sep. 2008, Vol.56, No.11, P.18. Sivachithappa .K (2008), Success Story Poverty Alleviation T hrough Self-Help Groups, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, Vol.No.2, P.35. Narayana Reddy, V.Vijiyakumar .S and Nalini. B , Women Development (Challenges and achievements) ,serial publications , New Delhi , First Published 2-2005 – P.18. Snehalata Panda (2007), P olitical Empowerment of Tribal Women in Orissa, Kurushetra, March2007, ( A Journal Rural Development) Vol.55, No.5, P.29. Pankaj Naithani , “ NGO and Rural Development” , kurukshetra , April 2001, Vol.49_ No. 12 , P. 35-37. Stephen J.K, Selian .A, Role of NGO’s in micro financing through SHG’s , Indian Journal of marketing , Vol.No.8 , August 2005. Parguna .M.(2007), Political Empower ment of Women in I llusion, Kurushetra, March 2007, (A journal rural development) Vol.55, No.5, P .12. Sundar Raj. D, Venkata Ravi.R, Hema latha. H.M. “Women and Empowerment”, Women in Development (Challenges and Achievements) Serials Publications, P.45 to 59. Pati .A.P., “ Subsidised Micro financing and financial sustainability of SHG’s” , the Indian Journal of commerce , Vol.61-No.4 , Oct-Dec 2008, P.137 to149. Suneetha .R (2007) is DWCR Programme Empowering The Rural Women, Kurushetra ( A Journal Rural Development) March, 2007, Vol. 55, No.5, P.17. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh (2008), SHG Federations Should Play Proactive Role for the Economic Empower ment of Rur al Masses, Kurushetra, December 2008, Vol.57, No.2,P.11. Suseela Menon R. “Women empowerment through India tr aditional classical art forms”, Kisan world , Sep 2007 , Vol.34-No.09 P. 60 to 62. Ramachandran .T and Balakrishnan .S (2008) of Self Help Groups on Women’s Empowerment a Study in Kanyakumari District, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.31. Tangirala .H.S.K.(2008) , SHG is a Tool of Economic Development of Co-operatives and its Members, Kurushetra, Dec.2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.22. Ruby . J.A., James Devassia and Abraham George ,Women empowerment : Meaning , Characteristics and Dimensions , Southern Economist , May1, 2009 , P. 41 & 42 Tyadi. D, Mitali Chetterjee, “Women in Development”, Women is Development (Challenges and Achievement), Narayana Reddy, V. Vijaya Kumar.S, Nalini B, Serials Publications P. 35 to 44. Santhosh Gupta (2003), Strategy for Empowerment of Women Indian Journal of SELP Journal of Social Science 35 July -September 2013
  • 36. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 BRAND LOYALTY OF HORLICKS - A STUDY WITH REFERENCE TO SALEM CITY S.Kavitha Assistant Professor Department of Commerce, Mahendra College of Arts and Science Kalipatti, Namakkal District ABSTRACT Brands are said to be one of the important asset of any organization because it creates a value for them. Almost all the organizations are always wanted to create that value through various loyalty programmes. Horlicks is one of the world renowned brands of health drink for a long period of time. In this empirical work an attempt has been made to find the brand loyalty of horlicks in Salem city in order to know the various factors influencing the purchase of horlicks and the customer’s opinion about the brand. A purposive sampling has been adopted in the study and suggestions also provided in a brief manner. Keywords: brand loyalty, brand equity, brand recognition, brand insistence, perceived value Introduction badge of or igin and also a pr omise of India is witnessing change in life styles of per for mance .Br and manager s’ job is large section of Indian population. The need challenging to establish a brand and create to understand the emerging markets and consumers has become a big challenge for the br and equ ity. Br and equity enhances corporate world especially in creating and customer’s confidence and results in brand managing a powerful brand .By developing a loyalty. powerful brand, corporate can establish A highly loyal customer base can be ‘brand equity’ and the equity assists firms in expected to generate a very predictable sale a variety of ways to manage competition and and profit stream. Brand loyalty as an asset maintain market share. Brands make money, encourages and helps to create and enhance brands make companies and brand make brand equity. While brand loyalty is the images. Branding is one of the most effective ultimate goal of the markets, loyalty patterns competitive tools and it is a challenging task may be shifting to a number of product for the marketer to nurture a brand into a categories. For example, in the category of strong and profitable brand. health drinks the consumers may be loyal to Brand loyalty a segment of a brand through qualitative A brand is a recognizable and trustworthy research, which may provide insights into SELP Journal of Social Science 36 July -September 2013
  • 37. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 factors, which may trigger involvement. The greater the proliferation of the brands in a category, the greater is the tendency on the part of the consumer to try out new brands. Timely relaunches and adding new items in the product line enhances the involvement level of the existing customer base. Brand Wise Classification in Horlicks Statement of the problem Source: Primary Date Now a day the health drinks usage is very common among all the peop les. Fr om childhood to old age various kinds and categories of health drinks are available for the usage. In India, the market for health dr inks is ver y potential a nd highly competitive. Many Indian and foreign players are taking part in health drinks markets. Hence, it is essential to know the brand loyalty of health drinks among the users. Salem city is taken for this study due do it heter ogeneous char acter. T he pr oblem consider ed her e is in heter ogeneous characterized market how for the brand loyalty is developed. The above table Shows that, out of 185 r espondents a maximum of 48% of respondents are used Horlicks, 19% of respondents are used Women Horlicks, 14%of respondents are used Chocolate Horlicks, 11% of members are used Horlicks lite, and 8% of members used Jourinior Horlicks. There fore the maximum used product is Horlicks. Opinion about the Product Performance Objective of the Study  To know the familiar brands of health drinks in Salem city.  To find the factors influencing the purchase of Horlicks. The above table shows that, 32% of the respondents are highly satisfied with the quality of Horlicks.22% of the respondents are highly satisfies with the price. The wide range of Horlicks varieties have attracted a lot of customers. Moreover the availability of Horlicks products in petty shops, medical shop and other common places satisfied the consumers. As Horlicks has all the above qualitative aspects it has gained a good brand image. Besides the Horlicks brand has been  To know the varieties of Horlicks used by users and their opinion about the product. Methodology The primary data was collected through a well str u ctur e inter view schedule. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondent in Salem city. The secondary data was collected through var ious a r ticles, jour nals, books, Dissertations, and websites. SELP Journal of Social Science 37 July -September 2013
  • 38. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 attracted due to its good package, sales promotion and unique technology. members are used Horlicks lite , and 8% of members used Jourinior Horlicks Attributes of the Customers towards  Majority of 43% of the respondents are highly satisfied with Quality of horlicks products where as 30% of the respondents are satisfied, 11% of respondents are Neutral .Thereby where as 10% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 6% of them are highly dissatisfied of the quality of Horlicks Horlicks Products  Majority of 30% of the respondents are highly satisfied with price of horlicks products where as 17% of the respondents are satisfied, 46% of respondents are Neutural.Thereby where as 4% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 3% of them are highly dissatisfied of the price of Horlicks. In today’s marketing environment, the manufacturer’s activities do not end up with satisfying the existing customers alone; the concern has to widen his promotion activities to the extent that it is able to attract new customers towards its brand products. It can attract the new customers by establishing new markets & constant repetitive advertisement.  Majority of 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied with Wide varieties of horlicks products where as 49% of the r espondents ar e satisfied, 10% of respondents Neutural.Thereby where as 6% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 2% of them are highly dissatisfied of the Wide varieties of Horlicks. The above table shows that, as Horlicks fulfils all the health requirements 23%, around 60% of the consumers adhere towards Horlicks without switching-over to other br ands .Moreover the impressive advertisement has attracted nearly 64% of all the age groups. Even though the price is high the customers are ready to pay due to its high quality.  Majority of 31% of the respondents are highly satisfied with availability of horlicks products where as 50% of the r espondents ar e satisfied, 9% of respondents are Neutral .Thereby where as 5% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 4% of them are highly dissatisfied of the availability of Horlicks. Findings of the Study  A Maximum of 52% of respondents are used Hor licks pr oducts , 17% of respondents are used Complan, 14%of r espondents ar e used Boost ,10% of members are used bourn vita , and 6% of members used viva.  Majority of 39% of the respondents are highly satisfied with brand image of horlicks products where as 47% of the r espondents ar e satisfied, 5% of respondents Neutural.Thereby where as 4% of the respondents are dissatisfied and  A Maximum of 48% of respondents are used Horlicks,19% of respondents are used Women Horlicks,14%of respondents are used Chocolate Horlicks ,11% of SELP Journal of Social Science 38 July -September 2013
  • 39. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 3% of them are highly dissatisfied of the Brand image of Horlicks. 1% of them are highly disagree horlicks fulfill all health requirement.  Majority of 35% of the respondents are  Majority of 23% of the respondents are highly satisfied with package of horlicks products where as 50% of the respondents ar e satisfied, 6% of r espondents are Neutural.Thereby where as 5% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 4% of them are highly dissatisfied of the package of Horlicks. highly agree the advertisement and other publicity aspects are Neutral where as 63% of the respondents are Agree, 8% of respondents are neutural. Thereby where as 5% of the respondents are disagree and 1% of them ar e highly disagr ee the advertisement and other publicity aspects are natural.  Majority of 29% of the respondents are  Majority of 29% of the respondents are highly satisfied with discount and free of horlicks products where as 31% of the r espondents ar e satisfied, 18% of respondents are Neutural.Thereby where as 17% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 5% of them are highly dissatisfied of the discount and free of Horlicks. highly agree the Horlicks price is always acceptab le wher e as 57 % of the respondents are Agree, 8% of respondents are Neutural.Thereby where as 4% of the respondents are disagree and 2% of them are highly disagree the Horlicks price is always acceptable.  Majority of 33% of the respondents are highly satisfied with unique technology of horlicks products where as 39% of the r espondents ar e satisfied, 14% of respondents are Neutural.Thereby where as 9% of the respondents are dissatisfied and 5% of them are highly dissatisfied of the unique technology of Horlicks. Suggestions In the light of the present study, few suggestions have been made by the researcher to improve the marketing of Horlicks product and to obtain 100% brand loyalty.  As for reason studies rural market is potential. Hence the manufacturer of Horlicks can considered to concentrate more rural.  Majority of 22% of the respondents are highly agree the close attachment with horlicks products where as 58% of the respondents are Agree, 8% of respondents are Neutral. Thereby where as 8% of the respondents are disagreeing and 4% of them are highly disagree close attachment with Horlicks.  Price is one of the factors considered by many consumers. It is recommended that the company may try to the price of the pr oduct, which will br ing mor e consumers.  Horlicks is one of renowned health drinks  Majority of 30% of the respondents are in India. Hence, the manu factur er s concentrate to advertise the product with some sentiment value. It will bring new consumers also. highly agree the horlicks fulfills all health r equir ements wher e as 53% of the r espondents ar e Agr ee, 10% of respondents are Neutural.Thereby where as 6% of the respondents are disagree and SELP Journal of Social Science  Offer s and fr ee gifts ar e an avoid 39 July -September 2013
  • 40. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 promotional strategies adopted by many of the manufacturer. But one thing has to considered the manufacturer never been sacrifice the quality. the product is high and therefore it can be patronized. The brand loyalty makes sense to buy a particular brand [i.e., Horlicks by way of preference, patronage, and loyalty] instead of some other brand even if two products are the same in means of attributes (i.e.) features, price and quality. Therefore, Horlicks maintains brand loyalty for all level of peoples.  Now days the consumers are very much interest on attractive and convenient packaging. Hence it is suggested that the manufacturer can introduce new kind of convenient packaging system.  To retain existing customer banks the References: manufacturer can implement new kinds of promotional activities such as contents, offering premium gifts vouchers etc. 1. JC.Gandhi, (1985) “mar keting” a management introduction Tata Mc Grow hill Publishing company Ltd., New Delhi.,  A perfect system of customer Relationship 2. Walter,C.G, and G.W.Paul .”(1970) “ Consumer behavior s and integr ated fr awwor k, home wood II I Riched ,D.irwill, Management can improve and retain the existing customers for long period.  Brand switching is one of the common factors identified among the customers due to many factors. The manufacturer of Horlicks can improve the loyal customer bank by improving loyal customers with will reduce the brand switching behavior of Horlicks users. 3. Gundiff .E.W Ltd”(1997)” fundamental of modern marketing “ prentice hall Pvt Ltd. 4. Sontakki E.N (2002) “ Principles of marketing”. Sultan chand and sons .New Delhi. 5. Abhijit Bha ndar i (31 st Dec 20 00) “marketing loyalty” a & journal, P.2. Conclusion The design of the study reveals the Brand loyalty of Horlicks products Consequently, Hor licks has a high image among the consumer in respect of quality, price and taste. Most of the users are well aware of the brand and have been using it regularly over a period of time. Although there are a number of alternatives available, users still prefer to stick on to the well-known and trusted brand. The quality of horlicks has ensured continued customer patronage and a high degree of brand loyalty. Users feel that the quality of SELP Journal of Social Science 6. C.Rajendra Kumar (October –Nov 2003) Indian journal marketing P-25. 7. Frank marry and Lodahl (1967) “brand loyalty Delhi Himalaya publishing house, Delhi Vol 2. Websites 1. www.ieexplorer .com 2. www.wikipedia.com. 3. www.google.com 4. www.sciencedirect .com 40 July -September 2013
  • 41. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 A STUDY ON CORPORATE LEVERAGE AND SHAREHOLDER VALUE CREATION OF INDIAN TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT SECTOR – A PANEL DATA APPROACH D.Vijayalakshmi Department of B.Com (AM) Dr.Padmaja manoharan Hod & Associate Professor (Retd) Department of Commerce, PSGR Krishnammal College for Women Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India ABSTRACT Shareholder Value Creation has become the global standard for measuring corporate performance. Every firm has to construct a corporate capital structure with the objective of shareholders’ wealth maximization because they are the ultimate owners of the enterprises. Transport equipment sector is a capital intensive sector, where greater emphasis has been given in framing the capital structure. Hence, the present study makes an attempt to examine the impact of leverage on shareholder value creation of Indian transport equipment sector for the period 1995-96 to 2009-10. A panel data approach has been applied to analyse the data. The study reveals that the leverage has a significant influence on shareholder value creation. Keywords: Shareholder Value Creation, Capital structure, leverage Introduction fir m for t heir value cr eation. Hence, Shareholder value creation has become the need of the day for every firm. Companies have adopted differ ent modes of measurement of shareholder value creation such as Economic Value Added, Market Value Added, Shareholder Value Added, Cash Flow Return on Investment etc., out of these, the familiar and the most prominent methods adopted b y the Indian comp anies ar e Economic Value Added (EVA) and Market Value Added (MVA). The present study makes an attempt to examine the impact of leverage on shareholder value creation of Shareholder value creation has become the focusable ar ea of cor porate growth and sustenance. Initially, the fir ms had concentrated on the important financial goals such as ensur ing fund availability, maximizing growth, operating profit and return on investment and the shareholders were treated simply as investors. It was felt that payment of dividend was sufficient for their satisfaction. In the LPG era, on account of investors’ education, the scenario has drastically changed, the shareholders are more concerned with usage of their funds by the SELP Journal of Social Science 41 July -September 2013
  • 42. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 transport equipment sector for the period 1995-96 to 2009-10. EVA = NOPAT – WACC X Capital employed Transport equipment i) NOPAT refers to Net operating profit after taxes (NOPAT= PAT net of P&E + interest paid) Transport equipment sector consists of automobile and auto ancillaries. Automobile industry is one of the core sectors of Indian manufacturing industry. It has been moving towards international standards to meet the needs of the customers globally. It has been contributing a major share to the economic development of a nation. In the year 200809, automobile sector has achieved a turnover of Rs 2,18,966 cror e, out of which the automobile vehicle industry has registered a turnover of Rs 1,42,646 crore and automobile component industry with Rs 76,320 crore. In regard to exports the automobile sector has exported Rs 31,782 crore worth of equipment, out of which, the share of automobile vehicle industry is Rs. 16,782 crore and automobile component industry is Rs.15,000 crore. The automobile sector has provided direct and indirect employment for 10.5 million people. ii) Capital employed = Total assets – current liabilities and provisions iii) Weighted aver age cost of capital (WACC) = (paid up equity capital / capital employed X cost of equity) + (long term debt /capital employed X cost of debt) a) cost of debt = (Interest paid / long term debt) X100 Capital Asset pricing Model has been employed to calculate the cost of equity b) cost of equity = R f + bi (R m-R f) Rf = Risk free rate of return = one year ter m depos it aver age inter es t r ate of nationalized banks R m = market r etur n of a diversified portfolio Risk premium = mar ket r etur n of a diversified portfolio – Risk free rate of return (R m –R f ) Economic value added The Economic Value added concept has been introduced by a New York City based consulting firm M/s Stern Stewart, a company in the early eighties. In India, the Infosys technologies Ltd is the first Indian company which has enclosed its EVA calculation in the annual report. According to Stern Stewart approach, EVA is essentially the surplus left after making an appropriate charge for the capital employed in the business. EVA measures the earnings after the cost of capital. To compute EVA, the three inputs needed are i) Net operating profit after taxes ii) invested capital or capital employed and iii) weighted average cost of capital bi = Beta coefficient of the firms’ portfolio Market Value added Market Value Added can be defined as the excess of market value over book value of the company. Company value consists of debt and equity. With the simplifying assumption that market and book value of debt are equal, Market Value Added has been stated as market value of equity less book value of equity. The MVA can also be stated as market capitalization less net worth. Market capitalization = closing share price X number of shares out standing as on the date of balance sheet EVA can be computed as follows SELP Journal of Social Science 42 July -September 2013
  • 43. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Net worth = equity capital + reserves and sur plus net of r evaluation r eser ve accumulat ed losses and miscellaneous expenditure. The following null hypothesis has been framed for the purpose of the study: Initially, the Lagrange multiplier test has been applied to find the existence of panel effect in the values. The classical model (Pooled OLS) and the Random Effect model are compared and when there is no panel effect, the pooled OLS has been chosen for further analysis; otherwise, the Random Effect model has been chosen for the next step of application. As a second step, the Random Effect model is compared with Fixed Effect model using Hausman Specification test and the appropriate model is chosen for further analysis based on the significance of the chisquare value.  Lever age does not influence the Results and Discussion MVA = Market capitalization – Net worth Objectives of the study  To examine the impact of leverage on shareholder value creation of the Indian transport equipment sector Hypothesis shareholder value creation To ascertain the impact of leverage from its different dimensions on shareholder value creation, the variables, namely, Long Term Debt (LTD) ratio, Short Term Debt (STD) ratio, Interest Coverage (IC) ratio, Financial Leverage (FL), Operating Leverage(OL), Combined Lever age(CL), and Wor king Capital Leverage(WCL) are considered as independent var iables. T he dependant variables are Economic Value Added (EVA) and Market Value Added (MVA). Research methodology Source of data The study is primarily based on secondary data. The data has been collected fr om PROWESS 3.1 version maintained by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Pvt Ltd Period of study The study has covered a period of 15 financial years from post-liberalisation era, namely, 1995 -1996 to 2009- 2010. T he panel data analysis on these parameters reveals the following results: Sampling design A sample of 35 firms, which have been listed at both BSE and NSE stock exchange by applying purposive sampling technique have been taken for the study. Economic value added The dependent variable (EVA) has been regressed with the independent variables, namely, LTD ratio, STD ratio, IC ratio, FL, OL, CL and WCL with the following null hypothesis. Tools of analysis Pooled OLS regr essions, Panel data regression with Fixed Effect and Random Effect have been applied to analyse the data. Two tests have been carried out to decide the appropr iateness of these three models. SELP Journal of Social Science H0 : “The independent variables, namely, LTD ratio, STD ratio, IC ratio, FL, OL, CL and WCL do not have a significant impact on EVA” 43 July -September 2013
  • 44. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 ratio has a significant positive impact on EVA. Hence, the null hypothesis has been rejected for this variable. Table 1- EVA - Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Transport T he six out of seven independent variables, namely, LTD ratio, STD ratio, FL, OL; CL and WCL have not had a significant influence on EVA. Hence, the null hypothesis has been accepted for these variables. In respect of the transport sector, it is found that the IC ratio has favoured the EVA enhancing the shareholder value of the company Market Value Added The dependent variable (MVA) has been regressed with the independent variables, namely, LTD ratio, STD ratio, IC ratio, FL, OL, CL and WCL with the following null hypothesis. Source : Computed * significant at 5 per cent level ** significant at 1 per cent level H0 : “The independent variables, namely, LTD ratio, STD ratio, IC ratio FL, OL, CL and WCL do not have a significant impact on MVA” It is vivid fr om the table that the r egr ession co-efficient signs have been similar in both the FE and RE models and they differ in the pooled OLS model. The R 2 values have revealed a low corr elation between the selected independent variables and the EVA. The F-value and Wald-chisquare value have a significant correlation between the selected independent variables and the EVA. Table 2- MVA - Pooled OLS and Panel Data Regression-Transport The result of LM test shows that the chisquare value (578.78) is significant at one per cent level. Hence, the RE is preferred to pooled OLS model. The Hausman test has resulted that the chi-square value (4.66) is not significant; thereby, the RE model is found effective. Among all the three models applied, the RE model has been taken to anlayse the impact of leverage on EVA. Source : Computed * significant at 5 per cent level ** significant at 1 per cent level The RE model has inferred that the IC SELP Journal of Social Science 44 July -September 2013
  • 45. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 shareholder value creation metrics. The interest coverage ratio has played a pertinent role in shareholder value creation. T he transport sector can resort to more long term external funding and can enjoy a good tax shield. This in turn increases the profitability and shareholder value. It is clear from the table that the signs of the regression co-efficient have been the same in the FE and RE models and they differ in the pooled OLS model. The R 2 values have shown a very low correlation between the selected independent variables and the MVA. The F-value and Wald-chi-square value reveal the existence of significant cor relation between the selected independent variables and MVA. References 1) Karam Pal and Jitender kumar, “Value Creation: An empirical scenario of Indian information technology industry”, KAIM Journal of Management and Research, May-April 2012, Vol.4, Nos1-2, pp 8-18. The result of LM test shows that the chisquare value (343.12) is significant at one per cent level implying the existence of panel effect; thereby, the RE model is preferred. 2) Madhu Sehrawat, “EVA and performance measurement- Text and case studies of Indian companies”, Deep and Deep publications Pvt ltd, New delhi, 2009 edition. The Hausman specification test reveals that the chi-square value (4.84) is not significant indicating that the RE model is preferred. In all the three models applied, the RE model has been found appropriate to analyse the impact of leverage on MVA. 3) Madhu Sehrawat, “EVA and performance measurement- Text and case studies of Indian companies”, Deep and Deep publications Pvt ltd, New delhi, 2009 edition The RE model has resulted that the IC ratio has a significant positive impact on MVA. Hence, the null hypothesis has been rejected for this variable. The other variables, namely, LTD ratio, STD ratio, FL, OL, CL and WCL have not been stat istically significant. Hence, the null hypothesis has been accepted with respect to these variables. It is concluded that in the transport sector, the IC ratio is the significant factor of MVA. 4) Manpreet Kaur and Ravi kiran, “Indian manufact ur ing sector : Gr owth and pr oductivity under the new policy regime”, International review of business research papers, March 2008, Vol.4, No.2, pp 136-150. 5) Roger A. Morphin and Sherry I.Jarrel, “Dr iving shar eholder value – value building techniques for cr eating shareholders wealth”, Tata MC graw –hill edition, New Delhi – 2004. Conclusion The study has concluded that leverage ratios have proved to have influenced the SELP Journal of Social Science 45 July -September 2013
  • 46. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 WORKING OF THE PONDICHERRY CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS’ UNION LIMITED: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY N. Gunasegari Assistant Professor, Dr.N.Periyasami Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002. ABSTRACT The study is empirical in nature with a focus on assessing the working of the Pondicherry Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Limited from the point of view of financial and physical performance indicators, as well as the opinion of the member societies. The first-hand information for this study was collected from the establishment section of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. The primary data were collected from the Secretaries of the member societies with the help of the pre-tested questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted during the period August 2012, selecting 10 member societies. In order to study the perception of the member societies towards working of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited, various statistical analyses such as chi-square test, student t test, analysis of variance, co-efficient of variation, multiple regression analysis and percentage analysis were employed. Keywords: Dairy Industry, Milk Production, Poverty. Introduction employment to about 9.80 million persons in principal status and 8.60 million in subsidiary status, which constitute about 5 per cent of the total work force. The progress in this sector will r esult in a mor e balanced development of the rural economy. Milk is well-known to mankind as a per fect wholesome food. Out of the total milk production, only a very small percentage is processed in organized dairy plant in India as against more than 80 per cent in the western countries. It requires the paramount need for developing the dairy industry in the country on modern lines. In this context, cooperative milk producers’ union and its Dairy industry is of crucial importance to India. India is the world’s largest milk producer, accounting for more than 13 per cent of world’s total milk production and it is the wor ld’s largest consumer of dair y products, consuming almost 100% of its own milk production. Dairy products are a major sour ce of cheap and nutr itious food to millions of people in India. Dairying has been considered one of the activities aimed at alleviating the poverty and unemployment especially in the rural areas and drought-prone regions. According to the National Sample Survey, livestock sector produces regular SELP Journal of Social Science 46 July -September 2013
  • 47. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 doubling and trebling of processing costs which could not be recouped by increasing milk prices. As a result, many of the units have incurred losses and become non-viable. The co-operative dairies have to bear the losses and resort to additional borrowing from banks to replenish their working capital which in turn leads to higher interest charge and further losses thus creating a vicious circle. The cooperative dairy unions are engaged in the provision of input services for animal health, breed impr ovement, feed r esour ces development, extension services, finance and marketing. However, the ability of such cooperatives to attain their objectives is influenced by the quality of services rendered to the member s apar t fr om resource mobilization and economic growth. Hence, the fulfilment of the members’ demand of timely in cost effective manner is very important for the success of co-operatives. Therefore, an understanding of the perception of the member societies is imperative. In this chapter, an attempt has been made to study the perception of the member societies towards working of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. working is the subject chosen for research by the researcher. The implicit problem raised is: “Is the co-operative milk producers’ union capable enough by the required financial resources and facilities to survive against the encroachment of private dairies at present and in future under the delicensing policy of government? To find out the answer to this pr oblem, t he r esear cher has collected information from both primary and secondary sources. In the emerging scenario, it is necessary for the co-operative milk unions to identify t he per ception of t he member societies. This would facilitate the process of efficient functioning. T his micr o level investigation will throw more light on these issues and thereby help policy formulation. Therefore, an endeavour has been made in the present study to examine the working of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. Statement of the Problem In 1991 a new licensing policy was introduced which made it easier to establish private processing plants than it had been in the past. The new market-oriented policy pr ovided an oppor tunity for pr ivate entrepreneurs to enter all areas of the milk business such as procurement, processing and marketing. Over 100 new dairy processing plants were established within one year of the new policy. At the same time, there were some private dairies producing milk in certain regions prior to 1991. These private plants required government approval prior to 1991; hence, the co-operative sector was protected. At present, a large number of co-operative dairy plants have not been able to achieve a satisfactory level of capacity utilization due to inadequate milk availability in the area. The low capacity utilization resulted in SELP Journal of Social Science Objectives of the Study 1. To study the growth and progress of Indian dairy industry. 2. To r eview the dairy activities of the Pondicher r y Co-oper ative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. 3. To elicit the opinions on the working of the Pondicher r y Co-oper at ive Milk Producers’ Union Limited by member societies. 4. To offer suitable suggestions for the efficient functioning of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. 47 July -September 2013
  • 48. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Testing of Hypotheses milk producers’ union functioning in Pondicher r y Union Ter r itor y. Manufacturing range of byproducts and supply of quality milk are the special features of the PCMPUL according to member societies at 57.53% and 69.86% respectively. Remunerative price for the milk procurement and extensive dairy activities are also the special features of the PCMP UL accor ding t o member societies at 84.93% and 91.78% respectively. The study is based on the formulation of the following null hypothesis. Ho1 : There is no significant association among the satisfaction levels of the member societies belonging to different organizational set up towards working of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. Ho2 : There is no significant relationship among the satisfaction levels of the member societies belonging to different organizational set up towards various activities of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. 2. No significant association is found between satisfaction level of the member societies belonging to varied years of existence, number of members, average milk collection per day, type of society and economic status of the society and wor king of the Pondicher r y Milk Producers’ Union Limited. Research Methodology This study has been undertaken to examine the working of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. The scope of the stu dy is delimited to study the perception of the member societies towards working of the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited. The primary data for the study were collected during the period from October 2012 to December 2012. As said already, the study is confined to the Pondicherry Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited only. Regar ding the r espondent s, the member societies ar e considered total population. The total number of member societies was 97 as on 31.03.2012. By using simple r andom sampling, 73 member societies i.e. 75 per cent of the population were taken up for this study. 3. Member societies having upto 10 years of existence, societies having 201-400 member s and above 600 member s, societies collecting milk above 750 litres per day, mixed societies and loss making societies are mor e satisfied with the working of the PCMPUL. Findings 4. There is no significant relationship among the satisfaction level of the member societies belonging to varied years of existence, varied number of members, collecting varied quantum of milk, type of society and economic status of the societies towards various activities of the PCMPUL. 1. According to 31.51 per cent of the member societies PCMPUL has been established as the first co-operative milk society in Pondicherry. 52.05 per cent of the member societies say that it is the only co-operative 5. Member societies having existence upto 10 years, societies having u pto 200 members, societies do collect an average milk of 501-750 litres per day, mixed societies and loss making societies are SELP Journal of Social Science 48 July -September 2013
  • 49. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 products, inadequate infrastructure and inadequate government assistance are the problems encountered by the PCMPUL. Financial problems, increasing operating expenses and entrance of private milk societies are also the problems of the PCMPUL stated by the member societies at 71.2 3%, 79.45% and 86.30% respectively. more satisfied towards various activities of the PCMPUL. 6. Consistency is found (10.78) in the satisfaction level among the member societies having existence upto 10 years, societies having upto 200 member s, societies collecting below 250 liters of milk per day, mixed societies and profit making societies (11.86%) towar ds various activities of the PCMPUL. 10. Ranging from 30.13 per cent to 50.68 per cent of the r espondents suggest that prevention of political inter vention, launching value added p r oducts, development of infr astr uctur e and government assistance will get better the wor king of the PCMPUL. 60.27%, 67.12% and 79.45% of the respondents suggest that remedies to the financial problems, control over the operating expenses and cope up pr ivate milk societies will make certain the efficient functioning of the PCMPUL. 7. Years of existence and number of members of the societies have significant effect on the satisfaction towards various activities of the PCMPUL at 5 per cent level of significance. Average milk collection, type of society and economic status of the society have no significant effect on the satisfaction level of the member societies towards various activities of the PCMPUL. 8. Out of 73 member societies, majority of the sample societies ar e dissatisfied (50.68%), followed by highly dissatisfied (27.40%) and highly satisfied (9.59%) towards various activities of the PCMPUL. 4.11% and 8.21% of the member societies are satisfied and neither satisfied nor satisfied respectively with the various activities of the PCMPUL. The average satisfaction score reveals that the sample societies have higher satisfaction level (2.369) towards conduct of training, followed by supply of technical inputs and extension services (2.342), and animal breeding services (2.260). However, the member societies have low level of satisfaction (2.95) towards supply of input services (1.945). Suggestions 1. Scaling down the government participation in the equity base of the PCMPUL, assisting the PCMPUL with the timely grant of managerial subsidies and other forms of assistance enabling the PCMPUL for its efficient functioning. Further the Gover nment of Pondicher r y should recognize the role played by PCMPUL at all levels in incr easing the milk pr oduction and in amelior ating the economic condition of the weaker sections of society. The work related to artificial insemination, disease control, etc. now done by Animal Husbandry and Veter ina r y Depar tment s hould be transferred to the milk producer’s union. 9. Ranging from 36.98 per cent to 56.16 per cent of the member societies state that political interference, lack of value added SELP Journal of Social Science 2. PCMPUL has not been following a concr ete pr oduction policy for by 49 July -September 2013
  • 50. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 working. For that self-reliance and selfmanagement are required. products. Innovations in dairy technology for the preparation of new products will make the milk mor e effective in its utilization in the PCMPUL. Therefore, PCMPUL should further develop proper dair y pr oduction, Pr oces sing and marketing infrastructure, which is capable of meeting  inter national    quality requirements. Making infrastructure for rapid transportation, refrigeration and proper human resource development in the PCMPUL and arranging proper training for the manager, and officials are need of the hour. Conclusion In this study, an attempt has been made to study the perception of the member societies towards working of the PCMPUL. To ensure a positive outcome, attention to the factors identified in the suggested framework is important for the efficient functioning of the PCMPUL. If this study provokes the people concerned to take some positive measures, the researcher will feel amply rewarded. References 3. Efforts should be made to bring down the high incidence of procurement cost and bring it at the level of pr ofitability. In order to increase the competitiveness of the PCMPUL,  efforts should  be  made  to reduce the cost of production. This can be achieved through in creasing productivity, impr ove animal health car e and breeding facilities  and  management  of professional dairy management. The PCMPUL and state government will need to play a vital role in this direction. 1. Jayachandr a Reddy, Reddy, Y.V and Ramakrishna, Y.S (2004). “A Comparative Study of Cost of Milk Production under Different Agro-Climatic Regions in SemiArid Regions”, Indian Jour nal of Agricultural Economics,” Vol.59, No.3. 4. The Indian Dairy Corporation may be directed to review the financial position of the PCMPUL installed under Operation Flood and in appropriate case reschedule the payment of interests and principles on the loans sanctioned for PCMPUL to prevent from incurring continued losses and becoming viability. The financing institutions may be directed to provide adequate working capital loans to the PCMPUL adversely affected by the losses caused by low capacity utilization. 3. Nishi A. K. Sah and Ram Kumar (2011). “Dairy Farmers’ Satisfaction with Dairy Co-operative Societies: A Case Study”, Indian Research Journal of Extension Education, Vol.11, No.1, January. 2. Kannan Elumalai and Birthal Pratap, S (2010). “Effect of Trade Liberalization on the Efficiency of Indian Dairy Industry”, Journal of International and Area Studies, Vol.17, No.1. 4. Sidhu, R.S and Bhullar, A.S (2004). “Changing Structure of the Farm Economy in Punjab: Impact of Livestock on Income and Employment”, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.59, No.3. 5. Vinod, K, Duhan Khatkar, R.K and Singh, V.K (2004). “Nature of Markets and Role of Co-operatives in Marketing of Milk in Rewari District of Haryana”, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.59, No.3. 5. PCMPUL should be given maximum autonomy and there should be minimum government interference in a day to day SELP Journal of Social Science 50 July -September 2013
  • 51. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 GENDER IMPACT ON COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES IN THOTTIYAM TALUK OF TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DISTRICT -A CASE STUDY K.Elango Associate Professor of Economics The National College ,Tiruchirappalli ABSTRACT The rural poor particularly the rural women had a greater access to CPRs in the past, which has come down by nearly 50 percent. The reduction in CPRs by encroachment of these resources is a matter of concern. Even though the government gave priority to poor landless laborers, schedule caste people, widow and ex - service men, these CPR lands are largely encroached by higher caste people in the form of adjoining their land and other political voice. Key Words: Common Property Resources, medicinal herbs, ecological balance, deforestation Introduction degr ading, because mor e lands ar e encroached landlords and dominant caste people. But low percentage of common land was encroached by lower caste particularly in scheduled caste people. The study area people are rearing livestock in common lands but the uncertainty and unsuitable rainfall condition is the fist and foremost reason for their livestock maintenance. Common Property Resources (CPRs) play a significant role in the Life of Rural Poor, Particularly the Rural Women. Since the historical past, the resources contributing lot to the rural economics. There is growing evidence that common pool resources at the village level are on the decline quantitatively and qualitatively acr oss the regions of developing countries. Besides maintaining the ecological balance by a way of checking soil erosion, deforestation and salutation the CPR benefits the r ur al masses in ter ms of availability of fodder, fuel wood, small timber, deriving of these materials for use by others, collection of fruits and medicinal herbs. It is true the women are more affected by decline in CPRs as they are more dependent on CPRs particularly for fuel wood, folder and miner forest products, which form the basis of livelihood of many households. Hence any decline in such r esour ces increases the drudgery of women in terms of additional hours of work, long hours of walk to long distances and as such in wearing requirements of energy. Women are also over Statement of the Problem The study village Thottiyam avail more of common resource in the past but now it is SELP Journal of Social Science 51 July -September 2013
  • 52. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 burdened with household. It is also to be mentioned that these women are made to continue this work though there has been a change in the composition of the common property resources. T he aver age number of year s of dependence on CPRs is 19. It is to be mentioned that nearly 2/3 rd of them depend of CPRs for needs more than 10 to 20. Table 2 Fuel Wood collections of the respondents from the CPRs sources 4 pm Objectives 1. To identify the common property resources and Gender impact on CPRs in the study area. 2. To analysis the impact of CPRs on women employment and empowerment in study area. Area of Study Sources: Primary Data, The study area of Balasamuthiram block is located in T hottiyam Ta ulk total geographical area of the village was 1087.28 hectares. The present study relies on both secondary source and also primary survey conducted in this village. The secondary data collected was on yearly basis under 9 fold classification handbooks, ‘G’ return and ‘A’ register of district data. It is to be added that the fuel wood collected by male is mainly for trading purpose and female collected fuel wood predominantly is used for domestic use. Only few female take the fuel wood collection and selling as their occupation in the study village Table 3 Utilization of CPRs for various purposes Period of the Study This study covered the period of ten years fr om 2002 to 2012, and the data collection was undertaken during the month of September to December 2012. Table 1 No of years of dependence on CPRs Sources: Primary Data, by respondent Household Table 3 shows that the utilization of the CPRs to various sources. They are using it for two purposes (I) self use and some r espondents ar e using CPRs collected r esour ces for making up their living. However 90% of them use of for domestic use alone, which explains the huge dependence of the respondent households in CPRs in the sample villages. Sources: Primary Data. SELP Journal of Social Science 52 July -September 2013
  • 53. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 The above table shows that land holding size of the respondent land size has been divided into different size class interval in which 14 respondent out of 50, has a share of 28% it is to be mentioned that majority of them have only less than 2 acres majority of them being marginal farmers, they depend on agricultural seasonal operations during peek seasons and in the off season they have to partly depend on CPRs for livelihood needs says collecting fuel wood and selling in the market. Thus and making up their living is largely dependent on CPRs. Deterioration of such resources only question the very survival of the population in the sample village. Table 4 Income derived from CPRs sources by the respondent Households. Sources: Primary Data, Table 5 Value of the Hous es of the respondents Table 7 Household Expenditure on Food Items in Rupees Sources: Primary Data, Average – Rs. 236254 Out of 50 households 64 percentage of the respondent are having above Rs. 40,000 value of houses. Parts of them are having (36%) below of Rs. 40,000 as their value of houses. It reflects the status of the respondents. They depend on CPRs for their survival. Low value of houses is due to the roof of titles for which they more. Hence right from the food, shelter, the dependency on CPRs is very high for the respondent households. Sources: Primary Data, Average – Rs. 765.3 This table represents the household expenditure of food items of the selected households in sample village per month. It is observed that from the land they own, they are able to realize paddy needed for them domestic consumption. Apart from this they need to spend on the fired items whose average has been Rs. 765.3. Majority of them spend in the range of Rs. 800 to Rs. 1000 per month. Table 6 Land Holding Size of the respondents (in area) Table 8 Household Expenditure on non Food Items Per Month Sources: Primary Data, SELP Journal of Social Science Sources: Primary Data, Average Rs. 997 53 July -September 2013
  • 54. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Non – food item like medicine, education, transport clothing and cosmetic etc has been found be on an average Rs. 997 for the sample households. It is observed further that nearly 30% of them spend more than Rs. 1000 per month on non – food items alone. Taking the average of food and non food items of Rs. 881 and the average income per month at Rs. 1831, there has been a large gap between income and expenditur e of t he sample households, which may be made up though bor r owing or taking fr om past savings however, it may be held tha t if CPRs availability could be improved their income based may also be raised. Rs. 1831, which is very low to maintain and to both the end meet. More over the income earned will be improving of more CPRs are brought under the ownership of the sample households to female. Table 9 Total Household Income of the The particulars details of the sample households revealed that they are either in self-cult ivation or wage la bor er s in agriculture. Only 5 households house both that nearly 35% of them depend on wage earnings, their dependency on CPRs may not be. At least this 35% must be encouraged to diversity their occupation to non – form activities so their dependence on CPRs be reduced however, due to be declining CPRs, many households and migrate to other areas. This must be arrested. Table 10 Occupation of the respondent Households Sources: Primary Data, respondent Households (in rupees) per month Sources: Primary Data, This table represent the income level of the respondents households major ity of researchers respondents that is 21 from 50 respondents are earning less than Rs. 1000 per month and only 19 respondents i.e., 38% of the total respondents are earning their income in between Rs. 1001 – 2000 and earning per month more than Rs. 2001 in which only 5 respondents is earning more than Rs. 4000 per month. From there table it shows that only very few people are earning good income and lading a good life and the remaining majorities of the sample village population are living with less income and have a low of living. The average income is SELP Journal of Social Science Table 11 Caretaker of the Livestock of the respondent Household Sources: Primary Data, Table 10 brings out the details of the availability of livestock. For majority of the respondents in rural areas rent to agriculture, 54 July -September 2013
  • 55. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 livestock maintenance and the income. It is found in this study that around 13 households do not own any livestock, of the remaining households in nearly 7 households, in which male are taking care, households, both male and female are taking care of their livestock. Maintaining livestock is not an easy task. It requires full time labourers to attend to their fodder, water, and cleaning, grazing, and other needs. This is mainly done my female in majority of the household. Summary of Findings This study has analyzed the various CPRs available in the sample villages and the income gener ation thr ough CPRs and resources available for domestic use from CPRs. In a way the sample village population is dependent on CPRs for both. domestic and commer cial use. T he resources identified the socio-economic conditions of the sample villages’ population and income generation and gender wise depended on CPRs etc were analyzed. Table 12 Gender Crises: Average collection of materials from CPR 1. T he aver age number of year s of dependence on CPRs has been majority of them depend on CPRs for 19 years. 2. Mean value of fuel wood collection is male is higher than female 3. The average income r eceived by the respondents has been for male and for female 4. Value of the house of the respondents revealed that they have average value of Rs.1831. which is basically made out of CPRs. S o u r c es : P r i ma r y D a t a , Av e r a g e collection Male – 855, Female – 1223.34 Aver age collection is higher for male than female from CPRs. Actually female dependence is higher on C P R r elat ed a c t i v i t i es f o r t h ei r d a y - t o - d a y l i f e s u s t en a n c e. T h e c o l l ec t i o n s h o w s a g r ea t er v a r i a t i o n a m o n g t h e ma l e memb er s . I t is r ef l ect ed in s t a n da r d deviation, which is higher for male. The p o i n t t o b e men t i o n ed i s t h a t mea n collection is higher for male because the ma l e memb er s o f t h e r es p o n d e n t ’s hou seholds collect fuel wood or ot her matters from CPRs not only for domestic self-u se b ut also for tr a ding pu r pos e. Hence the higher collection explains the i n c o m e g en er a t i o n a c t i v i t i es o f t h e r espondents. SELP Journal of Social Science 5. Aver age land size of the household revealed that they have acres. Conclusion It is observed in this study that the village population in general and female population in particular on CPRs both for their livelihood and domestic use needs. Male members are predominantly dependent on these resources for meet their livelihoods. It is necessary that irrespective of the areas, irrespective of the population on the one hand and protect the environment on the other. A more in depth study on the extent of impact on different sections of the population and environmental must carr ied out, so that better policy recommendations may be made. 55 July -September 2013
  • 56. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 7. Marothia D.K (1993) “Property Regimes and Institutional Arrangements; Concepts and their Relevance in Managing the Village Commons”. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol.48, No.3, July-September. Reference: 1. Amita Shah (1997) “Food Security and Access to Natural Resources”, A Review of Recent Trends: Economic and Political Weekly. Vol.32. No.26. June 28, July 4. 2. Damodaran. A. (2001), “WTO Agriculture Agreement, Common Property Resources and Income Diversification Strategies”. Economic and Political Weekly. Vol.36. No.38, September 22, 28. 8. Nadkarni M.V and Syed Ajaml Pasha (1991) “Developing Uncultivated lands; some issues from Karnataka’s Experience in Social Forestry”. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol.46, No.4, October-December. 3. Emmanuel Bon (2000) “Common Property Resources; Two Case Studies”. Economic and Political Weekly. Vol.34, No.28 and 29, July 15, 21. 9. Ratna Reddy V (2000) “Sustainable Watershed Management Institutional Appr oach”. Economic and P olitical Weekly. Vol.34, No.38, September 16. 4. Jodha N.S. (1986) “Management of Common Property Resources in Selected Dr y Ar eas of India ”. Economic and Political Weekly. Vol.21, No.27 , July 5th , 1986. 10. Ravichandran M and Boopathi S (1999) “Sustainability of Grazing and Pasture land and Livestock in Tamilnadu”. (ed) Subramanian et.al, “Emerging issues in Indian Agriculture”. M.K.U. Co-operative Printing Press ltd, Madurai-21. 5. Kanchan Chopra (1996) “The Management of Degraded land: Issues and Analysis of Technological and Institutional Solutions”. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol.51, No.1, and 2 JanuaryJune. 10. Srivastava H.C and Chaturvedi M.K (1989) “ Dependency and Common Property Resources of Tribal and Rural Poor”. Common Wealth Publishers, New Delhi-110002. 6. Karam Singh. Et.al. (1996) “Utilization and Development of Common Pr oper ty Resources. A Field Study of Punjab”. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol.51, No.1 and 2 January-June. SELP Journal of Social Science 11. Syed Ajaml Pasha (1992) “Common Property Resources and the Rural Poor; A Micro Level Analysis”. Economic and Political Weekly. November 4th . PP-24992503. 56 July -September 2013
  • 57. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 GREEN MARKETING – A. NEW MARKETING STRATEGY Dr.G.Venkatesan Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, M.G.R College of Arts and Science, Hosur. ABSTRACT Environmental sustainability is not simply a matter of compliance or risk management. Business is increasingly recognizing the many competitive advantages and business opportunities to be gained from eco-sustainability. World-wide evidence indicates that people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior accordingly. As a result there is a growing market for sustainable and socially responsible products and services. The types of businesses that exist, the products they produce and their approaches to marketing are changing. Key words: Environmental sustainability, Green marketing, start-up costs Introduction line incentives and top line growth possibilities. While modification of business or production processes may involve start-up costs, it will save money in the long term. For example the cost of installing solar energy is an investment in future energy cost savings. Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environmental impacts in mind give themselves access to new markets, substantially increase profits and enjoy competitive advantages over those marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. Green marketing involves developing and promoting products and services that satisfy customers’ wants and needs for quality, per for mance, affor dable pr icing and convenience without having a detrimental impact on the environment. People generally want to do the right thing, so the challenge and opportunity for the green marketer is to make it easy for people to do so. When all else is equal – quality, price, performance and availability – environmental benefit will most likely tip the balance in favour of a product. The marketing industry can ‘walk the talk’ and become the new corporate champions of the environment. Successful green marketers will reap the rewards of healthy pr ofits and improved shareholder value, as well as help to make the world a better place in the future. Socially Responsible Investment (SRI) in Australia is no longer a niche investment. Potential investors incr easingly look to companies to demonstrate their social and envir onmental r esponsibility as well as traditional financial objectives and outcomes. Competitive businesses with an eye to emerging market forces address their triple Importance of Green Marketing Green marketing offers business bottom SELP Journal of Social Science 57 July -September 2013
  • 58. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Price bottom line performance. For example, to suppor t its aim of being a sustainable business, The Body Shop produces a social and environmental performance report, ‘The New Bottom Line’, every two years. Pr icing is a cr itical element of the marketing mix. Most customers will only be prepared to pay a premium if there is a perception of additional product value. This value may be impr oved per for mance, function, design, visual appeal or taste. Environmental benefits are usually an added bonus but will often be the deciding factor between products of equal value and quality. Environmentally r esponsible pr oducts, however, are often less expensive when product life cycle costs are taken into consideration. For example fuel-efficient vehicles, water-efficient printing and nonhazardous products. The price of green product has to be affordable for the customer to encourage purchase. Industrial differentiation works only when products reduce client’s cost. Challenges of Green Marketing Green Marketing strategies provide more benefits to consumers as well the society. It also helps to create green environment by adopting eco – friendly marketing practices. Even though getting more benefits from green marketing, there are lot of challenges or hurdles also available for its development.  Green products require renewable and recyclable material, which is costly  Requires a technology, which requires huge investment in R & D  Water treatment technology, which is too costly  Majority of the people are not aware of Place green products and their uses The location must also be consistent with the image you want to project and allow you to project your own image rather than being dominated or compromised by the image of the venue. The location must differentiate you from your competitors. This can be achieved by in-store promotions and visually appealing displays or using r ecycled materials to emphasise the environmental and other benefits. Green distribution is a very delicate oper ation. Customer s must be guaranteed of the ‘Ecological nature’ of the pr oduct. T he gr een envir onment is a constantly regulated environment and as such high level of compliance is necessary when carrying out distribution of green products. This is a common procedure in the united state. The Four Elements of Green Marketing Like conventional mar keter s, gr een marketers must address the ‘four Ps’ in innovative ways. Product Green Mar keting begins with ‘gr een design’. Product design constitutes an active interface between demand (consumers) and supply (manufactures). The product itself has to be made in such a way that it satisfies consumer and manufacture’s needs. For ecologically sustainable pr oducts to be successful, green branding attributes have to be efficiently communicated. Most buyer decisions are influenced by the labeling, (green labeling) that states all that makes the product green compliant SELP Journal of Social Science 58 July -September 2013
  • 59. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Promotion o Satisfaction with the store or institution Promoting products and services to target markets includes paid advertising, public relations, sales promotions, direct marketing and on-s ite pr omotions.Smar t gr een mar keter s will be able to r einfor ce envir onmental cr edibility by using sustainable marketing and communications tools and practices. For example, many companies in the financial industr y are providing electronic statements by email, emar keting is r apidly r epla cing mor e traditional marketing methods, and printed materials can be produced using recycled materials and efficient processes, such as waterless printing. o Satisfaction with pre-purchase experience. Marketing literature suggests that there is a relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty. Satisfaction leads to attitudinal loyalty. It could be seen as the intension to purchase. Satisfaction is an outcome that occurs without comparing expectations. Customer satisfaction could also be defined as an evaluative response to perceived outcome of a par ticular consumption experience. Conclusion Customer satisfaction has been defined in two basic ways: as either an outcome or as a process. As an outcome, satisfying the end state r es ulting fr om the consumption experience . As a process, it is the perceptual evaluative and psychological process that contributes to satisfaction. The definition is varied with regards to their level of simplicity which includes; Green marketing is a tool for protecting the environment for the future generation. It has a positive impact on environmental safety. Because of the growing concern of envir onmental pr otection, ther e is an emergence of a new market which is the green market. For companies to survive in this market, they need to go green in all aspect of their business. Consumers want to identify themselves with companies that are green compliance and the premium to pay for a greener life style. As such, green marketing is not just an environmental protection tool but also, a marketing strategy. o Product satisfaction Reference o Satisfaction with the purchase decision experience. 1. Kotlor. Philip, marketing management Green Marketing and Customer’s Satisfaction 2. Pillai.R.S.N&Bharathi Modern Marketing S.Chand Publication, NewDelhi. o Satisfaction with the performance attribute SELP Journal of Social Science 59 July -September 2013
  • 60. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 MARKETING OF HOSPITAL SERVICES S. Gurusamy Ph.D. Research scholar, Dr. E. Mubarak Ali Associated Professor and Research adviser, PG and Research Department of Commerce.Jamal Mohamed College, Trichy -20. ABSTRACT Service quality has been revealed as a key factor in search for sustainable competitive advantage, differentiation and excellence in the service sector. Besides, it has been recognized as highly important for satisfying and retaining customers. Accordingly the two questions firstly, ‘What is perceived service quality? And secondly, ‘How must service quality be three decades now and is of utmost interest. Moreover, the ongoing debate on the determinants of service quality and issue such as ‘Is there a universal set of determinants of service quality and issue such as ‘Is there a universal set of determinants that determine the service quality across a section of services?’ remains unanswered. Additionally, there is concern for the identification of determinants of service quality. Key words: Service quality, Healthcare, retaining customers, service sector, allopath Different types of hospitals, the classification on the basis of objective, ownership, path and size. On the basis of the objective, we find three types of hospitals. E.g. Teaching – Cu –r esear ch for developing medicos and promoting research to improve the quality of medical aid, General hospital four treading general ailments and special hospitals for specialized service in our or a few selected areas. Introduction Healthcar e is a r are ser vice that people need but do not necessarily want but, remarkably healthcare is the fastest growing service in both developed and developing countries. The traditional services that once dominated the service sector - lodging, foodservice, and housecleaning have been incr easingly supplemented by moder n banking, insur ance, computing, communication, and other business services and the interest in the measurement of service quality is understandably high in addition to the delivery higher levels of a service quality strategy being suggested as critical to service provider’s efforts in positioning themselves more effectively in the marketplace. The SELP Journal of Social Science On the basis of ownership, there are four types of hospitals e.g Government hospital. Which is in owned, managed and controlled by Government semi government hospital which is partially shared by Government the charitable trust also run hospitals. On the basis of path of treatment we find 60 July -September 2013
  • 61. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 trends abroad were changing the whole face of medicine. New gadgets, diagnostic equipment, aggr essive t r eatment methodology and new concepts in patient management were some of the index to these welcome changes. Ironically, catalyzing these changes abroad, and even leading them occasionally were the Indian doctors. All these factors led to a pressure building up in the arteries of the government and finally the Rajiv Gandhi Government declared hospitals as an industry for the limited purpose of borrowing money. This triggered a boom in hospitals in the private sector allopath (or) say the system which is promoted under the English system. Ayurved is based on Indian system where herbal are used for preparing medicine like this we find unani and others. On the basis of size, we find variation in the size of hospitals, such as teaching hospital generally have fine hundred beds which can be adjusted in true with number of students, the district hospitals generally have two hundred beds which can be raised to three hundred in the face of changing requirements, the taluk hospitals generally have fifty beds that can be raised to one hundred depending upon the requirement the primary health canters generally have six beds that can be raised to ten beds. Objectives of Hospital Services  Assure quality nursing care according to ANA/WLN nur sing standa r ds four geriatric and home health nursing.  Offer home care as a reasonable alternative to acutely of terminally ill clients.  Offer care and support four terminally ill clients and families, including but not limited to Physical, Psychosocial and Spiritual Care, as they desire.  Provide high quality health care services in cost-effective manner.  Provide and promote continuity of care for clients at home, to and from the hospital, nursing home, or extended care facility.  Promote the highest level of rehabilitation and independence through restorative nursing care using a team approach and collaborating with therapy disciplines as appropriate.  Provide Knowledgeable staff in numbers sufficient to provide an appropriate level of care and frequency of visit in the home.  Provide quality care by teaching and monitoring clients response. Marketing of Services in India Marketing of services in India has gained momentum in less than a decade with the service industry gaining importance as an essential support system. The latest service sector to join the marketing bandwagon is health care. With a spurt in the number of private hospitals and clinics in the country, health care has today become a buyer ’s market. In a far cry from the earlier scenario when hospitals viewed their services as essential, today’s health care institutions fall over each other to draw in the patient, primarily using the quality platform to position themselves. One client segment practically all health care institutions are concentrating on corporate houses-perceived as the fastest emerging breed of the rich and famous. Under these circumstances, the focus has shifted from the curative to the preventive aspect of health care. Just when the ailing health care system in India was gasping for breath, revolutionary SELP Journal of Social Science 61 July -September 2013
  • 62. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999  Master health check up  Executive Health check up  Diabetics health check ups etc., Marketing Mix of Hospitals i) Product Hospitals today offer the following services:  Emergency Services – Emer gency services and care at most of the hospitals is unique and advanced. The hospitals have state-of-the art ambulances. The CCU’s on Wheels under supervision by medical and para-medical staff. There is hi-tech telecommunication available to a patient in an emergency at any given time.  Ambulance services – Hi-tech ambulances linked by state of the art tele communi cations are fully equipped with doctors that ar e available to r ender medical attention and assistance in case of emergencies at the patient’s doorstep.  Diagnostic services- Modern Hospitals are multi-speiality and multi-disciplinary, that can handle any kind of ailment, they ofter a wide range of facilities for instance, Oncology, Orthopedics, Neurology, Plastic surgery and so on.  Pharmacy services- Most of the hospitals also have a pharmacy which is open 24 hours. It caters to the needs not only of the inpat ients and outpat ients and outpatients, but also patients from other hospitals who require emergency druge.  Causality services- Causality service includes a 24 hrs. causality department, which attends to the accident or emergency cases. Apart form the above mentioned services, hospital also offers “ Health Diagnosis Pr ogr amme” which is a complete, comprehensive, periodic health check up offered for busy executives, professionals, business persons and so on. The health diagnosis pr ogr amme comprises of the following. SELP Journal of Social Science Generally, the service offering in a hospital comprises of the following levels:  Core level-it comprises of the basic treatment facilities and services offered by the hospital like diagnostic services, emergency services, casuality services etc.  Expected level- it comprises of cleanliness and hygiene levels maintained in the hospital  Augmented level- it comprises of dress code for staff, air conditioning of the hospital, use of state of art technology, services of renowned consultants. ii) Price Pr ice usually depends on tr eatment prescribed by the respective consultants and the facilities offered to the patient. As a service is intangible, it is very hard for deciding the price of the particular service offered. Pricing strategy adopted does not depend on the price offered by competitors. The pricing strategy is formulated after consulting the concer ned heads of department. Prices of various facilities revised every year depending on the change in technology. Befor e fixing pr ices, government controls are also taken into consideration. iii) Promotion Hospitals do not normally undertake aggressive promotion, they rely a lot on a favorable word of mouth. To crease the clientele, a hospital may continuously introduce different health services like the acupressure clinic, master health checkups offered to different companies. Hospitals conduct camps in rural areas to give medical check ups at a reasonable price so that the 62 July -September 2013
  • 63. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 sick, depressed and an agitated lot. Warm ambiences with efficient and cheerful staff help make the experience of the public a memorable one. Therefore, it is very important that the staff of the hospital is friendly and comforting, always wearing a smile. v) Process Process is a set of activities that take an input, convert it and add value to the input and finally create an output. Process has only recently been given much attention in the service sector although it has been the subject to study in manufacturing for many years. Processes are designed by blue a print, which sets a standard for action to take place and to implement the service. Conclusion Marketing is a function by which a marketer plans, promotes, and delivers goods and services to the customers. In the services marketing, the providers are supposed to influence and satisfy the users. When people buy services offered by a service provider in a true sense, they buy the time, knowledge, skill or resources. Marketing the service is meant marketing something intangible. It is like marketing a promise. The applications of marketing principles in the services sector are the main things in the services marketing. It is the managerial process of managing the service. Reference 1. Youssef et al., Jour nal of Ser vice Marketing, Sep. 2010 2. Michal R.Bowers, “journal of Health Care Marketing, - June 2011 3. Croni J.J, Taylor S.A (2010) Measuring Service Quality, Journal of Marketing. 4. Berry L.L.Parasuraman (2009) Marketing Service. 5. Website – www.healthcare-marketing.net 6. Website– www.hospital services indianic. net rural people approach the hospital again in the future. They also sponsor frequent visits to the spastic society, old age homes, etc. Hospitals generally advertise in health and fitness magazines. iv) Place T he People component r eflects the important role played by individuals in the provision of services. People are also an important element in the marketing mix. Service personnel play an important role in an organization which offers service. The behavior and attitude of the per sonnel offering service will influence the customer’s overall perception of the service. Customers are a source of influencing other customers by word of mouth. It is necessary that the staffs in hospital are trained to offer quality patient care with human touch using state of the art technology. The objectives of offering quality service to the patients can be attained by:  Motivating employees to be efficient, dedicated and loyal to the organization.  Offer ing r egular on-job tr aining of employees to ensur e continuous improvement in health care.  Utilizing ser vices of pr ofes sional competent medical consultants.  Use of latest technology. Motivation is not necessarily by giving high salaries. There are many other ways to motivate the employees. Concessions should be given to the employee’s near ones. There should be regular liaison with them at all times. Knowing what the employees in the activities of the hospital. In a hotel, where the clientele is happy, free from any kind of tension, the job of the staff becomes much easier, whereas in a hospital, the staff has to cater to the needs of SELP Journal of Social Science 63 July -September 2013
  • 64. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 EMERGING TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH IN INDIA - ISSUES & CHALLENGES Mr.Kandula Salaiah, Lecturer, Government Degree College, Ramannapet, Nalgonda District, A. P ABSTRACT India is basically rural dominated country agriculture still remains a main occupation. This agriculture sector has huge potential for growth which needs a lot of continuous investments. However, still major portion of Indian farmers are having only small lands. In the same way urban India has also major poverty ridden region. Recent report says more than 27 percent of urban population are living under poverty. Even though, trickledown theory effect of economic growth works in a long-run experts have felt need to focus on rapid inclusive growth of the poor. Despite a strong growth linkage between agriculture and other economic sectors, agriculture has not received the required attention during the reforms period. The neglect of Agriculture and rapid growth of Non-agriculture Sector has led to serious agrarian crisis and increased disparity between urban and rural incomes. Key words: Sustainable Agr icultur e, Inclusive Gr owth, Agr icult ur e Pr ice Policy, Institutional Credit Introduction sector. More demand for manufacturing and service sector is coming from the rural end India is basically rural dominated country only. Hence, it is needed to take policy agriculture still remains a main occupation. decision to increase the growth in agriculture This agriculture sector has huge potential for in rural areas. If agriculture growth is rapid growth which needs a lot of continuous one, manufacturing price will be reduced and investments. However, still major portion of inflation will be under controlled. Indian farmers are having only small lands. At the time of independence, the share of agriculture in total GDP was more than 55 percent and about 70 percent of the population was dependent on the agriculture sector for their livelihood. In the postindependence era, stagnant production, low productivity, traditional technology, and poor rural infrastructure were the major challenges for the Government. Not surprisingly, food In the same way urban India has also major poverty ridden region. Recent report says more than 27 percent of urban population are living under pover ty. Even though, trickledown theory effect of economic growth works in a long-run experts have felt need to focus on rapid inclusive growth of the poor. Indian GD P is nor mally and basically depending on manufacturing and service SELP Journal of Social Science 64 July -September 2013
  • 65. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 self-sufficiency became a key national policy goal. To achieve this goal, agricultur al development received the highest priority and in the First Five-year Plan, about 17.5 percent of the plan outlay was allocated to agriculture and about 22 per cent to irrigation, multipurpose ir rigation, and power pr ojects. However, in the Second Five-year Plan, the emphasis shifted from labour-intensive agriculture and small scale production to large-scale capital-intensive heavy industry. Consequently, food grains production during the first three Five-year Plans remained stagnant, and India faced crisis in food production. Agriculture GDP during plan periods 3. To examine the challenges of Inclusive Growth in Agriculture Methodology The study is an empirical investigation based mainly on the secondary data. It would be of inter est to mention a few methodological issues involved in the present study. As a matter of fact, considering the size and the scale of operations, the uniform period for all the activities is required. However, varying period for each activity is considered because of non-availability of data. The secondary data are collected from annual publications of the CSO, Economic Survey GOI & AP and other unpublished sources. Further, simple statistical tools and techniques such as percentages, averages are used in the study. T he intr oduction of High Yielding Varieties (HYV) technology (commonly known as Green Revolution) in mid-1960s yielded spectacular results and the production of food grains increased from about 83.4 million tonnes in the triennium ending 196465 to 104.4 million tonnes in 1971-72 (GOI, 2012). Subsequently, the country which was threatened by hunger and high dependence on imports as late as in mid-1960s, became one of the largest producers of many agricultural commodities such as rice, wheat, pulses, fruits and vegetables, etc., thus being self sufficient in staple foods. In aggregate, the food situation is quite favourable in the country and the problem of hunger is one of access and income distribution rather than shortages. Today, about 407 million people in India live below poverty line (GoI, 2009) and about 42 percent of all children under 5 years suffer from unhealthy nutrition. Inclusive Growth in Agriculture - Andhra Pradesh The objective of this paper is to examine the challenges in some elements of inclusive growth in Andhra Pradesh (A.P.).The above problems of exclusion in all India applies to Andhra Pradesh also. The state of A.P. was formed by combining regions with widely different endowments, historical legacies and institutional arrangements. The challenge of development policy in the period subsequent to the formation of the state was to integrate these diverse units into a single economic entity and to accelerate the growth of its productive sectors along with the promotion of adequate opportunities to ensure broad based participation by all sections of society. Growth may be higher in the last two decades but inclu sive gr owth or equitable development has been missing. It is like running a train with engine only without Objectives of the Study 1. To r eview the Inclusive G r owth of Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh 2. To analyse the average growth rate of SELP Journal of Social Science 65 July -September 2013
  • 66. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Management,(e)Research, Extension and Technology,(f) Climate Change (g) Regional Dispar ities,(h)Small and Marginal Farmers,(i)Institutional Credit and Domestic Market Reforms. connecting bogies and people to the engine. Gr owth r ate of GSDP incr eased continuously from 1.8 percent in the 1960s to 2.8 percent in the 1970s and to 4.9 percent in the 1980s and to 5.2 percent in the 1990s. It was 5.9 percent in the First five-years of this decade. However, the growth of GSDP in the last ten years (1994 to 2004) was lower at 5.8 percent as compared to 6.9 percent during the decade 1984 to 1994. As compared to all India, the growth rate of GSDP was higher in A.P. in the 1990s and it was marginally higher during 2004-05. Price Policy Price policy is to protect both producers and consumers. Currently, food security system and price policy basically consists of thr ee instr uments: pr ocur ement pr ices/ minimum support prices, buffer stocks and Public Distribution System (PDS). There is a need to provide remunerative prices for farmers in order to maintain food security and increase incomes of farmers. There has been a debate on Price vs. Non-price factors in the literature. In our view both Price and Nonpr ice fact or s ar e impor tant in r aising agr icultu r al pr oduction. T he cost of cultivation is increasing due to increase in input prices. Particularly agricultural wages have incr eased due to National Rur al Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in sever al states. T hey want to r esor t to mechanization due to labour shortages in peak season. Farmers respond to prices as shown by increase in yields of Cotton in AP and other states. Growth rate in Per capita GSDP increased significantly over time. It is increased from 2.8 percent in the 80s to 4.32 per cent during1984-94 and to 4.3 percent during 1994-2004. The growth rate in Per-capita GSDP was slightly higher in A.P. than all India in the last Ten years. This high growth was partly due to lower population growth in A.P. than all India Problems & Prospects T her e ar e thr ee goals of agricultural development. These are: (a) achieve 4 percent growth in agriculture and raise incomes by increasing productivity (land, labour), diversification to high value Agr icultu r e and r ur al Non-far m by maintaining Food Security, (b) sharing growth (equity) by focusing on small and Marginal Farmers, Lagging Regions, Women etc., (c) thir d is t o maintain Sustainability of Agriculture by focusing on Environmental concerns. Subsidies and Investments in Agriculture One major reform needed in agriculture sector relates to reduction in subsidies and incr ease in investments. Agr icultur al subsidies are fiscally unsustainable and encourage misuse of resources, leading to environmentally malignant developments. There is Trade-off between subsidies and investments. Public investment declined from 3.4 percent of Agriculture GDP in the early 1980s to 1.9 percent in 2001-03. At the same time subsidies increased from 2.9 percent to There are basically, Nine (9) factors which need to focuses on short and medium ter ms. T hese ar e: (a) Pr ice Policy, (b) Subsidies and Investments, (c) Land Issues,( d) Ir r igation a nd Water SELP Journal of Social Science 66 July -September 2013
  • 67. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 7.4 percent of Agriculture GDP (GOI, 2007). Raise in public and private investment is crucial for enhancing agricultural growth. For tunately, gr oss capital formation in agriculture has increased from 12 percent of Agricultural GDP in 2004-05 to 14.2 percent of GDP in 2007-08. Public sector investment has increased significantly during this period. However, it is needed 1 6 per cent Agricultural GDP as investment in order to get 4 percent growth in agriculture. thin spread of investment, low recovery of costs, decline in water level, wastages and inefficiencies in water use and noninvolvement of users both investment and efficiency in use of water are needed. Major areas of reforms needed in irrigation are: stepping up and pr ior itizing public investment, r aising pr ofita bility of groundwater exploitation and augmenting ground water resources, rational pricing of irrigation water and electricity, involvement of user far mer s in the management of irrigation systems and making groundwater markets equitable. Watershed development and water conservation by the community are needed under water management. New watershed guidelines based on Parthasarathy Committee recommendations were accepted by the Central Cabinet in March 2009. The implementation has to be stepped up in order to obtain benefits in rainfed areas. National Rainfed Area Authority has big responsibility in matters relating to water conservation and watershed development. Assets created under NREGS can help in improving land and water management. Land Issues Small farmers should be assisted to buy land through the provision of institutional credit on a long-term basis at a low rate of interest and by reducing stamp duty. At the same time, they should be enabled to enlarge their operational holdings by liberalizing the land lease market. The two major elements of such a reform are: security of tenure for tenants during the period of contract and the right of the land owner to resume land after the period of contract is over (GOI, 2007). Basically, we have to ensure land leasing, create conditions including credit, whereby the poor can access land from those who wish to leave agriculture. There are some emerging land issues such as increase in demand for land for Non-agricultural purposes including Special Economic Zones, Displacement of Far mer s, Tr ibals and other s due to development projects. There is a need for careful land acquisition. Land alienation is a serious problem in tribal areas. Research, Extension and Technology The yield growth for many crops has declined in the 1990s. Technology plays an important role in improving the yields. The National Commission on Farmers indicates that there is a large knowledge gap between the yields in research stations and actual yields in farmer’s fields. The yield gaps given by the Planning Commission (GOI, 2007) range from 5% to 300% depending on the crop and State.National Food Secur ity Mission (NFSM) has been launched in 2007 to increase 20 million tonnes of food grains (10 m.t. for rice, 8 m.t. for wheat and 2 m.t. for pulses) during the 11 th plan period. It has Irrigation and Water Management Water is the leading input in agriculture. Development of ir r igation and water management are crucial for raising levels of living in rural areas. Major areas of concern in irrigation are: decline in real investment, SELP Journal of Social Science 67 July -September 2013
  • 68. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 growth in Gujarat. Other states can learn from the experience of Gujarat. There is a need to shift rice cultivation to Eastern region from Punjab and Haryana for growth, equity and environment reasons. In order to encourage the States to invest more towards agriculture and allied sectors and to achieve 4% growth in agriculture, the government launched the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) in 2007-08 with an outlay of Rs.25,000 Crores for the 11 th Five-year Plan. The scheme r equir es the States to pr epar e Distr ict Agriculture Plans and provides adequate flexibility and autonomy to State Governments. The States should make use of this scheme to improve the agriculture sector. already shown some results by increasing yields in different regions. There is a need to str engthen this mission to incr ease productivity. Climate Change Climate change is a reality. India has reasons to be concerned about climate change. Vast majority of population depends on climatic sensitive sectors like Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery for livelihood in the countr y. The adverse impact of climate change in the form of declining rainfall and rising temperature and thus the increased severity of drought and flooding, would threaten food security and livelihood in the economy. Rise in temperature would affect wheat yields. India has prepared a document namely the National Action Plan on Climate Change. It provides a direction for changes at the national level. Small and Marginal Farmers It is known that more than 80 percent of Indian farmers belong to the categories of small and marginal farmers with an area share of more than 40 percent. The support system and policy changes have to support in raising productivity and incomes of the small and marginal farmers. National Commission on Enterprises for Unorganized Sector (NCEUS, 2008), suggests special programmes for small and marginal farmers. Principal activities proposed under this include promotion of Marginal Small Farmer Groups, enabling greater access to Institutional Credit, Training and Capacity Building, Su ppor t for Strengthening and Non-farm Activities, Gender-focussed activities and Planning for Development of Marginal and Small Farmers. Regional Disparities Growth rates in agriculture SDP were high for many states during the period 1984-85 to 1995-96. However, growth decelerated in all the states except Bihar during the period 1995-96 to 2004-05 (GOI, 2007). T he deceleration is the highest in the states with greater proportion of Rain-fed areas (Gujarat, Rajasthan, M.P., Karnataka and Maharashtra). Recent experience, shows that Gujar at recorded the highest growth of around 9 percent during 2000-01 to 2007-08 .During this period, six states viz., Gujarat, Rajasthan, Himachal Pr adesh, Andhr a Pr adesh, Chhattisgarh and Bihar recoded more than 4% growth per annum. Public investment in infrastructure like Irrigation, Power, Roads, Watersheds, Check Dams, Technology like BT cotton and diversification in agriculture played crucial roles in raising agricultural SELP Journal of Social Science Institutional Credit Although, the flow of institutional credit to agriculture sector has increased manifold during the last decade. There are some issues related to its composition, access to small and marginal far mer s and cer tain r egions 68 July -September 2013
  • 69. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 particular ly the east and Nor th-eastern States. Cooperatives, which have a strong presence and reach in rural areas, have lost their share from 58.3 percent in1993-94 to 15.8 percent in 2010-11. The share of direct institutional credit has declined from over 80 percent in early 1990s (Pre-reforms period) to about 33 per cent in early 2000, the number of rural branches has declined in the Postreforms period and the definition of priority sector lending has been diluted, all these changes have led to low availability of credit to farmers. The share of investment credit in the total credit has also declined which may adversely affect sustainable agricultural growth. Therefore, policy interventions are needed to cor r ect these dis tor tions/ imbalances. The government has reduced cost of credit to farmers (5-7 percent), which is a welcome step but it is more important to ensur e timely and adequate access to institutional credit for the small and marginal farmers and other weaker sections to enable them to adopt new technology and improved agricultural practices as less than half of the farmers have access to institutional credit. increase and volatility in world prices as well as drought in 2009 has adversely affected the inclusive growth objective. References 1. Bhalla. GS, “Globalisation and Agriculture Policy in India”, Indian J our nal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 50(1), 1995. 2. Bhattacharya. BB, “Trade Liberalization and Agricultural Price Policy in India since Ref or ms”, Indian jour nal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 50(3), 2003. 3. Mahendra dev. S, “Inclusive Growth in A.P”. Working Paper No. 71, CESS, Hyderabad, March 2007. 4. Srinivasan. N, “Profitability in Agriculture and Inclusive Gr owth”, NABARD, Hyderabad, Jan - March 2007. 5. Bhalla. GS & Singh, “E conomic Liberalization and Indian Agriculture”, Economic and Political Weekly, 44(52), 2009. 6. Ahluwalia Montek. S, “Prospects and Policy Challenges in the 12 th Plan”, Economic and Political Weekly, 46(21), 2011. Conclusion 7. Vijaypau l Shar ma, “Acceler ating Agricultural Development for Inclusive Gr owth: Strategic Issues and Policy Options”, Vikalpa, Vol. 37(1), 2012. Despite a strong growth linkage between agriculture and other economic sectors, agriculture has not received the required attention during the reforms period. The neglect of agriculture and rapid growth of Non-agriculture sector has led to serious agr arian cr isis and increased dispar ity between urban and rural incomes. There has been some revival in the recent period as agricultural GDP growth accelerated to about 3.6 percent during 2007-08 to 2010-11.But, it is still below the 4.0 percent target for the Eleventh Plan. High food inflation due to SELP Journal of Social Science 8. Mahendra dev. S, “Policies for Raising Agricultural Growth and Productivity in India” Indir a Gandhi Inst itute of Development Research, Mumbai, 2012. 69 July -September 2013
  • 70. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 EMPLOYMENT GENERATION AND TOURISM SECTOR IN INDIA Dr.Pallavi. S. Kusugal, Assistant Professor, Dr. Nagaraja. S, Assistant Professor, Department of Studies & Research in Sociology Tumkur University, Tumkur, Karnataka ABSTRACT Tourism is term which is popularized as an instrument for employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human resource development. Tourism has been a major social observable fact of the all the societies. It is motivated by the natural urge of every human being for new experience, adventure, wellbeing, health consciousness, education and entertainment. The motivations for tourism also include social, religious and business interests also employment opportunities. A World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) study has estimated in 2010 that the contribution of travel and tourism to the world GDP was to the tune of 9%, whereas, its total employment effect was more than 235 million jobs, representing 8% of global employment. Hence, any formulation on tourism and its role in the society and economy must be rooted in due cognizance to the contribution of tourism in the development process and according its rightful place and position in the economic planning and programming. Tourism is important for economic development and Global solidarity. Different types of tourism are like eco-tourism, Rural Tourism, Medical Tourism, Wellness Tourism and so on. Tourism has also become an instrument for sustainable human development in poverty elimination, Environmental regeneration, Job creation and advancement of women and other disadvantage groups. Key Words: Employment Generation, Tourism Sector, WTTC Introduction about different parts of the world. The basic human des ir e for new exper ience and knowledge has become str onger, as technological advances are over coming communication barriers. Progress in air transport and development of tourist facilities has encouraged people to venture out to the for eign lands. Tour ism’s coined its importance, as an instrument for economic development and employment generation, particularly in remote and backward areas, rural areas has been well recognized the Tourism is termed as an instrument for employment generation, poverty alleviation and sustainable human resource development. Tourism has been a major social observable fact of the all the societies. It is motivated by the natural urge of every human being for new experience, adventure, wellbeing, education and entertainment. T he motivations for tourism also include social, religious and business interests. The spread of education has promoted an aspiration to know more SELP Journal of Social Science 70 July -September 2013
  • 71. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 world over. That’s reason only rural tourism popularizing and got much share in Economic development. Tour ism gaining mor e popularity in world over, there has been focus in recent years on rural tourism and eco tourism. The properly planned, developed and managed tour ism can change the living standards of the local people, by supporting the conservation of natural ecosystem and people. of tourism, which can be traced back to the 1980s. T he latest being t he candid endorsement of U.N Secretary General who went on to state as precursor to his World Tourism Day 2011 message is that “tourism’s ability t o gener ate socio-economic opportunities and help reducing the gap between rich and poor is more important than ever”. This statement attains significance in the face of the economic crisis in recent times. Hence, any formulation on tourism and its role in the society and economy must be rooted in due cognizance to the contribution of tourism in the development process and according its rightful place and position in the economic planning and programming. It is the largest service industry globally in terms of gross revenue as well as foreign exchange earnings. Tourism can play an important and effective role in achieving the growth with equity objectives, which we have set for ourselves. Tourism is one economic sector in India that has the potential to grow at a high rate and can ensure consequential development of the infrastructure at the destinations. It has the capacity to capitalize on the country’s success in the services sector and provide sustainable models of growth. Objectives of this paper to study: 1. Contribution of tourism sector to Indian Economy 2. Employment generation by tourism sector Methodology: Tourism sector’s contribution in creating a global a nd r egional socio- political environment for peaceful co-existence of the cultures and societies has been equally established at various levels. This realization took many advocators to position tourism as one of the biggest ‘peace industries’, a means to strike equilibrium of global peace process though development. Because, tour ism practiced in responsible and sustainable manner bring about the peace and prosperity of the people and that its stakeholders share benefits in fair manner, which is a necessary condition for the equilibrium of sharing to sustain. The appreciation of key role of tourism in development and global harmony is helpful in recent years. The U.N systems have been well on record about the growing significance SELP Journal of Social Science This paper mainly based on secondary data. The data’s are collected from Journals, various reports of Government and research institutes. Tourism sector and Indian economy: Tourism is an important mechanism in the socio-economic development in the modern times, contributing in various ways and strengthen the inter-connected processes. This sector often reveal as solution for many pr oblems such as under development, unemployment, poverty eradication, social discrimination, ill health and so on; its contribution in creating a global and regional socio-political environment for peaceful coexistence of the cultures and societies has been equally established at various levels. The travel and tourism industry has evolved 71 July -September 2013
  • 72. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 to become one of the largest and most dynamic industries of the global economy. A World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) study has estimated in 2010 that the contribution of travel and tourism to the world GDP was to the tune of 9%, whereas, its total employment effect was more than 235 million jobs, representing 8% of global employment. Table No 1 shows the total contribution of Travel and Tourism sector to the economic development, during 2011 and it might change in 2021. by Tourism Sector in the year 2002-03 total employment was 38.6 million, which was increased by 51.1million in 2006-07. This table clearly shows the Tourism sector playing vital r ole in Human r esour ce development thr ough employment generation. Conclusion: India has tr emendous potential for development of Tourism Diversity of India’s natural and cultural richness provided the basis for a wide range of Tourist products and experiences, which embraces business, leisure, culture, adventure, spirituality, ecotourism and many other pursuits. Tourism is important for economic development and Global solidarity. Different types of tourism are like eco-tourism, Rural Tourism, Medical Tour ism, Wellness Tourism and so on. Tourism has also become an instrument for sustainable human development in poverty elimination, Environmental regeneration, Job creation and advancement of women and other disadvantage groups. Employment generation and Tourism sector: Tourism sector is important factor in cr eating employment gener ation. If we consider employment generation in 2011, the sectors’ direct contribution worked out to be 5% and the total effects- direct and indirect together- to stand at 7.5% in the country’s total employment pie. Respective figures might rise to 5.2% and 8.1% by 2021 and such prospects need to be taken as an important indicator for concerted policy interventions and programming for tourism sector. Because, as already established, the sector has a key role to play in the eradication of poverty and under development by way of cr eating employment and income opportunities for millions of the marginal and less empowered sections across the country. References: · Kur ukshetra, Special Issue on Tour ism, A Jour nal O f Development, Ministr y of Development, Gover nment of Vol.60, No.7, May 2012 Table No 1: Employment Generation through Tourism in India (In Million) Year 38.6 2003-04** 41.8 2004-05** 44.7 2005-06** 47.8 2006-07** · Report of Indian Institute of travel & tourism management (IITTM) (2011), organization of Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, New Delhi Total Employment (in million) 2002-03* 51.1 · Repor t of Depar tment of Tour ism, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore · The Steering Committee On Tourism for the Eleventh Five-Year Pla n (20072012),Government of India, New Delhi Table 1 gives the employment generation SELP Journal of Social Science Rural Rur al Rur al India, 72 July -September 2013
  • 73. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 A STUDY ON AWARENESS OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS ABOUT THE WORLD THREATENING VIRAL DISEASES K.Vijaya Rani Assistant Professor B.Kamalakannan M.Ed Scholar, J.J. College Of Education, Trichy. ABSTRACT Viruses are a very common type of infectious disease. Many of the most common human diseases are viral. There are literally hundreds of types of viral conditions. Viruses are the smallest lifeform existing, since they are not even a single cell. It is almost like they are not alive at all. They are small strands of DNA-like cell material. A virus consists mostly of RNA and cannot survive without host cells. Key words: Infectious disease, Human diseases, DNA, Host Cells Introduction measures the numbers of different types of blood cells, including white blood cells (WBCs). Different types of WBCs increase in number in characteristic ways during an infectious process, such as viral infection. A culture test may also be performed. Common samples tested with a culture include those from the throat, blood, and sputum from the lungs. The sample of CSF is tested for white blood cells and other indications of viral infection that may be in the spine or brain, such as viral meningitis. It is possible that a diagnosis of viral infection can be missed or delayed because some symptoms, such as fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, are similar to symptoms of other diseases. A viral infection is any type of illness or disease caused by a virus, a type of microbe. Microbes are tiny organisms that cannot be seen without a micr oscope and include bacteria, fungi, and some parasites, as well as viruses. A viral infection occurs when a virus enters the body through such processes as breathing air contaminated with a virus, eating contaminated food, or by having sexual contact with a person who is infected with a virus. Common symptoms of a viral infection include fatigue, flu-like symptoms and fever. However, some people are at risk for developing serious complications of viral infection. There are many types of viruses that cause a wide variety of viral infections or viral diseases. The Epstein-Barr virus and the cytomegalovir us cause infectious mononucleosis. A complete blood count SELP Journal of Social Science Need For This Study Our environment is threatened due to many hazards .Viral, Bacterial, Fungal, are 73 July -September 2013
  • 74. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 on incr ease causing diseases of human populations which in turn results in many problems. Therefore, there is a great need to pr otect diseases pr eser ve our human population .The role of students would go a long way in achieving such a desired goals .Hence including an awareness of diseases among students is the r esponsibility of teachers and to carry out this noble task, the investigator has chosen this work. about world threatening viral diseases. 7. To find the significance of difference between Government & Aided students of XI standard with r egar d to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases. Hypotheses 1. T he level of Awar eness of higher secondar y students about wor ld threatening viral diseases is average. Statement Of the Problem 2. T he level of Awar eness of higher secondar y students about wor ld threatening viral diseases with regard to Gender is average. The problem of the study is stated as “A STUDY ON AWARENESS OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS’ ABOUT THE WORLD THREAT ENING VIRAL DISEASES”. 3. T he level of Awar eness of higher secondar y students about wor ld threatening viral diseases with regard to Locality is average Objectives 1. To find the level of Awareness among the higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases. 4. T he level of Awar eness of higher secondar y students about wor ld threatening viral diseases with regard to Types of Management is average. 2. To find the level of Awareness among the higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Gender. 5. There is no significant difference between Male & Female students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases. 3. To find the level of Awareness among higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Locality. 6. There is no significant difference between Urban & Rural students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases. 4. To find the level of Awareness among higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Types of Management. 7. There is no significant difference between Gover nment &Aided students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases. 5. To find the significance of difference between Male & Female students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases. Methodology Preparation of the Tool 6. To find the significance of difference between Rural & Urban students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness SELP Journal of Social Science T he inves tigator per used the tools available in the market. Some of the tools 74 July -September 2013
  • 75. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 are available for this “Awareness of Higher Secondary Students about World Threatening Viral Diseases”. However as the tools were standardized on a different population the investigator has decided to prepare and validate her own tool. A large percentage of higher secondary male & female students fall under average category of Awareness of world threatening viral diseases. Hypothesis 3 The investigator has planned to make use of The level of Awareness of higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Locality is average · Percentage Analysis Table 4.3 Awareness of higher secondary · Differential Analysis students about world threatening viral Statistical Techniques Used Hypothesis 1 diseases with regard to Locality T he level of Awar eness of higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases is average. Table - 4.1 Awareness of higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases A large percentage of higher secondary rural & urban students fall under average category of Awareness of world threatening viral diseases. Hypothesis 4 T he level of Awar eness of higher secondary students about world threatening vir al diseases with regar d to Types of Management is average. From the table, it is inferred that 45 % of higher secondar y students about wor ld threatening viral diseases is average. Hypothesis 2 Table 4.4 Awareness of higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Types of Management The level of Awar eness of higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Gender is average. Table4.2 Awareness of higher secondary students about world threatening viral diseases with regard to Gender A large percentage of higher secondary government & aided students fall under average category of Awareness of world threatening viral diseases. SELP Journal of Social Science 75 July -September 2013
  • 76. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 7 There is no significant difference between Urban & Rural students of XI standard with r egard to their Awar eness about world threatening viral diseases. There is no significant difference between Government &Aided students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases Table 4 .5 Difference between Urban & Rural students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness abo ut world threatening viral diseases Table 4.7 Difference between Government &Aided students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness about world threatening viral diseases As the calculated ‘t’ value 3.406 is greater than the table value 1.97 at 5% level of significance for degree of freedom 298, the stated hypothesis is rejected. As the calculated ‘t’ value 2.910 is greater than the table value 1.97 at 5% level of significance for degree of freedom 298, the stated hypothesis is rejected Findings 1. The Awareness of Higher Secondary Students about world threatening viral diseases is found to be average. Hypothesis6 There is no significant difference between Urban & Rural students of XI standard with r egard to their Awar eness about world threatening viral diseases. 2. The Awareness of higher Secondary Male & Female students abou t wor ld threatening viral diseases found to be average. Table 4.6 Difference between Urban & Rural students of XI standard with regard to their Awareness abo ut threatening viral diseases 3. The Awareness of Higher Secondary rural & urban students about world threatening viral diseases found to be average. world 4. T he Awar eness of higher secondar y government &aided students about world threatening viral diseases is found to be average. 5. It is found that female students (X= 22.93) are better than male students (x=20.72) with regard to Awareness about world threatening viral diseases. As the calculated ‘t’ value 1.575 is less than the table value 1.97 at 5% level of significance for degree of freedom 298, the stated hypothesis is accepted. SELP Journal of Social Science 6. It is found that urban students (X=22.46) 76 July -September 2013
  • 77. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 are better than rural; students (x=21.25) with r ega r d Awar eness about wor ld threatening viral diseases. Conclusion This process of viral infection results in a variety of symptoms that vary in character and severity depending on the type of viral infection and individual factors. National policy on education of 1986 stresses the importance of health education and lays down that it is very important to create disease awareness in all people’s right from a child to an old person, and disease awareness should spread all sections of the society. In the current context, it is very essen t i al for ea ch i n di vi dua l t o devel op awareness about profession and preservation of diseases. 7. It is found that Aided students (X= 23.27) ar e better than gover nment students (X=20.68) with regard awareness about world threatening viral diseases. Recommaendations Based on the findings and discussion, the investigator would like to recommend the following to develop disease awar eness among high school students. References 1. World health day should be celebrated in the schools by conducting competitions, processions etc. The winner should be awarded properly at the end of function. This will certainly increase the students’ participation and develop the disease awareness. 1. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. “The Universal Virus Database, versi on 4: Infl uen za A” . h t t p: / / www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/ 00.046.0.01.htm.  2. “Swine influenza”. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2008. ISBN 1442167424. http:// w w w. m e r c k v e t m a n u a l . c o m / m v m / i n d e x . j s p ? c fi l e = h t m / bc / 1 2 1 4 0 7 . h t m . Retrieved April 30, 2009. 3. Heinen PP (15 September 2003). “Swine influenza: a zoonosis”. Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow. ISSN 1569-0830. h t t p: / / www.vetscite.org/publish/articles/000041/ print.html. “Influenza B and C viruses are al most excl usivel y i sola ted from ma n, although influenza C virus has also been isolated from pigs and influenza B has recently been isolated from seals.”. 4. Bouvier NM, Palese P (September 2008). “The biology of influenza viruses”. Vaccine 26 Suppl 4: D49–53. PMID 19230160. 5. Kimura H, Abiko C, Peng G, et al. (April 1997). “Interspecies transmission of influenza C virus between humans and pigs”. Virus Research 48 (1): 71–9. doi:10.1016/S01681702(96)01427-X. PMID 9140195. 6. Thiel V (editor). (2007). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology (1st ed.). Ca ist er Aca demi c Pr ess. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-1-90445516-5]|978-1-904455-16-5]]]. h t t p: / / www.horizonpress.com/cor.  2. Teacher should insist the students to keep the disease information waste separately. This sort of action will increase the knowledge related to disease awareness. 3. Environment clubs and Eco Clubs should be established in the schools. These clubs should organize exhibitions regarding disease awareness. All the students should be invited to present their articles, things in the exhibition. 4. Health club should have close contact with the social welfare agencies like NGO, Lions Club and conduct Disease awareness programme to the public in general and students in particular. 5. Seminar, debates, group discussion and essay competitions on ill effects of disease may be conducted in schools. 6. Health education should b ecome an integral part of science education. SELP Journal of Social Science 77 July -September 2013
  • 78. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ON INHABITANTS OF WESTERN GHATS WITH REFERNCE TO TAMILNADU Dr. M. Nazer, Associate Professor & Ph. D. Research Advisor, PG & Research Department of Commerce, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam, Thanjavur District - 614 701. MS. Mariam Jenabhar Guest Lecturer & Ph.D Research Scholar, Department of Business Administration, Alagappa Govt. Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivagangai District- 630 003. ABSTRACT The study is an exploratory study that focuses on various reports and secondary data gathered on socio economic conditions of inhabitants living in western Ghats. The social parameters that are analysed are ‘Education’, ‘Living standard’, ‘Health care’, ‘ Safety’, ‘ Crime rate’ and ‘ Political involvement’. The economic factors analysed were ‘Wage and salary’ , ‘ Wealth and Property’, ‘ Savings and Investments’, ‘ Loans and borrowings’ and ‘ Welfare schemes by governments’. The study was able to gather socio economic issues and problems and also various means through which the issues could be addressed. The study would contribute to any welfare planning for the inhabitants of western Ghats forest in Tamilnadu. Keywords : Living standard, Health care, Safety, Crime rate, Political involvement. Introduction amphibians and 67% of fish species are endemic to this region. The region has a spectacular assemblage of large mammals around 30% of the world’s Asian elephant (Elephas maximus ) population and 17% of the world’s existing tigers (Panthera tigris) call this area their home. Protection for these is extended thr ough sever al nationally significant wildlife sanctuar ies, tiger reserves, and national parks. The Western Ghats include a diversity of ecosystems ranging from tropical wet evergreen forests to montane grasslands containing numerous The positioning makes the Western Ghats biologically rich and biogeographically unique - a ver itable tr easur e house of biodiversity. Though covering an area of 180,000 square kilometres, or just under 6% of the land area of India, the Western Ghats contain more than 30% of all plant, fish, herpeto-fauna, bird, and mammal species found in India. Many species are endemic, such as the N ilgir i tahr (Hemitr agus hylocrius) and the Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), in fact 50% of India’s SELP Journal of Social Science 78 July -September 2013
  • 79. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 medicinal plants and important genetic resources such as the wild relatives of grains, fruit and spices. of Karnataka. They are agriculturist living on farm lands located at the outskirts of towns that are sandwiched between the Western Ghats on the east and the expanse of the Arabian sea to the west. 75,000 Halakkis live in Koppas under direct control of their community heads. Tribes in western ghats The profiles of some of the major tribes of the Western Ghats are as follows: The Tribes of the Nilgiris: Before the British opened up the high pastures of the Nilgiris in 1818 to the western civilisation, they were the preserve of four tribes: The Kotas, who gave their name to Kotagiri, made tools and music; the Badagas, who cultivated the land, the forest dwelling Kurumbas who collected honey and wood and also performed sorcery; and the Todas, who with their herds of sacred buffalo, provided milk and ghee. The Siddis: T he Siddis ar e the descendants of African Negroes, who were brought to India mainly by Ar abs, the Portugese and the Dutch. They are chiefly found in the for est ar eas of Ankola, Mundgod, Haliyal and Yellapur taluks. Tribals of Wayanad : Wayanad district is predominently a tribal district and the major tribes are : Paniya, Adiya, Kuruchiya, Kathinayaka and Kuruma tribes. The Paniya, a major tribal community in Kerala live in the hills of Wayanad. The headman of Paniya settlement is called Kuttan, and the head of the family is Mudali. The Paniya priest Chemmi wields authority over a group of settlements. The Todas : The Todas have unique traditions revolving around their buffalo and their temples, which are dairies. Unlike their neighbours on the plains, in feature or build, they are tall athletic and well-proportion built and variously described as being Italian, Mesopotamean, Arabic or Jewish origin. Today there are about 60 Toda settlements around Ooty. The Adiyas: The slave tribes and the community is divided into subgroups called the mandu. The headman of the Mandu is called Peruman. The Soligas: T he for est r egions of Yelandur, Chamarajnagar, Nanjangud and Kollegal which include Biligiri Rangaswamy and Malai Mahadeshwara hill ranges in the southern part of Karnataka are inhabited by nearly 20,000 indigenous people called Soligas. The Soligas have co-existed with the forest for centuries in quiet harmony. Though primarily semi-nomadic, in recent years with the imposition of forest regulations, the Soligas have taken to more or less sedentary existence in small forest villages called podus or doddi or hadi. The Kattunayakans: This is a primitive tribe and the Kattunayakans literally live in jungles and are mainly engaged In collecting forest produce and honey. They do not mingle with other tribes. The headman is called Muthan whose decisions are always final. The Kuruchiyans: The Kuruchiyans are an agricultural tribal community and they are excellent archers who joined Pazhassi Raja in fight against British. They live in small though clean houses and do not encourage drinking alcohol except on festive occasions. Halakki Vokkals: They are confined to the coastal talukas of Uttara Kannada district SELP Journal of Social Science The Kuruma: The Kuruma tribals are 79 July -September 2013
  • 80. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 supposed to be the original inhabitants of Wayanad. They are also good archers and had joined Pazhassi Raja in his fight against the British. Social conditions of Tribes in western ghats- Tamilnadu The tribal people’s lives in Tamilnadu get shattered by a nexus of police, the forest department,politicians and smugglers. Their basic human rights are cynically violated. Despite being protected by law against encr oachment into tr ibal ar eas, land alienation is increasingly becoming an issue in tribal areas. Their right to preserve and enjoy their cultural heritage in harmony with nature is severely threatened by the process of modernization and economic growth. “There are 36 Tribes and the population as per 1991 Census is 5.74 lakhs, representing 1.03% of the Tamil population...” The major tribes in Tamilnadu are Malayali, Toda, kurumba, Paniya, Irular, Kattunayakkan, Kani, Palliyan, Sholagar, Kadar and Veddar. Most of the tribal communities are small in size and the exceptions are Malaiali and Irular tribes. Majority of the tribal population in Tamilnadu live in hilly ranges viz., Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats and the discontinuous hill tracts adjoining the plains and the hills. T hese tr ibals live in for ests. Ir ular in Kancheepuram and Tiruvallur districts form an exception to this general trend and are found to live in the plains. The basic human rights of tribals in Tamilnadu are cynically violated. Land alienation is increasingly becoming a major issue in tribal ar eas (Tamilnadu Social Development Report 2000). The literacy levels of Tribals VS Non Tribals in tamilnadu were recorded and pr ojected as ST : 1971 ( 9.02%) , 1981(20.46%), 1991 (23.35) 2001 ( 26%) and 2011(30 %). Non SC/ST : 1971 ( 43.58%) , 1981(51.01%), 1991 (58.27) 2001 ( 65%) and 2011(72 %). Women ST : The proportion of people classified as scheduled tribes is less than 5% in the four biodiversity rich states viz Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. In fact the population classified as scheduled tribes in the states of Goa, Tamil Nadu and Kerala is hardly 1%. Bhils are considered to be amongst the oldest settlers in the country. They derive their name from the Dravidian word Billu, which means bow. Bhils are thus seen with bow and arrow which is their traditional weapon. They live in isolation, go for hunting, fishing, practice shifting cultivation and have escaped to a large extent the influence of Brahmania (upper caste) culture. Warli Tribe has become famous because of their traditional folk painting art. The Warlis are mainly residents of Thane district of Maharashtra spread out in the villages of Dahanu, Talasari, Mokhada, Vada, Palghara and extends up to the Gujarat border. Two groups of tribes, Muthuvans and Hill Pulayas, inhabit the sanctuary in 11 hamlets or kudies. The life world of the two tribal communities are very different. The Sanctuary provides the livelihood options for the tribes and helps in maintaining their cultur al heritage. All along the Western Ghats in five states, there are lakhs of tribal people who have made their homes in the ghats. The Thodas of Nilgiris, Soligas of BR Hills, Malekudiyas of Belthangady, Halakki Vokkals of Uttara Kannada, the Sidhis of Kumta, Paniyas of Waynad, Kattuna yakans of Malabar a nd many other s in Goa and Maharashtra are some of them. SELP Journal of Social Science 80 July -September 2013
  • 81. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 conservation, which allows communities to share the benefits. A World Bank study found that the total forest income from Joint Forest Management areas from commercial timber, bamboo and non timber forest products could rise from US$ 222 million in 2004 to US$ 2 billion in 2020. India is likely to face severe imbalances in supply and demand of wood due to inadequate supply of wood from domestic sources. The small holders can play a major role in providing sustainable wood and non wood forest products, if suitable incentives ar e ensur ed. In this regard, promotion of forest certification is relevant. 1971 ( 4.48%) , 1981(14%), 1991 (16.94) 2001 ( 19%) and 2011(22.5 %).Non-SC/ST women : 1971 (30.47%) , 1981(39.04 %), 1991 ( 48.57%) , 2001 (56%) and 2011(64%). The health care facilities and sanitation level of Tribes could be indexed as 1971( 14%), 1981(19%), 1991 ( 23%), 2001(28%) and 2011 (35%). The safety level of Tribes could be indexed as 1971( 20%), 1981(27%), 1991 (33%), 2001(39%) and 2011 (45%). The crime rate among Tribes could be indexed as 1971( 12% ), 1981(14%), 19 91 (12%), 2001(15%) and 2011 (14%). The political powers of Tribes could be indexed as 1971 ( 6 %), 1981(11%), 1991 (17%), 2001(23%) and 2011 (35%). In the Kotagiri area, there have also been changes in the rituals carried out during resin har vest a nd in who was tr aditionally permitted to harvest resin. For example, the Kurumbas related that in the past it was only the priest—after keeping himself ritually clean for a period of time—who started the resin harvest rituals, and only he was allowed to harvest the resin. However, this is no longer the case today.The grades of resin produced by the different villages varied greatly There are many positive changes in the lifestyle, customs, culture and practices of Tribes. The cultural diffusion and reach of media, education, cultural exchanges and also legal regulations have forced the tribes to change and restructure their norms, customs and traditional practices. Economic value of forest produces of western Ghats in Tamilnadu Western ghats has been the rich source of bio diversity. The forest area is suitable for many plantations like Rubber,Tea, Coffee(Coorg), Bamboo, Ba nana and Eucalyptus. The timber obtained from various trees has been a dominant contributor of economic contribution of western Ghats. Medicinal herbs and trees are abundant in western ghats and the value of these medicinal plants has been very good. More than 200 million people are directly dependant on forests for their livelihoods. The Indian government’s national forest policy supports the promotion of a community based forest management appr oach (C BFM) for SELP Journal of Social Science T he major issues in economic contribution of western ghats are 1. Over exploitation of natural resources 2. Not able to avoid procurement losses 3. Poor storage and pr ocessing facilities 4 . Lack of infr astr uctur e 5. Lack of professional management 6. Cor r uption and legal violations 7.Inability to monitor efficiently 8. Exploitation by agents and middlemen 9. Not much value addition done in the product, in most cases marketed in raw form and 10. Lack of integrated planning. The natural calamities and inability to preserve the valuables often impact the summated economic value of produces in 81 July -September 2013
  • 82. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 western Ghats. Rainfall, floods, erosion and landslide were able to affect the quantity and quality of natural resources. Inability to maintain bio diversity and also inability to plan a sustainable strategy with an assurance for bio diversity were costly and were able to influence the economic value of western Ghats. Number of days of wage employment and wage-rates for various wage activities were provided by the household members. The wage and salary were recorded and pr ojected as ST : 1971 ( 14.5%) , 1981(17%), 1991 (23%) 2001 ( 26%) and 2011(32 %). Non SC/ST : 1971 ( 16.5%) , 1981(21 %), 1991 (27%) 2001 ( 33 %) and 2011 (37 %). The savings were recorded and projected as ST : 1971 (2.5%) , 1981(4.0%), 1991 (6 %) 2001 (7.5 %) and 2011(8.5 %). Non SC/ST : 1971 ( 3.5%) 1981(6 %), 1991 (9%) 2001 ( 11.5 %) and 2011 (15%). The investments made, mostly on lending, gold, land, animals and tools and Food gr ains. T he var ious investments made by them shall be recorded as ST : 1971 ( 1%) , 1981(2%), 1991 (3.5%) 2001 (6%) and 2011(7.5%). Non SC/ST : 1971 ( 3%) , 1981(6.5 %), 1991 (9%) 2001 ( 12.5 %) and 2011 (15 %). The property and wealth are in many cases land, homes, animals, machinery, Gold, vehicles, etc. The property and wealth recorded as ST : 1971 ( 100 %) , 1981(85.5%), 1991 (75%) 2001 ( 80 %) and 2011(70 %). Non SC/ST : 1971 ( 100%) , 1981(95 %), 1991 (105%) 2001 ( 120 %) and 2011 (115 %).The effectiveness of welfare schemes by state and central government are recorded as ST : 1971 ( 10 %) , 1981(15%), 1991 (18%) 2001 ( 22 %) and 2011(26 %). Non SC/ST : 1971 ( 4%) , 1981(6 %), 1991 (9%) 2001 ( 12%) and 2011 (14 %). It could be noted that the economic situations and also investment options for the tribes ar e very narrow. However the migrants from these areas to various other parts of state and also the people who come to towns and cities for education were able to contribute to the development of the tribes and the area they stay. Economic status of Household tribals of western Ghats in Tamilnadu There are 3 to 4 lakhs of Tribal people directly depend on western ghats in tamilnadu. Plantation activities, Honey collection and other Non timber produces from the forest. The living standards of these dependents has been improving for the past 3 decades. There are many initiatives taken to safeguard the income and living conditions of these people. Poor infrastructure and lack of marketing suppor t ha ve affected their financial prosperity. Many schemes don’t reach them because of poor implement ation and prevailing corruption in large scale. Information on NWFP collection, selling and prices was obtained from households. Income f r om commer cial N WFPs was calculated at the prices offered by the LAMPS to collectors. Income for subsistence NWFPs was based on surrogate prices, where values were infer red from prices of alternative closely-related goods. For wild tubers and greens, prices of their nearest substitutes were considered for valuation; thus the price of wild tubers was based on the price of potato or sweet potato at the local market, and that of greens on that of traded greens such as Amaranthus. Income from shoots, fuelwood and fish was computed from the local market pr ice. L abour ear nings f r om wage employment were calculated by multiplying the number of days worked by the wage rate. SELP Journal of Social Science 82 July -September 2013
  • 83. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 on Methods for Social Science Research on NonTimber Forest Product s’, May 18 -20, 199 2, Bangkok,Thailand. Conclusion and recommendations The study recommends integrated plan by the state and central government in ensuring basic facilities, infrastructure, safety, Income, better lifestyle and culture. The various schemes announced by the government is not reaching the deserved tribes. The marketing of forest produces would ensure better income and elimination of middlemen and no value added middlemen would ensur e better profirability. The prevention against natural calamities has to be given at most importance. Development in the field of education, healthcare, safety, information sharing, cultur al interactions, involvement and inclusion in the policy making regarding forest development would ensure better socio economic conditions for the inhabitants. Many storage and processing units shall be arranged to ensure employment opportunities in those areas. Improvement in the infrastructure facilities like Telecommunication, Electricity, Roads, Hospitals, Educational Institutions and Banks would improve the socio economic conditions of the tribes staying in the area. Most of the government records, ration cards, Community cer tificates and other authorization of identity and community is missing in many areas. Government should ensure proper distribution of such essential identities. Toursim development, Power generation and a forestation efforts should be restricted. Minimum living conditions should be given. Employability tr aining and improvement in education should be given to everyone, especially women. The tribes should be brought in to governance also. · · · Belcher, B.M., (2003) ‘International Forestry Review’, 5(2), 65p. · Centre for In dian Stu dies, ‘ Interdisciplinary conference’, Mysore, India, and 17–19 October 2003 Chakravarty, & Verma, R. (1991), ‘Marketing of minor forest products in tribal · · sub-plan area through co-operatives in Rajastan’, In dian Jou rnal of Agricu ltural economics,71(282):311-320 · DFID (Department for International Development), (2007). Securing livelihoods in India’s tribal areas. · Ganapathy, M. S. (1998 ) , ‘ C ollection and marketing of non_timber forest products –A study in Kollegal taluk of Karnataka.’, MSc thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore. · Gubbi, & Macmillan, (2008), ‘ Can non-timber forest products solve livelihood problems? A case study from Periyar Tiger Reserve India-Wildlife Conservation Society-India program’, Centre for Wildlife Studies, 1669, 31st Cross, 16th Main, Banashankari 2nd Stage, Bengalooru 560 082, India and Durrell Institute ofConservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NR, Kent, UK. · Manjula., (1991), ‘Participation of tribal women in agriculture’, M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, TNAU, Coimbatore. · Martin, A. (1999), ‘Background to Western Ghats of Karnataka’, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, Ministry of Stat istics and Program me Implementation, Government of India, 2008 – Available at http://www.indiastat.com/ Mishra, S. (2007), ‘Household livelihood and coping mechanism during drought among Oraon Tribe of Sundargarh District of Orissa’, India J. Soc. Sci., 15(2): 181-186. · Abeygunawardena, P & wikramasinghe,A. (1992), ‘An Economic evaluation of non-timber products of Hantana Forest, paper presented at the Workshop SELP Journal of Social Science Arnold, J.E.M. & Perez, M.R. (2001), ‘ Can nontimber forest produ cts match tropical forest conservat ion and developmen t objectives? Ecological Economics 39 (3):437-447. · References · Alibaba, Md: Subba rao, D.V., & Vasudev, n. (2000), ‘Economics of minor forest products in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh)’, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics,55(3): 451-452. Anonymous, (1985). ‘Tarzan of Keralai primeral forests’, Indian Express, 53 (314). 83 July -September 2013
  • 84. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF FINANCIAL INCLUSION IN PUDUCHERRY V. Ganeshkumar, Ph. D Full Time Research Scholars Dr. C. Paramasivan, Assistant Professor & Research Supervisor PG & Research Department of Commerce, Periyar E. V. R. College, Trichy – 23, Tamil Nadu ABSTRACT Every man needs certain amount of money to meet their requirements and in some cases; men need money to meet his basic needs life food, shelter, cloth etc. This is the basic concept of the human begins to earn up to the maximum level and save up to sufficient level. In this regards banking industries performed well and concentrated in all the walk of human beings. In India, banking sector have an old age concept and involve long evolutionally history since 1850’s. Now it has diversified into commercial banks, development banks, investment banks etc. Commercial banks are well known institutions which are closely associated with the soc io-economic development of the nation. In this regard, Financial Inclusion play a key role in the field of rural development and how it can be implemented effectively through Indian Bank in the selected district is study in this research. This study focus on operational efficiency of financial inclusion in Puducherry Key words: Inclusive growth, Financial inclusion, Borrowers, Banking services. families find it more difficult to save and to plan financially for the future. Thus, the unbaked public is largely cut off from the Banking products/services. It is the endeavor of the Bank to provide the basic banking facility of SB a/c’s to all the unbanked. Introduction Financial inclusion is an innovative concept which makes alternative techniques to promote the banking habits of the rural people because, India is considered as largest rural people consist in the world. Financial inclusion is aimed at providing banking and financial services to all people in a fair, tr anspar ent and equitable manner at affordable cost. Households with low income often lack access to bank account and have to spend time and money for multiple visits to avail the banking services, be it opening a savings bank account or availing a loan. These SELP Journal of Social Science Statement of the Problem Social & Economic position, low-income people normally do not feel the need to bank as the transaction carried out by them is mostly in cash that too with low amount. Secondly, many times people do not want to disclose the information which would be required for accessing any financial service. 84 July -September 2013
  • 85. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Thirdly, poor people, mostly, do not have any identification/introduction, which is accepted by banks to open an account (or) access other financial ser vices. Four thly, lack of understanding of financial services and the oper ations to be car r ied out is also a hindrance. Fifthly, poor people do not have much absorptive capacity for all the financial services. Need for different financial services. Finally, the spread of customers is very thin which makes the operation of reaching out to them a costly affair. Sampling Design There are 23 Public Sector Banks, 13 Private Sector Banks, 1 Co-operative Banks, and 1 Regional Rural Banks in operation in Puducherry as on March 2012. In order to collect primary data for the purpose of the study, multi-stage sampling technique is adapted. At the first stage, 7 banks which outnumber in number of branches were selected out of the 38 banks. In the second stage, 5 per cent of the branches i.e 125 branches were selected out of the 7 selected banks. In the final stages, from each of the branch 80 no frill accounts holders were selected on the purposive basis. Therefore, the sample size consists of 500 respondents, of the following table shows the sampling distribution of the present study. Objectives 1. To identity the financial inclusion on purpose of opening account in Puducherry Hypotheses 1. There is no significant relationship among the r espondents of differ ent socio economic profile to level of interest in local financial services. Period of study The primary data required for the study was collected dur ing the month of December-2012 from no frill account holders in the Puducherry. 2. There is no significant relationship among the respondents belongs to different socioeconomic pr ofile to under banking services. Table 1: Gender Vs of Household Accounts Ho: there is no relationship between gender and household accounts of the respondents and financial services related Methodology This study is an empirical one. The data and other information required for the study wer e collected fr om both pr imar y and secondar y sour ces. Pr imar y data wer e collected from the no frill account holders directly, using a structured interview schedule and the secondary data were collected from various sources of books, journal, articles, magazines and related web sites information from retailers Other information pertinent to the study has been collected by means of inter views and discussions with the Gover nment officials and Indian Bank Journals Office. SELP Journal of Social Science Source: Primary Data. (2012). Household Account between Genders The calculated chi square value is (71.616) greater than the table value (11.341) at 1 per 85 July -September 2013
  • 86. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 cent level of significance, t he test is signification; Therefore, there is significant relationship between different household accounts which gender used in Puducherry. Therefore, the null hypothesis is (Ho1) rejected. There, the male respondents are highly in number of house holder s in Puducherry. Table 2: Age Vs of Household Account Source: Primary Data. (2012). Ho: There is no relationship between age and household account of the respondents and financial service related Household Accounts between Marital Statuses Source: Primary Data. (2012). The calculated chi square value is (33.859) greater than the table value (21. 666) at 1 per cent level of significance, Further, there is significant relationship between different marital status with household accounts used in Puducherry. Therefore, the null hypothesis is (Ho1) rejected. Therefore, the married respondents are highly in number of house holders in Puducherry. Household Account between Ages Table 4: Occupation Vs of Household Accounts Ho: there is no relationship between occupation and household accounts of the respondents with related factors. T he calcu lated chi squar e value is (161.441) gr eater than the table value (21.666) at 1 per cent level of significance, therefore, there is significance relationship between different household account with age used in Puducherry. Therefore, the null hypothesis is (Ho1) rejected. Therefore, the 41 above respondents are highly in number of house holders in Puducherry. Table 3: Marital Status Vs of Household Accounts Ho: there is no relationship between marital status and household accounts of the respondents and financial services related factors. SELP Journal of Social Science Source: Primary Data. (2012). 86 July -September 2013
  • 87. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Household Account between Occupations qualification with household accounts used in Puducherry. Therefore, the null hypothesis is (Ho1) rejected. Therefore, the education respondents are highly in number of house holders in Puducherry. The calculated chi square value is (99.942) greater than the table value (21.666) at 1 per cent level of significance, Therefore, there is significance relationship between different occupation with household accounts used in Puducherry. Therefore, the null hypothesis is (Ho1) rejected. Therefore, the occupation respondents are highly in number of house holders in Puducherry. Findings 1. A significant relationship is found among the no of account your household of the respondents of gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, in financial service in Puducher r y ther efor e, the null hypothesis is (H01) rejected. Table 5: Qualification Vs of Household Accounts 2. A significant relationship is calculated among the no of accounts your household of the respondents of annual income, in financial service in Puducherry therefore, the null hypothesis is (H02) accepted. Ho: There is no relationship between qualification and household accounts of the respondents and financial service related factors. Suggestions 1. Banks will have to take steps to reduce the legal procedure and insistence of collateral while lending to increase the number of customers. 2. Building customer awar eness and informing the public on use of M-banking modes is required. 3. Bank should enhance their r efund facilities concerns to if wrong transactions made by customers by mistake or if any. Source: Primary Data. (2012). Household Qualifications Accounts 4. The banks may adopt a policy of assessing the genuine r equir ements of socially excluded group and cover all the needs of small and petty borrowers instead of providing a single loan only. between The calculated chi square value is (139.21) greater than the table value (30.578) at 1per cent level of significance, Therefore, there is significant relationship between different SELP Journal of Social Science 5. Banks should leverage technology to the maximum to introduce the new account holders to use and transact the accounts more and save more. 87 July -September 2013
  • 88. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Financial Inclusion with an Indian perspective”, Industrial Development Bank of India, pp -1-10. Conclusion Puducher r y is successful financial inclusion, the banks need to pay attention on the following: The rural branches of the banks may be equipped with motivated and trained staff having some mar keting skill and knowledge on appraisal of small loan After opening ‘no frills’ account, proper measures may be made to organise them into groups for inculcating the habit of thrift which will ultimately enable them to avail cr edit facilities. Utilise the services of MFI, NGOs, SHGs, Bu siness Facilita tor s and Correspondents, etc. to extend the financial inclusion with reasonable cost. 2. Goodwin. D Adelman. L Middleton. S and Ashworth. K. (2000). “Debt, Money Management and Access to Financial Services: Evidence from the 1999 PSE Survey of Britain”, Entre for Research in social policy, Lough borough University. 3. La Francophonie. (2011). “The G20 and Financial Inclusion”, Commonwealth Secretariat, pp 1-30. 4. Mihasonirina Andrianaivo and Kangni Kpodar. (2011). “ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Gr owth: Evidence fr om Afr ican Countries”, International Monetary Fund, pp 1-46. Reference 1. Amol Agrawal. (2008). “The need for SELP AWARD Scientist and academicians with outstanding contribution in their academic and social service fields are honoured by the trust by confirming them awards on the recommendation of the experts. Resume should be submitted to the president of the trust in the concerned application forms. SELP- Young Social Scientist Award Academician and researchers in the field of social sciences below the age of 40 are motivated in their field. SELP - Best Faculty Award To motivate the college teachers belong to the social sciences subject with the age of below 35 years are eligible to apply. Ambethkar Social Service Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of upliftment of weaker sections are eligible to apply. Periyar Social Reformer Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of inter caste marriage, abolition of caste and religions are eligible to apply. SELP Journal of Social Science 88 July -September 2013
  • 89. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 WORD OF MOUTH COMMUNICATION WITHIN ONLINESHOPING COMMUNITIES P.Murali, Research Scholar, Research Department of Business Administration, Rajah Serfoji Government College(Autonomous), Thanjavur-613 005 ABSTRACT The word of mouth (WOM) industry is experiencing massive growth—since 2004 the Word of Mouth Marketing Association (WOMMA) has grown from 3 to 350 corporate members (WOMMA, 2007). This growth is particularly evident in online and social networking media. Research estimates that while 90% of WOM conversations take place offline (Keller & Berry, 2006), just 15% of consumers account f or one third of WOM conversat ions i n Ame rica, and those “Conversation Catalysts” rely heavily on the Internet as a resource for the information they pass along to their family and friends. Key words: word of mouth, consumer interactions, Conversation Catalysts. Introduction conceptualization of online social networks which takes the Web site into account as an actor, an initial exploration of the concept of a consumer–Web site relationship, and a conceptual model of the online interaction and information evaluation process. Word of mouth (WOM) communication is a major part of online consumer interactions, particularly within the environment of online communities. Nevertheless, existing (offline) theory may be inappropriate to describe online WOM and its influence on evaluation and purchase.The authors report the results of a two-stage study aimed at investigating online WOM: a set of in-depth qualitative interviews followed by a social network analysis of a single online community. Combined, the r esults pr ovide str ong evidence that individuals behave as if Web sites themselves are primary “actors” in online social networ ks and that online communities can act as a social proxy for individual identification. The authors offer a SELP Journal of Social Science Existing interpersonal communication theories may be inappropriate to describe online WOM behavior, since they have tended to focus on face-to-face interaction in which the communicators are in close proximity and can draw upon a wealth of social context cues. However, resear ch focusing on the socialemotional nature of computer-mediated communication (e.g., Lea & Spears, 1995), based on principles in social cognition and interpersonal relationship 89 July -September 2013
  • 90. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 forum that share knowledge and experiences of a musical instrument, or readers of and contributors to an online bulletin board devoted to a particular novelist. development from social psychology, suggest that given enough time, individuals can create fully formed impressions of others based solely on the linguistic content of written electronic messages. It is imperative that marketers understand how these impressions affect the assessment and use of WOM information about products, brands, and firms, and consequential consumer behavior both online and offline. Conceptual Foundations Word of Mouth Communication WOM is a consumer-dominated channel of mar keting communication where the sender is independent of the market. It is therefore perceived to be more reliable, credible, and trustworthy by consumers compared to firm-initiated communications (Schiffman & Kanuk, 1995. Traditional communications theory considers WOM as having a powerful influence on behavior, especially on consumers’ information search, evaluation, and subsequent decision making (Cox, 1963; Brown & Reingen, 1987; Money, Gilly, & Graham, 1998; G. Silverman, 2001). It provides information concerning product performance and the social and psychological consequences of the purchase decision (Cox, 1963). Offline, WOM can convert lower order cognition and affect into higher order cognition and effect, subsequently leading to committed behaviors (Bristor, 1990). It is the credibility of WOM that, when combined with the premise that a receiver will be more involved in a WOM exchange than in an advertisement, lends itself to the formation of such higher order beliefs and cognitions. Through multiple exchanges, one WOM message can reach and potentially influence many receivers (Lau & Ng, 2001). The outcome of the interpersonal exchanges are provision of, and/or access to, consumptionr elated infor mation that holds some “informational value” over and above the formal advertising messages provided by the company and that holds influence over the individual’s decision making. Both scholar s and pr actit ioner s of marketing are particularly interested in WOM communication behavior in the context of online communities becaus e of the extr aor dinar y popular ity, gr owth, and influence of such communities. For instance, accor ding to ComScor e Media Metr ix, MySpace boasts more than 100 million member profiles, the site registers 13 million hits per day, and more than 3 million artists and bands use it to promote albums and engage fans. Google Inc. recently agreed to provide at least $900 million in advertising revenue over 31 2– years to News Corp. for the right to broker advertising that appears on MySpace and other sites (Vara, 2006). Online communities form when enough people ca r r y on computer- mediated nonprivate discussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, to develop what are considered “social relationships” with other online participants (Rheingold, 1993). These communities are fluid and flexible, and may be based on a wide range of cultural interests and social affiliations. Consumption-related online communities are those networks of people whose online interactions are based upon shared enthusiasm for, and knowledge of, a specific consumption activity or related gr oup of a ctivities (Kozinet s, 1999). Examples include members of an online SELP Journal of Social Science 90 July -September 2013
  • 91. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 relationship. The analysis now moves to an examination of the type of relationships exhibited in this study and is based on Fournier ’s (1998) typology of consumerbrand relationships. Tie Strength Little attention has been paid to the impact of social structures on WOM transmission or its relational form (e.g., Brown & Reingen, 1987; Anderson, 1998; Bansal & Voyer, 2000). Yet the properties of the linkage between pairs of communicators that exist independently of specific contents ar e critical to an understanding of the process of WOM (Knoke & Kuklinski, 1982; Brown & Reingen, 1987). All WOM communication takes place within a social relationship that may be categorized according to the closeness of the relationship between information seeker and the source, represented by the construct tie strength (Money, Gilly, & Graham, 1998; Duhan, Johnson, Wilcox, & Harrel, 1997; Bristor, 1990). Tie strength is “a multidimensional construct that represents the strength of the dyadic interpersonal relationships in the context of social networks” (Money, Gilly, & Graham, 1998, p.79) and includes closeness, intimacy, support, and association (Frenzen & Davis, 1990). T her e ar e two br oad categor ies of relationship presented: the “formal” or “functional” r elationships , and the “personal” or “emotional” relationships. Consumers have formal relationships with online communities/ Web sites that are visited purely to meet informational needs. Conclusion Customer Service is not a cost but an opportunity. An opportunity to cor rect product faults in the consumer’s mind. An opportunity to identify new features for our product. Most importantly, an opportunity to find new sales leads. Research in marketing is currently in an embryonic state regarding the electronic marketplace, both in terms of how consumers interact with each other online and how firms can utilize the Internet to drive value creation activities. Of central concern to marketers is the exploration of the consumer experience and attitudes to interaction within online communities. Online consumers are more active and discerning, are more accessible to one-on-one processes, and can provide a wealth of valuable cultural and marketing information that enables consumers to have a major hand in both the design of products themselves and the attachment of sociocultural symbolism or “meaning” to those products. WOM has a greater impact on product judgments, attitude formation, and decision making than formal marketing communications (e.g., Herr, Kardes & Kim, 1991; Bone, 1995). The strength of the tie may range from strong to weak depending on the number and types of r esour ces they exchange, the frequency of exchanges, and the intimacy of the exchanges between them (Marsden & Campbell, 1984). Strong ties are characterized by “(a) a sense that the relationship is intimate and special, with a voluntary investment in the tie and a desire for companionship with the par tner ; (b) an inter est in frequent interactions in multiple contexts; and (c) a sense of mutuality of the relationship, with the partner ’s needs known and supported” (Walker, Wasserman, & Wellman, 1994, p.57). Consumer–Web Site Relationship The above findings present evidence of the concept of a consumer –Web site SELP Journal of Social Science 91 July -September 2013
  • 92. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Wood & S. Duck (Eds.), Under-Studied Relationships: Off the Beaten Track (pp. 197–233). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Marketers should be aware of the risks involved in attempting to influence online WOM—dialogue should be open, honest, and authentic, or marketers risk a costly backlash. Cillit Bang created a fictional character that posted a comment to a blogger’s story about his reconciliation with his father after a 30year sepa r ation that cont ained an adver tisement for bleach, pr ompting a massive wave of negative publicity both online and offline. Vara, V. (2006). MySpace, ByeSpace? Some Users Renounce Social Sites as Too Big. Wall Street Journal, 26 October, B1. Rheingold, H. (1993). T he Vir tual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing. Kozinets, R. V. (1999). E-tribalised Marketing? The Strategic Implications of Vir tual C ommunities of Consumption. European Management Journal, 17, 252–64. Reference WOMMA (2007). Press Release: Word of Mouth MarketingIs Here to Stay: WOMMA Reaches Membership Milestone, Looks Forward to Industry Gr owth. Retrieved February 15, 2007, from http://www.womma. org/news/008905.php Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (1995). Consumer Behavior, 9th Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Cox, D. F. (1963). The Audiences as Communicators. In S. A. Greyser (Ed.), Proceedings, American Marketing Keller, E., & Berry, J. (2006). Word-ofMouth: T he Real Action is Offline. Advertising Age, 77, 20. Association, December (pp. 58–72). Chicago: American Marketing Association. Lea, R., & Spears, M. (1995). Love at First Byte? Building Personal Relationships over Computer Networks. In J. T. NEWS AND EVENTS  You may send information which you want to share witall.  If your institution is going to organize or had organized a Conference, Workshop or Symposia related to Social Sciences (Commerce, Economics, Management, also)  If you have written a book and want it to be reviewed, Please send a copy to us. It will be reviewed in SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE.  This journal is a platform for the Social Scientist and explore the knowledge in thne field of Social Science, through research, innovative concept frame work, new idiology and the current trends.  Frame News of the event and send us in E-mail : sjss.selp@yahoo.in SELP Journal of Social Science 92 July -September 2013
  • 93. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 A STUDY ON EVALUTION OF EMPLOYEE TRAINING NEEDS IN WEB HOSTING COMPANIES IN COIMBATORE Vasanth.D M.Phil Research scholar G.Siva Kumar Assistant Professor SNR IMS, SNR Sons College,Coimbatore. ABSTRACT The analysis of training needs is not a task for specialists alone. Managers today are often responsible for many forms of people management, including the training and development of their team, and should therefore have an understanding of training needs analysis and be able to implement it successfully. Effective TNA involves systematic planning, analysis and coordination across the organization, to ensure that organizational priorities are taken into account, that duplication of effort is avoided and economies of scale are achieved. All potential trainees should be included in the process, rather than rely on the subjective evaluation of managers. Ideally, managers should also receive training in the process of TNA itself, to clarify what they are trying to achieve and what their approach should be. Key words: Effective training, working practices, cost-effective solutions Introduction abilities needed. Analyzing what the training needs are is a vital prerequisite for any effective training even cover areas that are not essential. TNA enables organizations to channel resources into the areas where they will cont r ibute the most to employee development, enhancing mor ale and organizational performance. TNA is a natural function of appraisal systems and is key requirement for the award of investors in people. Effective training or development depends on knowing what is r equir ed – for the individua l, the depar tment and the organization as a whole. With limited budgets and the need for cost-effective solutions, all organizations need to ensur e that the resources invested in training are targeted at areas where training and development is needed and a positive return on the investment is guaranteed. Effective TNA is particularly vital in today’s changing workplace as new technologies and flexible working practices ar e becoming widespr ead, leading to cor responding changes in the skills and SELP Journal of Social Science Review of Literature Chiu Warren and Thompson David (1974) r eview the liter atur e on tr aining needs 93 July -September 2013
  • 94. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 analysis with the intention of organizing conceptually the various approaches. It offers a way of going beyond simple descriptions to a quantitative approach. the ability and aptitude to cope up with critical situations. It believes that the human resources have to be equipped with necessary level of professional qualification to face challenges. This project seeks to understand the training need analysis and the impact of this on improving organizational performance with r efer ence to the employees of W3cer t Technologies. Gould_D, Kelly_D, White I and Chidgey J (1988) said that training needs analysis is the initial step in a cyclical process which contr ibutes to the over all tr aining and educational strategy of staff in an organization or a professional group. The cycle commences with a systematic consultation to identify the learning needs of the population considered, followed by course planning, delivery and evaluation. Vivek Achar y (1987) in an ar ticle “Training need analysis helps to shine” presents information about a six-week training needs analysis (TNA) commissioned by Sun Life Fina ncial Inc.to facilitate the development of appropriate training materials. Objective of the Study · To identify the technological training and its need for employees. · To measure the personality development of employees. · To identify preferred method of training and its factors. · To identify the effective training analysis process. Methodology Of The Study In this study a standard questionnaire method was used for collecting primary data. The questionnaire was given to the persons concerned with a request to answer the questions and return the same. The secondary data for the study was collected fr om magazines and other documents of the company and also from the company website. Robin Snell’s (1889) paper examines the pressures on central training function in a large organization to conform to things that by means of its works it wishes to change. It provides a case study of how the occasion of a needs analysis for a new programme was used to develop the difficult interface between the line and development functions. “Hitting the training target” is an article focuses on guide titled “tr aining Needs Analysis and Evaluation,” by Frances Bee and Roland Bee from the Institute of Personnel Management, Emphasizing the need of proper corporate training plan and evaluation. Statement Of The Problem Research design: Sampling is the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment about the aggregate or totality is made. In this study, the method used by the researcher was convenient sampling. To constitute a sample, the number of items selected from the universe was 70. The significance and value of training has long been recognized. Given the today’s business climate and exponential growth in technology with its effect on the economy and society at large the need of training is more pronounced than ever. Employees should have SELP Journal of Social Science Tools Analysis In this project, the following statistical tools are used: · 94 Simple percentage analysis method and Chi-Square. July -September 2013
  • 95. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 A.0 cells (.0%)have expected frequencies less than 5.the minimum expected cell frequency is 14.0. B.0 cells (.0%)have expected frequencies less than 5.the minimum expected cell frequency is 17.5. By comparing the table value and calculated value of that we found the table value is lower than the calculated value. so we can reject the null hypothesis. Here there is significant relationship between t he leadership skills and team building.A.0 cells (.0%)have expected frequencies less than 5.the minimum expected cell Table 1: Personal Factors of The Respondents Table 1 is showing the personal factors of the respondents, (54%) of the respondents are male and the remaining (16%) are the female respondents. Majority (33%) respondents were in below 25 years age category, (26%) respondents are in 26-35 years age category and the remaining (8%) of the respondents were in the 36-45 age group. The married respondents are (28%) and the unmarried respondents are (42%). (38%) of the respondents are graduate, (26%) of the respondents are diploma qualification and the remaining respondents are having other qualification. Monthly income of the respondents showing that (25%) of the respondents are getting 1000 – 10000, (24%) of the respondents are getting 10000 – 15000 and (21%) of the respondents are getting above 15000 salary. (29%) of the respondents are having 1-5 years of experience, (26%) of respondents are having 5-10 years experience and (15%) of the respondents are having 10-15 years experience. A.0 cells (.0%)have expected frequencies less than 5.the minimum expected cell frequency is 17.0. B.0 cells (.0%)have expected frequencies less than 5.the minimum expected cell frequency is 14.0. By compa r ing the table value and calculated value of that we found the table value is lower than the calculated value. so we can reject the null hypothesis. Here there is significant r elationship between the negotiation skills and conflict resolution Findings Of The Study  Majority of 77.1% of respondents are male.  37% of respondents are belonging to the Chi-Square Analysis age between 26-35.  54.3% of respondents are post graduate.  32.9% of respondents are working in the current job for the years between 1-2. SELP Journal of Social Science 95 July -September 2013
  • 96. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999  45.7% of respondents are opined that the  In chi-square test3 there is a significant pr ofessional jour nals wer e mor e important for their continuous source of education. between the professional journals and web based education. So we can reject null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.  51.4% of respondents are opined that Supervisory skills were more important under the organization Training needs. Suggestions The following Major suggestions of the Research studies are,  52.9% of Respondents are opined that Assistive technology was most important under the Technology Training needs. Organizing the available resources is necessary so we suggest a separate team to prevent wastage of resources and maintain proper reach to the employees. Trainers should ha ve per iodic examinations to maintain the quality level in training to new employees. Virtual Resources should be managed with the inter nal team who maintains the resources and technical process training is must, based on the technology in place.  58.6% of Respondents are opined that Ethics were more important under the personal development needs.  50% of Respondent are opined that Methods to improve communication were most imp or tant under customer relationship training needs.  50% of Respondents are opined that sufficient training notifications was most important under Factors influences the training. E-Tr aining should be pr acticed to encourage the trainers get more exposure and see growth in the web based training business as well. More digitized training materials (like eBooks, subscription based magazines) should be used across internal training and also with clients to save resources.  47.1% of Respondents are opined that wor kshop and seminar was mor e important under the preferred methods of training.  45.7% of Respondents are opined that Ideally, organizations should conduct some type of per for mance analysis by accessing cur r ent per for mance against desired performance – the resulting gap is what soft skills or People skills strategies are designed to close. Barriers to transfer of training back on the job should be evaluated to minimize their impact. Manpower inventory was most effective and objectives, management requests are also under the effective training need analysis.  In chi-square test 1 there is a significant between the leadership skill and team building. So we can reject null hypothesis and accept the Alternative hypothesis. Conclusion  In chi-square test 2 there is a significant between the negotiation skill and conflict r esolution. So we can r eject null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. SELP Journal of Social Science In conclusion, if employees are to remain productive, career development and training programs need to be available that can support an employee’s task and emotional 96 July -September 2013
  • 97. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Organizational Behavior”, 8th Edition. New Delhi. needs at each stage. Current and future training needs of each region have been defined and based on these needs. Training need analysis should be integrated with every organization to develop their strength of employees and also its lea ds to the minimization of resources wastage.  Gary Dessler, (2005) “Human Resources Management”, 11 th Edition, Pear son Education Pvt ltd, New Delhi.  George Bohlander, Scott Snell, (2008), “Managing Human Resources”, 13 t h Edition, International student edition. New Delhi. Bibliography  Payne.R.L (1998), “Organization And Management”, Tata McGr aw Hill Publication Company limited, New Delhi.  Stephen. P.Robbins, Seema Sanghi, (2009), “Organizational Behaviour”, 11 th edition, Pearson Education Pvt ltd, New Delhi.  K.Aswathappa(2000), “Human Resource And Personal Management”, 4 th edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.  www.businessperform.com  www.trainingprogateway.com  www.trainerslibrary.com  Edition, Paul Her sey, Kenneth. H.Blanchard, (2003), “Management Of   ISSN : 2320 - 3412  TAMILAIVU SANGAMAM (An International Research Journal on Tamil Lilterature )                          S E L P PUBLICATION    “  ”                          tamilselp@yahoo.in                               www.selptrust.org      SELP Journal of Social Science 97 July -September 2013
  • 98. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 A STUDY ON MARKET ANALYSIS OF PONLAIT DAIRY PRODUCTS IN PUDUCHERRY L.vijayakumar Research scholar Dr.R.Krishnakumar Associate Professor of Commerce St. Joseph’s college of Arts and Science, Cuddalore-1. ABSTRACT This study is an overcome of the title called “Market Analysis of Ponlait Dairy Products in Puducherry”The core objective of this study is to analyze the market of ponlait existing products and new products to be launched by ponlait dairy.To achieve this core objective sample size of 200 customers were chosen for the study, which includes both male and female customers of ponlait dairy. Questionnaires were given to them who have consumed various ponlait products already. Through the finding of the study, it is suggested that ponlait yet to increase the supply o f products at a correct delivery time and make availability of it at all the time in the ponlait parlo r, and to increase the no of varieties in dairy products by increasing more number of parlor in all the major areas of the city. This will help ponlait to cover all the customers of ponlait as well competitor customers. Key words: Dairy Products, milk production, green fodder, milk animals Introduction manures needed for cultivation apart from milk. The importance of dairy (industry) development cannot be over emphasized in The main factors regarding low milk our country where the main contribution of production in rural areas are local breed of growth and strength for a bulk of population cattle, lack of green fodder and concentrates are derived from milk and its products. and lack of marketing techniques. Under the Dairying is a good source of the small and Socio Economic planning of the country, the marginal farmers as the feeds required for above factors are now duly considered. To milk production can be met from their limited bring the weaker strata of rural population land resour ces without incr easing much above the poverty line, integrated efforts are additional cost. Since the milk producing also being made to organize the dairying animals are ruminant and majority of their business in the country which will not only food can be derived from green fodder, grass, augment milk production and producers roughage and by products not utilized by income but also creates lot of employment human beings. The milk animals also provide opportunities n rural as well in the urban area. SELP Journal of Social Science 98 July -September 2013
  • 99. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Anand Dairy has been a provoking example for other states in the country. it carrying 24 questions. This was observed and asked to the customers of Ponlait Dairy product, Puducherry. Secondary data was collected from Internets, various books, Journals, and Company Records. Nearly 200 samples are colleted with the customers of ponlait dairy. The period is from January to April 2013.statistical tools used, Weighted Average method, Chi- Square method, Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation. Null hypothesis H0: There is significant difference between Family Type and Purchasing Frequency of dairy products Need For the Study The success of any organization depends on markets. The study was mainly undertaken to analysis the market for knowing the need and wants of the customer towards ponlait new and existing products. If the Market is being analyzed, it would be possible for the management to take the necessary action for the further improvement in sales of the products will be made easy.The need o f this study can be recognized when the result of the related study requires suggestions and recommendations to the similar situation etc. and it can be very helpful in launching of new products by knowing the customers preferences Alternative hypothesis Ha: There is no significant difference between Family Type and Purchasing Frequency of Respondents Interpretation Calculated value of c2 is less than the table value. Hence, Null hypothesis is accepted. Result There is significant difference between Family Type and Purchasing Frequency of dairy products Coefficient Correlation Method Hypothesis: There is positive correlation between income and frequency of purchase. Income Vs Frequency Objectives of the study · To analysis the market of existing product and new product to be launched by ponlait dairy. · To know the consumer s attitude and preference toward ponlait various product and new product. · To find out the consumption pattern of dairy product of ponlait customers. · To identify the various factors this affects the ponlait dairy market. · To give suggestion and recommendation for launching new product that best suits the customers. Methodology Questionnaires are prepared and Observation and interview was conducted. Most of the questions are consist of multiple choices. The questionnaires were conducted in English. Generally, these questioners focused 5 systems to Analysis the Market and SELP Journal of Social Science Source: Computed from Primary Data 99 July -September 2013
  • 100. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Result From the above calculation, hypothesis is not accepted. So there is no relationship between income and frequency of purchase Findings of the study About half of the respondents are under the age level from 35-45 years old and then followed by 45-60 years. Majority of the respondents are male than the female to purchases from ponlait. Most of the respondents are earning 5000 to 10000 per month. The Majority of consumers are from nuclear family members. Most of the respondent’s education qualification is higher secondary. The Majority of respondents are working in public sector then the private sector. Suggestion and Recommendation T he comp any has to impr ove their distribution channel because the products are not available at the right time to booth.It is found that there is no awareness of some of the ponlait dairy products like Panner and Cheese to the consumers. So the organization can take necessar y steps to cr eate awareness.It has been observed that most of the consumers of ponlait dairy products feels that they don’t have ponlait booth in their living area, and they need to come from far away distance to purchase ponlait dairy products. So the company can take necessary steps to set up many more ponlait parlors in all major areas of the city .to meet out the demand with supply. T here ar e a large number of demands for the milk khova. So the organization can increase the supply. The company if possible can increase number of varieties of dairy products Conclusion PONLAIT, a firm that has been able to prove its strength in the dairy industry. The company has been to cover all types of customer in Puducherry. Now the products of PONLAIT have become a household SELP Journal of Social Science name.From the study it is clear that Ponlait is having excellent processing facilities and it has having good quality product among the competitor. It is a time for Ponlait to improve the distribution channel and to take necessary steps to improve the sales by increasing no of ponlait parlors in all the major areas of the city to cover entire population of Puducherry and their by increasing the availability of products at all time in the ponlait parlors will be appreciable by all the customers.The study deals with the market analysis of ponlait dairy products in Puducher ry, Finally, it is concluded that there will be a high demand for their existing and new products in future. So the company should concentrate more on increasing supply and to increase the ponlait parlors, so that demand and supply will match. Bibliography · Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, New Age International (p) Ltd ., New Delhi. · Dr C.B.Guptha Business Ma nagement Published by Sultan Chand & Sons · VS. Ra ma swa my & S. Na ma kuma ri ,Marketing Management ,Mac Millan India Ltd · Ha per W.Boyd , J r.Ralph Westfa ll , Marketing Research ,Ricdad .D Irwin ,Inc Websites · www.india dairy .com · www.amul.com/ kurien_annual/01.html · http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing · h t t p : / / w w w. r e f e r e nc e . c o m/ search?q=market%20analysis&db=web · h t t p : / / w w w. t h e f r e e d i c t i o n a r y. c o m/ market+analysis · http://www.a nswers.com/topic/marketanalysis-2?cat=biz-fin · http://en.wikipedia .org / wiki / list_of_marketing_topics 100 July -September 2013
  • 101. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 STUDY ON ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF LEGAL PROVISIONS IN NAVIGATING THE MARINE INSURANCE MARKET – AN INTERESTING FACTS Dr.D.Rajasekar, Assistant Professor, AMET Business School, AMET University, East Coast Road, Kanathur, Chennai – 603112 ABSTRACT Insurable Interest that forms the basis for the purchase of insurance is itself unique in the class, apart from other aspects like the amount of insurance, multiple claims etc. Marine insurance is a very fascinating area for insurance underwriters. It tests their skills not merely in the area of insurance but in a host of other aspects as well ranging from their knowledge of geography, sea-routes, international business formalities etc. Further, they need to update their skills with regard to global trends and keep track of the vulnerabilities associated with their business. Key words: Marine insurance, international business, sea-routes, global trends Marine insurance business is mostly inter national and subject t o law and international regulations in every stage of operations. It is governed by the oldest insurance law called the Introduction Globalization and the steady growth in world trade have meant a growing demand for global insurance programs and in particular for marine insurance. Fifty years ago, shippers don’t know if their cargoes r each their destinations due to poor communications and inadequate infrastructure. They relied on the expertise of marine underwriters to assess and assume much of the r isk. But now the subsequent rush to get new products created a somewhat cavalier attitude among exporters in the mar ket and at the same time, the economic downtur n and uncer tainty in shipping has resulted in a fundamental change in the area of compliance, and this has had a major effect on the purchasing of marine insurance. SELP Journal of Social Science Marine Insurance Act 1906 subsequently amended as the Marine Insurance Act 1963 in India and guided by the various clauses for mulated by the Institute of London Under wr it er s and the Inter national Commercial Terms now known as Incoterms 2000 developed by International Chamber of Commerce. Thus in India Marine insurance is subject to the following statutes and international regulations for import and export insurance and hulls insurance. Underwriting Marine Insurance Marine Insurance underwriting is an art 101 July -September 2013
  • 102. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 or a science. Insurance contract have always remained a very challenging thing for the underwriters to frame and for the insured to understand. The applicability of actual total loss and constructive total loss, the general average clause where the voyage itself is threatened. Principles of Marine Insurance Act 1963 Contract of Indemnity: Sec. 3 of the Marine Insurance Act provides that a contract of marine insurance is an agreement whereby the insurer undertakes to indemnify the assured, in the manner and to the extent thereby agreed, against marine losses, that is to say, the losses incidental to marine adventure. The contract of marine Insurance is a contract of indemnity, which protects against physical and other losses to moveable property and associated interests, as well as against liabilities occurring or arising during the course of a sea voyage. Marine insurance policy is a contract of indemnity, which is a basic principle of the law of insurance. The following factors analyse the marine insurance underwriting on a different pedestal and make the job of an underwriter truly challenging. Movement of Goods: Insurers have also to fully assimilate the applicability of rules governing the movement of goods and the points at which risk assumption changes hands. Verification: Banking tr ansactions, insurers should remember that bankers deal only in documents and physical verification of the goods involved is beyond their responsibility. Expor ter s Underwriters Depend Upon Utmost Good Faith Sec.19: Contract of marine insurance is a contract based upon utmost good faith and if the utmost good faith be not observed by either party, the contract may be avoided by the other party. Mar ine Sec.20: The assured must disclose to the insurer, before the contract is concluded, every material circumstance which, is known to the assured, and the assured is deemed to know every circumstances. Exporters have always relied heavily on mar ine under wr iter s,  knowledge  of geography, history, economics and world tr ade. But over the past half centur y, predictability in how and where trade is being conducted has helped breed complacency among shippers. As trading parameters and partners became more established due to the post-war industrial boom, the subsequent rush to get new products to market created a somewhat cavalier attitude among exporters. In addition, technological improvements such as advanced shipping, vessel and aircraft designs, modern containerization techniques and an incr ease in sophisticated transportation infrastructure reduced loss incidence and damage to goods in transit. SELP Journal of Social Science Sec 21. An agent to insure is deemed to know every circumstance where insurance is effected for the assured by an agent. Very importantly the duty of disclosure continues to apply even after the conclusion of the contract as decided. Case Law: Shipping Co. Ltd. v. Uni-Polaris Insurance Co. Ltd. and La Reunion Européene (The Star Sea) 2001. Measure of Insurable Value One of the major problems an insurer generally faces is determination of insurable value of the subject matter of mar ine 102 July -September 2013
  • 103. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 insurance. To sort out the problem we are required to refer to the provisions of the Mar ine Insur ance Act over and above technical aspects. Sec. 55(1) says about included loss and Sec 55(2): Partial Loss and Total Loss · Sec.56 provides that a loss may be either total or partial. Total loss may be either an actual total loss or a constructive total loss. Sec.18 - provides that “Subject to any express provision or valuation in the policy, the insurable value of the subject-matter insured must be ascertained as follows:- · Sec 57 pr ovides that wher e the subject-matter insured is destroyed, or so damaged as to cease to be a thing of the kind insured, or where the assured is irretrievably deprived thereof, there is an actual total loss and in the case of an actual total loss no notice of abandonment need be given. Ship: In insurance on ship, the insurable value is the value at the commencement of the r isk of the ship including outfit, provisions, and stores for the officers and crew. Freight: In insurance on freight whether paid in advance or otherwise, the insurable value is the gross amount of the freight at the r isk of the assur ed plus the charges of insurance: Constructive Total Loss Sec. 60 Goods or Merchandise: In insurance on goods or merchandise, the insurable value is the prime cost of the property insured, plus the expenses of and incidental to shipping and the charges of insurance upon the whole: b. Because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value when the expenditure had been incurred. Subject Matter: In insurance on any other subject matter the insurable value is the amount at the risk of the assured when the policy attaches, plus the charges of insurance. General Average loss is a loss that arises from a general average act.General Average expenditure or General Average sacrifice, General Average loss, the party on whom it falls is entitled, subject to the conditions imposed by maritime law, to a rateable contribution from the other parties interested, and such contribution is called a general average contribution. a. Where the subject-matter insured is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable. General Average S.66 Losses and abandonment Sec. 55 to 66 - provide for the various losses for which the underwriters are liable in various situations in various subject matters of insurance: Insurer’s Liability S.67 Included and excluded losses S.55. The sum which the assured can recover in respect of a loss on a policy by the party insured. In the case of an unvalued policy to the full extent of the insurable value and valued policy to the full extent of the value fixed by the policy, is called the measure of indemnity. Unless the policy otherwise provides the insurer is liable for any loss proximately caused by a peril insured against but subject as aforesaid, and not liable for any loss which is not proximately caused by a peril insured against. SELP Journal of Social Science 103 July -September 2013
  • 104. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Where there is a loss recoverable under the policy, the insurer or each insurer should be more than one is liable for such proportion of the measure of indemnity as the amount of his subscription bears to the value fixed by the policy in the case of a valued policy, or to the insurable value in the case of an unvalued policy. to maintain a suit for contribution against the other insurers, and is entitled to the like remedies as a surety who has paid more than his proportion of the debt.” Deduction for under-insurance- Sec 81 Marine Insurance Act 1963 says “Where the assured is insured for an amount less than the insurable value, or, in the case of a valued policy, for an amount less than the policy valuation, he is deemed to be his own insurer in respect of the uninsured balance”. So under insu r ance will apply to mar ine insurance as per the Marine Insurance Act. Insur er ’s r ights in r espect of claim settlement (S.79 toS.81) Insurers do have certain rights as per the following provisions of the Marine Insurance Act in order to limit his liability for payment of claims: Payment of the Premium in Marine f& Right of subrogation –Sec 79 Insurance Underwriters find it difficult to exercise the subrogation rights due to lack of clarity of legal perspectives thereof. The Marine Insurance Act is very clear in this regard providing specifically that “Where the insurer pays for a total loss, either of the whole, or in the case of goods of any apportionable part of the subject-matter insured, thereupon becomes entitled to take over the interest of the assured in whatever may remain of the subject-matter so paid for, and rights and remedies of the assured in respect of that subject matter as from the time of the casualty causing the loss. The Marine Insurance Act 1963 has four sections 23, 33, 54 and 86 that elaborate the position on premium payment. Sectio n 23: A contr act of mar ine insurance is deemed to be concluded when the proposal of the assured is accepted by the insurer. Whether the policy is issued or not, reference can be made to the slip cover note although unstamped. Section 33: Insurance is effected at a premium to be arranged and no arrangement is made a reasonable premium is payable. Where insurance is effected on the terms that an additional premium is to be arranged in a given event and that event happens and no arr angement is made then a reasonable premium is payable. Right of Contribution- Sec 80 Insurer ’s right of contribution is more important because the insurer ’s right to maintain suit against other insurer s for contribution as per the provisions of the Act providing that “Where the assured is overinsured by double insurance each insurer is bound to contribute rateably to the loss in proportion to the amount for which he is liable under his contract. If any insurer pays more than his proportion of the loss, he is entitled SELP Journal of Social Science Section 54: Unless otherwise agreed, the duty of the assured to pay the premium and the duty of the insurer to issue the policy are concurrent conditions. The insurer is not bound to issue the policy until payment of the premium. 104 July -September 2013
  • 105. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999  Quarantine & Infectious disease risks  Risks in respect of distressed or sick Section 86: Any right, duty, or liability would arise under a contr act of mar ine insurance by implication of law it may be negative or varied by express agreement, or by usage, if the usage be such as to bind both parties to the contract. seamen, sick passengers & stowaways  Fines  Costs  War Risks  Freight war risks Consumer Protection Laws Increases in consumer protection laws have been driving the need for locally admitted policies. Countries are increasingly looking to protect consumers in their territory by only allowing insurance with insurers that are regulated by the country. Governments want to ensure that there is recourse to a local insurer in the event of something going wrong. Use of non-admitted insurance is simply not an option in many countries. Countries may insist on an admitted insurer for all insurances or for compulsory insurances. Regulatory Restrictions Many countries around the globe have some form of regulatory restrictions, which are designed to protect the local market. These include:       Protection and Indemnity Clubs Restrictions on non-admitted insurance Compulsory insurances Reinsurance restrictions Exchange controls National pools Existing regulations aim is simple to keep premiums within the country and to raise revenue by taxing those premiums. As a result of the downturn, many countries are looking to have t heir own inter nal insur ance industries, even if it is just for tax revenue purposes, and this is driving a lot of the regulatory issues. The Clubs are associations of ship owners and charterers, owned and controlled by the insured ship owners or charterer “Members”. They operate on a nonprofit making mutual basis. The Members pool their resources together in order to meet losses suffered by each individual. The members are thus selfinsured and the ship owner could be said to be both the insurer and the insured. Findings  Consequently, in recent years the marine Risks covered by protection & insurance clubs:        Local policy taxes on admitted insurance market has sustained worldwide losses that dir ectly impacted cor por ate profitability. Although many losses could be minimized or prevented through proper packing, loading and stowing. Marine insurance still effectively transfers the financial loss resulting from damaged or lost merchandise to professional risk takers-the marine insurance underwriters. The risks covered by P&I Clubs are mainly: Loss of life & personal injury risks Collision risks Cargo risks Harbour etc. damage risks Wreck risks Life & other salvage & General Average risks SELP Journal of Social Science 105 July -September 2013
  • 106. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999  The Indian marine insurance market is still is the pr oper level of r et ention or deductible. Loss or damage of a repetitive nature, whether involving the commodity, transit or final destination, should be dealt with on an annual aggregate basis rather than valuing each occurrence. If these losses can be eliminated, or at least minimized, it is less expensive to absorb them. Conversely, catastrophic losses, which could jeopardize the financial stability of the company or its client, should be covered by marine insurance. going through a stage of upheaval. The cargo insurance market detariffed in 1994, though fairly stabilized, is yet to see prices on par with international market rates, mainly because the market is already attuned to the present levels of premium. However, impr oved conditions in transportation and trade have brought down the claim ratios making it profitable even at these low premium rates.  The world is partial towar ds Mar ine  Many companies have not fully embraced insurance practitioners who are judged mainly on the relative small size of marine insur ance pr emiums, while the complexities and intricacies of marine insurance business are sadly ignored. It is true that marine is only responsible for a small percentage of a composite insurer’s premium income, but the success of an insurance operation is not really measured by premium income but by result - or loss potential. And here marine, being exposed to natural perils, liability issues and typical accumulation in ports and on vessels, plays an important role. the use of electr onic net wor ks and electronic data interchange. Increasingly, r isk ma nager s ar e demanding computerized access to their carriers, claims information. Marine insurers must provide this access as well as services such as electronically transmitted shipping orders and computerized vessel data. Conclusion Today, many mar ine insur ance underwriters, as well as insurance brokers, have sophisticated operations and coverages that can be arranged under broad terms. Shipments are also subject to various foreign laws, customs regulations and exchange controls. For example, depending on the country of destination, the shipper may or may not cover customs duties. In many countries duties for some commodities may be substantial and, in many instances, are payable whether or not the goods arrive at their final destination. Trade opportunities, risk managers and underwriters need to become reacquainted with some marine market essentials like routes, destinations, and the political climate in the various countries being shipped to and the types of losses to expect.  Corporations involved in international shipping can significantly lower costs, broaden coverage and improve controls by consolidating domestic and foreign transit risks into one insurance program, which can be negotiated with a single underwriter. Besides broad terms, pooling worldwide premiums reduces company costs and provides unique tools to manage mar ine risks, including standar dized global claims control, data processing and loss control.  For many companies, the first question is whether marine insurance is financially worthwhile. If it is, the next consideration SELP Journal of Social Science 106 July -September 2013
  • 107. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Marine underwriters  traditionally  offered very broad coverage the market is now taking steps to reduce insurance for exposures such as floods, earthquakes and windstor ms, par ticular ly when stor age cover age is provided under a cargo policy. Bibliography 1. T.L. Wilhelmsen, Duty of disclosure, duty of good faith, alter ation of r isk and warranties, 2000. 2. UNCTAD S ecr etar iat , L egal and document ar y aspect of the mar ine insurance contract, 1982 Recent court decisions are also creating uncertainty in the marine insurance market place. 3. Richard D. DeSimone, Navigating the marine insurance market, Journal of Risk Management, Risk Management Society Publishing Inc. Dec., 1995. Expor ter s will face higher costs in pursuing subrogation and reduced chances for obtaining reimbursements. 4. Rober t Sommer ville., Improving the quality of merchant ships, Journal of Risk Management, Risk Management Society Publishing Inc. Sep, 1993. As these various issues of challenges demonstrate, the marine market is undergoing changes that require careful attention from insured’s, shippers and underwriters. By focusing on basic business practices, shippers and marine insurers  can  help  the  industry successfully meet these challenges. It is also important for the insurer to understand the laws governing in marine and shipping operations to avoid the risk. Indeed Marine Insurance is an integral part of foreign trade. As business becomes even more global, marine insurance needs the attention of risk management. 5. Evelyn Thom chick, Marine Insurance and General Average in the United States, Book r eview, Amer ican Society of Transportation and Logistics, 1992, P54. 6. J.J. Launie., Ocean Marine Insurance. Jour nal of Risk Management, Risk Management Society Publishing Inc. July 1990. 7. C.S.Rao, Jour nal, Volume VI, No.4, March 2008. GRANT IN AID We Invite research porposal from academicians to conduct research studies in the area of social Science Interest person may submit proposal to us. For other details refer our website: www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science 107 July -September 2013
  • 108. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 GUIDELINE FOR SPECIAL ISSUES IN SEMINAR Organizers of the National / International seminar who wish to publishes their papers as a special issues in SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE (ISSN: 09759999-National Journal) or RESEARCH EXPLORER (ISSN: 2250-1940-International Journal) or TAMILAIVU SANGAMAM (ISSN: 2320-3412- International Journal) kindly follow the guidelines; 1. Apply to Managing Editor regarding the special issue with the particular journal 2. Papers should be strictly according to the guidelines which have already decided by editorial board. 3. Paper must be original with Abstract (150 words), Key words (4-6 words) and starting with introduction and end with conclusion followed by references (minimum 5 references must essential) 4. Maximum of two authors are permitted in an article 5. Organising secretary / Director of the seminar is responsible to collect the declaration regarding originality and plagiarism of article. 6. Structure and format of the journal should be as per the regular issue of the journals. 7. A maximum of 100 articles only included in a special issue with the maximum of 400 pages. 8. Only selected papers should include in the special issue which are received before the last date of the submission of paper to the seminar. 9. Name of the Editorial board members for special issues should be only in the editorial board pages and not elsewhere. 10. Printing charges per article ` 750/- should be paid by the organizer. 11. One among the IARA member shall be the resource person in Technical session. 12. 5 copies of the special issue should submit to us. 13. Trust shall provide a token of sponsor in the form of scripting bads (300). 14. Trust also provides collaboration letter, if the seminar is sponsored by UGC/ ICSSR/any other sponsor institutions. SELP Journal of Social Science 108 July -September 2013
  • 109. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE ISSN : 0975-9999 Copy Right Agreement Form The first author must complete and sign on this copy for and submit it along with hard copy, softcopy of the paper & publication fees to the office to Managing Editors, SELP Journals of Social Science, Tiruchirappalli - 21 Author name: ___________________________________________________________ Title: __________________________________________________________________ FURTHER CLARITY THAT: 1. The article is my original contribution and has not been Plagiarized/Copied from any Source/Individual. It does not contravene on the rights of others and does not contain any libellous or unlawful statements and all reference have been duly acknowledge at the appropriate places 2. The articles submitted only to SELP Journal of Social Science and it has not been previously published or submitted elsewhere for publication in a copy right publication. 3. I hereby authorize you to edit, modify and make changes in the Articles/ Research paper to make it suitable for publication in SELP Journal of Social Science. 4. I hereby assign all the copyright relating to the said Article/Research paper to SELP Journal of Social Science 5. I have not assigned any kind of right to the above said Article/Research paper to any other Person/Institute/Publication 6. I agree to indemnify SELP Journal of Social Science against any claim legal and/or otherwise, action alleging facts which if true, constitute a beach of any of the foregoing warranties. Date: SELP Journal of Social Science Signature: 109 July -September 2013
  • 110. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 INDIAN ACADEMIC RESEARCHERS ASSOCIATION (A unit of Selp Trust) 472, Neduncheliyan Salai, K.K.Nagar Trichy, Tamilandu -620012 Mail:iara.selp@yahoo.in,www.selptrust.org Membership Application Form 1. Name : 2. Date of Birth : 3. Qualifications : 4. Subject specialization : 5. Designation : 6. Institutions : 7. Address : (a) Office : (b) Residence : 8. Phone No : 9. Email : 10. Payment details a). Amount b).Bank c).Date Declaration I wish to join as a member of IARA and i abide the rules and regulation of IARA. Date: S IGNATU R E Station: SELP Journal of Social Science 110 July -September 2013