Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION - A GANDHIAN PERSPECTIVE Dr Anurodh Godha Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University, Kota, (Rajasthan), India. Dr. Prerna Jain Lecturer, Department of Accounting and Business Statistics, Government College, Ajmer, (Rajasthan), India ABSTRACT The socio-economic and political scenario all over the world has undergone tremendous changes during the past five decades. The world is shrunk in size and fast emerging as a global village. Traditional values, concerns and striving seem to have been replaced by a new culture and a new set of attitudes and life–style which are steeped in materialism and consumerism. Today we are not in a position to go back on globalization, so in this paper it is been tried to discuss and draw tha t how we can protect the interest of our economy, by removing unemployment and poverty through “going back to Gandhian economics /thoughts / concepts.’’ Key Words: Globalisation, Poverty, Hunger, Terrorism freedom, equality, international federation, dignity of the individual, primacy of the individual in a socio-political system, mechanization etcetera. India is the largest democracy in the world, something to be very proud of, but, does this democracy really offer average Indian the choice that it ought to? Rapid economic growth over the past decade in India was the main driver of poverty reduction, but, rising income and non income inequalities (e.g. inequalities in health, education, and economic assets such as land) could be an inherent by-product of global growth process. In current scenario the major challenges of the twenty –first century are: Introduction India today seems very much in an age of ‘diet Coke, flat screen televisions and super express highways’. It is not this that Gandhi would have been against, but it is the automatic assumption of the superiority of anything originating from the west that Gandhi would be dissatisfied with. Mahatma Gandhi has rarely written about strictly modern process of globalization. He could not because today’s globalization was far away from his own time. But Gandhi reflected on r elated areas like..... world peace, exploitation of the weak by the stronger nation, SELP Journal of Social Science 1 October - December 2012
  2. 2. Vol . III : Issue. 13  Taming the monster of violence and keeping ISSN:0975-9999  It is impossible for one to be an internationalist without being a nationalist… Our nationalism can be no peril to other nations inasmuch as we will exploit none just as we will allow none to exploit us.  Mechanisation is good when hands are too few for the work intended to be accomplished. It is evil where there are more hands than acquired…  I entertain no fads in this regard [i.e., his avowed opposition to mechanisation and capital- intensive technology]. All that I desire is that every able-bodied citizen should be provided with gainful employment. If electricity and even automatic energy could be used without…creating unemployment, I will not raise my little finger against it…. If the Government could provide full employment to our people without the help of Khadi hand-spinning and hand- weaving industries, I shall be prepared to wind up my constructive programme in this regard.  To reject foreign manufactures merely because they are foreign, and to go on wasting national time and money on the promotion in one’s own country of manufactures for which it is not suited would be criminal folly, and a negation of the Swadeshi spirit.  Decentralisation of political and economic power, reduction in the functions and importance of State, growth of voluntary associations, removal of dehumanising poverty and resistance to injustice … will bring life within the understanding of man and make society and the State democratic…..  I am not against all international trade, though imports should be limited to things that are necessary for our growth but which India — and for that matter any poorer country — cannot herself produce and export of things of real benefit to foreigners. it within limits besides eliminating terrorism.  Ensuring equitable distribution of wealth and natural resource.  Elimination of poverty and hunger.  Increasing reliance of rulers and politicians on religious fundamentalist elements and forces to capture power and sustain themselves in power by exploiting religious sentiments, and Decline of moral spiritual and ethical considerations and the extending tentacles of consumerism and materialism. Concept of Globalization Today globalization became a magical word and is being projected as the road to paradise. To state in simple terms, globalization means “global economic integration’’. Globalization is defined as “free competition, free cross border flow of goods, services, capital, labour, information, ideas, people and intellectual property around the globe”. In short, globalization means …. (a) Reduction of trade barriers with a view allowing free flow of goods in (and from) the Country. (b) Free flow of foreign capital in terms of investment (direct and indirect) by ensuring conducive atmosphere and easy approval of proposals. (c) Free flow of technology; and (d) Free movement of labour and manpower. Humanizing Globalisation and Gandhi Gandhi’s concept was practical-idealist concept of globalisation. Gandhi has never written or said much about globalisation in particular as a term with specific meaning that is being attached to it currently. Yet he had foreseen almost all major trends and strands of globalisation today in a positive and creative mould. Let us look at some of the principles Gandhi believed are of paramount importance. For him: SELP Journal of Social Science 2 October - December 2012
  3. 3. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 Relevance of Selected Gandhian Concepts in (C) Village Self-reliance Globalised Economy It may appear at first glance that with increasing globalization Gandhian emphasis on self-reliance of the village is losing its relevance. The reality is the significance of the self-reliance of village communities has actually increased. Globalization brought increasing uncertainty and the threat of instability to rural India, if the community in a village is self-reliant and the economy is rural based the further ensure the resilience and stability of a nation and its people even in the face of globalization trends. This Global Village is very different from the decentralised village-based economy. For Gandhi: · It is the individual(s) who compose a village, town, city, municipality, metropolis, state, nation-state and international society of nations. · Real globalisation for Gandhi is possible only through Panch yama of Patanjali, i.e., nonviolence, non-stealing, Truth, nonpossession and chastity. Global though sectoral reformation programme for regeneration of every individual is needed for balancing the negative effects of the process of globalisation. · Gandhi begins with the individual in the village and ends up with the individual in the comity of nations. The decentralized village economy should provide full employment to all on the basis of voluntary cooperation and work for achieving self sufficiency in its basic requirements of food, clothing and shelter. People in villages will not live in dirt and darkness as animals. The village community should take up the responsibility for providing work to all able bodied people. Everyone will have to contribute his quota of manual labour. Mahatma Gandhi’s idea to make Indian (A) Trusteeship Concept The concept of trusteeship was evolved by Gandhi to economic equality. In his words, “economic equality did not mean that everybody would literally have the same amount. It simply meant that every one should have enough for his or her wants..... the elephant wants thousand time more food than an ant, but that is not an indication of inequality”. Gandhi felt everyone should have sufficient and nutritious food to eat, proper shelter to live in, adequate Khadi to wear, timely medical relief and necessary facilities for education. Gandhi has presented philosophical base, for trusteeship. If we observed the present socio-economic scenario in India and also in the world, we feel that it is very difficult to bring into practice the trusteeship concept. Peaceful removal of economic inequalities is possible if the rich, after meeting their reasonable needs, hold the surplus wealth in trust for the society. In this way, the rich man is not dispossessed of his surplus wealth, but he is required to use this wealth in the broader interest of the community and not in his personal interest. The doctrine of trusteeship is based on the idea that everything is from God and belongs to God. Therefore, it is for his people as a whole and not for a particular individual. Thus, if an individual possesses more than his proportionate share, he becomes a trustee of that surplus amount for God’s people. (B) Sarvodaya Concept Sarvodaya (well being of all) was a philosophical position that Gandhi mentioned. He favoured a holistic approach to well-being of an individual and a total approach to the community. Hence his approach will be relevant till the existence of the mankind. SELP Journal of Social Science 3 October - December 2012
  4. 4. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999  Villages to be developed as village republics. villages prosperous and progressive is possible through globalization. In a positive sense, there are enormous possibilities and ways to make agriculture, village economy, farmer’s life and rural areas prosperous if global trends of trade are spread to villages. Corporate farming be introduced, keeping the ownership of land in the hands of the farmer. However he should be given preference in employment in contact farming. Government of India has to treat agriculture as industry so that all the facilities and exemptions extended to industry be given to agriculture. Trade and markets with reasonable price are the only way to make agriculture profitable. Globalization has this capacity to make rural trade profitable through retail outlets. Gandhi’s dream of making villages self sufficient and independent economic units could be realized through globalization, provided positive strategy is followed by government retaining full freedom and land ownership with the farmer. Indian villages have better prosperous future through globalization. Conclusion Our path to economic development has necessarily to be many fold. We have to develop villages, improve agriculture and agro-industries and infrastructure in rural India; we have to create new opportunities in rural India. In a democracy like India the r ising income inequalities leads to social unrest and it pose a clear and present danger to India’s sustained progress. It is the responsibility of the million of people who were inspired by Gandhi to work out the middle way on the basis of his work and the message he left for posterity. The major areas that can be listed for its relevance are  Decentralization planning should be implemented into and should train the panchayat members in delivering the goods to the public.  Khadi & Village industries should be encouraged and MNCs should not be allowed to produce products produced by Khadi & Village industries.  Capitalist and big businessmen should be encouraged to serve as trustees. References 1. Anurag Gangal on “Globalisation – A Gandhian Analysis” 2. S. C. Gangal, The Gandhian Way to World Peace (Vora, Bombay: 1960), p. 90. 3. Harijan, 16 November 1939. 4. Ram K. Vepa, New Technology: A Gandhian Concept (New Delhi: 1975), p. 170. 5.Anurag Gangal, New International Economic Order: A Gandhian Perspective (Chanakya, Delhi: 1985), Chapter – II, pp. 34 – 64. Also V. T. Patil and D. Gopal, op. cit., n. 1. pp. 07 – 21. S. R. Keshava on “Gandhi and Globalisation” A. Padmavathi and A. Ranga Reddy on “Peace Universities for Sustainable Gandhism” P.A. Koli on “Trusteeship for Globalisation” P. Jagadish Gandhi on “Gandhian Economic Order in the Globalism” SELP PUBLICATION SELP Trust established the publication division in the name of SELP Publication devoted to education and research with the ISBN and published 20 educational books and propose to publish 50 books in a calendar year 2012.So, if you have a proposal or manuscript (Including edited volume) in your area of specialization, please contact or write to us. we are happy to publish your books with ISBN. SELP Journal of Social Science 4 October - December 2012
  5. 5. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 GROWTH AND PROGRESS OF SUGAR INDUSTRY IN INDIA Dr.T.Aranganathan Professor and Head, V.Kannan Assistant Professor, Commerce Wing, DDE, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002 ABSTRACT Sugar industry is the second major industry that accounts for nearly 8 per cent of industrial investment and provides employment for about 7.4 per cent of the industrial working force. It is the foremost agro-based rural industry providing direct employment to 4 lakh people. Besides about 35 lakh people are indirectly connected with this industry. A sugar mill of 1250 tonnes crushing capacity per day creates an employment potentiality of around 300 to 350 permanent workers and equal number of seasonal workers. Besides this, for harvesting sugarcane, 5000 male and female workers are required to be engaged during the crushing season. Key Words: Sugar, Socio-Economic development, Moderisation Introduction Where the sugar mills have been working successfully, they have rendered considerable socio-economic services to the rural community. They have opened schools, colleges, hospitals, etc. and they provided numerous other facilities to the farmers in general. These activities and services are more evident in Maharashtra and Gujarat. The sugar mills have brought about a far reaching social, economic and political transformation in the rural areas by providing various facilities like modernization of agriculture, extension of the irrigation, employment, infrastructural facilities, education, health and recreation facilities, changing cropping pattern, and have promoted dairy and poultry activities. Thus, the sugar mills SELP Journal of Social Science have acted as catalyst for the socio-economic development and these activities lead to betterment of the economic conditions, not only of the farmers, but also of landless labourers and other people in the areas. Growth and Progress of Sugar Industry in India The sugar industry plays a leading role in global sugar market being the world’s second largest producer after Brazil, producing nearly 15 to 25 per cent of global sugar and sugarcane, respectively. In addition to traditional white sugar about 6-8 MT alternative sweeteners are also produced in the decentralized sectors. During the beginning of 20th century, the Indian farmers woke up to the loss suffered by them 5 October - December 2012
  6. 6. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 and therefore, started devising ways and means to avoid exploitation by middlemen. The incentive to the farmer to produce more is the fair return to him of the produce. The processing of agricultural produce adds value to the produce and increases the possibility of fair return of the produce to the farmers. Efforts to manufacture sugar from sugarcane on commercial lines were made only at the beginning of the twentieth century and the industry flourished in India during this century only. The private sugar mills established as a joint stock companies exploited the cane growers in the region by taking their lands on lease basis for a long period on a nominal rent and by paying meager price for their sugarcane. Mostly the cane growers utilized their cane for the production of jaggary in the early period, but instability in the price of the jaggary compelled the farmers to sell their sugarcane to private sugar mills. The situation created by these private sugar mills paved way for establishment of the sugar factory in the cooperative sector. The Indian farmers felt that certain functions performed by the middlemen could jointly be performed by them and this gave the birth to processing of agricultural produce on co-operative basis. The dawn of independence in 1947 brought its wake a change in the outlook and policy of the nation. One of the ways for achieving this objective is to encourage peasants to organize and manage processing industry, based on the crops produced by them. The first co-operative sugar mill was established in 1920 at Malegaon in Baramathi Taluk of Pune District. It survived hardly only for two years. In the beginning four cooperative sugar mills came up, namely, Biswan in Uttar Pradesh and Thumapala, Etikoppaka and Vuyyuru in the Madras Presidency. For want of organizational, managerial and financial support, three out of these four co-operative sugar mills except Etikoppaka co-operative mill SELP Journal of Social Science were sold off to private enterprise. Good leadership, strong backing of co-operative banks, gradual and cautious expansions, good relations with membership and payment of higher cane price however saved Etikoppaka factory. In 1919-20 the number of sugar mills was 19, but began to increase slowly. In 200910, there were 490 sugar mills in India. The States of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu occupy the first, second and third places respectively in having more number of sugar mills. Sugarcane is the main source from which sugar is produced in India. Sugarcane areas in India are broadly divided into two distinct belts, subtropical and tropical. The subtropical belt comprises the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, West Bengal, Assam, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. The tropical belt covers the States of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pr adesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. The two belts are characterized by the marked difference in climate and agricultural conditions, more than three-fourth of the area under sugarcane in the country has long been in the subtropical belt. Area under Cultivation, Production and Yield of Sugarcane in India The area under sugarcane production in India shows a progressive increase from 4316 thousand hectares in 2000-01 to 5151 hectares in 2006-07 and 4202 hectares in 2009-10. The average area under sugarcane production for the period from 2000-01 to 2009-10 was 4373 hectares. The production of sugarcane in the country was 295.956 thousand tonnes in the year 2000-01 and 277.750 thousand tonnes in the year 2009-10. The highest production of sugarcane was registered in the year 2006-07 with 355.520 thousand tonnes. However, the yield of sugarcane per hectare showed a decline trend from 68.60 tonnes in 2000-01 to 66.90 tonnes in 2005-06. The yield of sugarcane for the year 2009-10 was 66.10 tonnes per hectare. 6 October - December 2012
  7. 7. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 The average yield of sugarcane for the period from 2000-01 to 2009-10 was 66.03 tonnes per hectare. The number of mills in operation, average duration and average capacity of the sugar mills in India. The number of sugar mills in operation in India has shown a progressive increase from 436 in 2000-01 to 455 in 200506 and 490 in 2009-10. The average duration declined from 138 days in 2000-01 to 125 days in 2005-06 and to 109 days in 2009-10. At the same time, the average capacity of the sugar mills showed a progressive increase from 3203 tonnes in 2000-01 to 3619 tonnes in 2005-06 and 3846 tonnes in 2009-10. The average capacity of the mills for the period of 10 years from 2000-01 to 2009-10 was 3519 tonnes. Production oSugar and Molasses in India The production of sugar shows a progressive increase from 18.511 million tonnes in 2000-01 to 19.267 million tonnes in 200506, and declined to million tonnes in 2009-10. The average sugar production for the period from 2000-01 to 2009-10 was 1 million tonnes. There was an erratic change in the recovery of sugar during the period from 2000-01 to 200910. The highest recovery (10.55%) was registered in the year 10.03%) erratic change during the period from 2000-01 to 2009-10. The production of molasses was 7820 thousand tonnes in 2000-01, 8549 thousand tonnes in 2005-06 and 8400 thousand tonnes in 2009-10. Consumption, Import and Export of Sugar was registered in the year 2009-10. The average export of sugar for the period of 10 years was 1478.755 thousand metric tonnes. Likewise, the import of sugar also shows an erratic change. The import of sugar was 30.404 thousand metric tonnes in the year 2000-01, 558.770 thousand metric tonnes in the year 2005-06 and 2424.045 thousand metric tonnes in the year 2009-10. The average import of sugar for the period of 10 years was 447.627 thousand metric tonnes. Sugar Industry in Tamil Nadu The agro based sugar mills play an important role in the economic growth of rural areas with the sole aim to generate large scale direct employment. Apart from that, a lot of indirect employment to rural population is also provided. Tamil Nadu sugar industry is responsible for about 10% of the total sugar production in India. The sugar industry faced a boom in the 1980s but the crisis era started from 1990, all after the economic liberalization. With the surge in the procurement price of sugarcane, surplus production and reduction in the open market sugar price, directed the industry and the sugar factories, thereafter to have a glut of stocks. In Tamil nadu the soil is suitable for growing sugarcane and it has a unique feature of sub-soil drainage, which is helpful to sugarcane cultivation. The favourable climatic conditions coupled with adoption of modern methods of cultivation by farmers, hard work by them and development efforts by the sugar mills resulted in faster growth of sugar industry in Tamil Nadu. Sugar industry provides direct employment to 0.50 lakh people and about 25 lakh people are indirectly connected with this industry in the Tamil Nadu. in India The consumption of sugar was 162.00 lakh tonnes in 2000-01 and 189.45 lakh tonnes in 2005-06 and 210.00 lakh tonnes in 2009-10. The average consumption of sugar for the period from 2000-01 to 2009-10 was 192.25 lakh tonnes. The export of sugar also shows an erratic change over the period of 10 years. The highest value of export (4684.554 thousand metric tonnes) was registered in the year 200708 and the least (44.045 thousand metric tonnes) SELP Journal of Social Science Area under Cultivation, Production and Yield of Sugarcane in Tamil Nadu The area under sugarcane production was 315 thousand hectare in 2000-01, 232 7 October - December 2012
  8. 8. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 thousand hectare in 2004-05 and 314 thousand hectare in 2009-10. The average area under sugarcane production for the period from 200001 to 2009-10 was 305 thousand hectare. The production of sugarcane was subject to an erratic change over the period of 10 years. The highest production of sugarcane (44 thousand tonnes) was in the year 2006-07 and the least (17656 thousand tonnes) was i31605 thousand tonnes. The yield of sugarcane per hectare showed an er ratic change. The yield of sugarcane was 105.30 tonnes in 2000-01, 101.20 tonnes in 2009-10. The average yield of sugarcane was 103.10 tonnes per hectare. population. In 2009-10, there were 490 sugar mills in India. The States of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu occupy the first, second and third places respectively in having more number of sugar mills. There are 42 sugar mills in Tamil nadu, of which 37 mills are in operation, which include 15 co-operative sugar mills, 2 public sector mills, and 20 private sector mills. The year of commissioning, crushing capacity, area under sugarcane cultivation, sugar production, sugarcane crushed and recovery sugar in the select cooperative sugar mills have been discussed in this paper. Even though the sugar co-operatives have made a significant progress and have spread its tentacles to every corner of the country and conceivable economic activity, especially with social content, they are still moving with traditional outlook. No. of Sugar Mills in Operation, Production of Sugar and Molasses in Tamil Nadu The number of sugar mills in operation in Tamil Nadu showed a progressive increase from 37 in 2000-01 to 39 in 2009-10. The production of sugar in Tamil Nadu shows an erratic change. The sugar production was 1781 thousand tonnes in 2000-01, 2142 thousand tonnes in 2005-06 and 1270 thousand tonnes in 2009-10. The average sugar production for the period from 2000-01 to 2009-10 was 1698 thousand tonnes. There was an erratic change in the recovery of sugar during the period from 200001 to 2009-10. The highest recovery was registered in the year 2(8.88%) erratic change over the years. The production of molasses was 12.65 thousand tonnes in 2000-01 and 18.16 thousand tonnes in 2005-06 and 53.99 thousand tonnes in 2009-10. References 1. Andhale, G.B (1972). Study of Impact of Cooperative Sugar Factory on the Lives of Farmers with Special Reference to Sangamer Bhag Sahakari Sakhar Carkhana, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeet, Rahuri. 2. Jain, A.P (1956). Foreword to Growers own Co-operative Sugar Factories, New Delhi: Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of India. 3. Kharche, R (1989). Sugar Co-operatives in Developing Economy, Aurangabad: Parimal Prakashan, pp.25-26. 4. Report of the All India Conference of Cooperative Sugar Factories, Organized by National Co-operative Development Corporation, New Delhi, p.24. Conclusion Sugar is the second largest agro-based industry in India and contributes significantly to the socio-economic development of rural SELP Journal of Social Science 8 October - December 2012
  9. 9. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT: A BEST PRACTICE FOR A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE K.Sreekanth, Research Scholar, Dr.A.R.Aryasri, Professor & Director, School of Management Studies, JNTU Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad – 500085. ABSTRACT In the present competitive world, the companies are facing lot of skill shortage, talent crunch and attrition. Of late the companies have been realizing that the internal customer is also more important equally with external customer.This paper tries to review the practices of five best companies that have world class practices of Employee engagement. Those companies are of Google, Vertex, HCL info systems, Sun micro systems and SAP Labs India. Keywords: Employee Engagement, Organization, Practice, competitive advantage motivating the employees so that they are enthusiastic about the work they do and as a result they are more productive. Managing the Organization can be demanding, but when the finest Business practices like Employee engagement are implemented, there will be lesser problems to face and the company will prosper. What is Employee Engagement? Employee engagement is a partnership between an organization and its employees where both of them works together to achieve the business objectives of the company and the personal aspirations of the employees. The three basic aspects of employee engagement are the employee, employer and the interaction between them. Introduction In the Present competitive world what was common Business practice 10 years ago is now antiquated and what was once seen as ground breaking is now viewed as the minimum standard. Innovative Business practices adopted by organizations should build competencies and capabilities for winning performances today. When organizations think about designing a Best practice for competitive advantage, Organizations should focus on practice of Employee Engagement. Effectively engaging the employees in the organization leads to a competitive advantage for any organization. Employee engagement means SELP Journal of Social Science 9 October - December 2012
  10. 10. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 Today most organizations realized that the employee plays a key role in reaching the goals of an organization. They need an ‘engaged employee’ who is intellectually and emotionally bound with the organization, feels passionately about its goals and is committed towards its values. Thus Engagement is about motivating employees to do their best. An engaged employee gives his full commitment and contributes towards the organization goals. Employee engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the organization. An Engaged employeards the organization goals.e develops a sense of belongingness and a strong bond with the organization by which he creates wonders in the performance and it will create a ripple effect that results in a positively charged atmosphere in the organization. An Engaged employee goes the extra mile beyond the basic job responsibility and takes responsibility on shoulders to take organization ahead. organization. Enhanced employee engagement can favorably contribute to the achievement of organization’s mission and goals. Benefits of Employee Engagement practice Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement of an employee has with the organization. An engaged employee is completely aware of the business in any context and has a positive attitude towards other employees and the organization. Money was a prime motivator for ‘starters’, but for those into their third or fourth jobs, their value-addition to the organization was more important. If the work is more challenging, responsible and enthusiastic, the employees will become more engaged towards the organization. Engagement demands that both employers and employees be fully engaged and commit for mutual growth. The essence of engagement is that it provides a positive environment where employees can freely contribute their energy, efforts and processes in a way that it matches the goals of the organization. The effects of employee engagement can be mostly seen on employee productivity, retentions and recruitment policies. According to studies, highly engaged employees are twice as likely to be high performers. Some benefits of Employee engagement are of following  Right employees get recognized for their performance.  Increases job satisfaction  Passion, commitment and alignment are built with the organization’s strategies  Attracts and retains the Talent employees  Organizations better response to opportunities and threats  Enhanced out box thinking  Trust will increase between employees and Management. Why Employee Engagement? Today Organizations are facing revolutionary trends accelerating product changes, technological changes, global competition, deregulation, demographic changes etc. These trends have dramatically increased the degree of competition in virtually all industries and forcing organizations to cope with unprecedented product innovation and technological change. Organizations in such an envir onment need employee suppor t and implementation of certain best practices like Employee engagement for competitive advantage. Employees who are fully engaged are deemed to be enthusiastic about their work, care about the future of the company and are willing to do work for helping the organization to achieve its goals. If followed, employee engagement can pay real dividends for the SELP Journal of Social Science 10 October - December 2012
  11. 11. Vol . III : Issue. 13     ISSN:0975-9999 Reduces Employee turn over creates a Healthy competition Customer satisfaction levels will increase and Positive results will be reflected in the bottom line, the value of shares, and the return on investment.   Conclusion The study on the Employee engagement practices in five best companies reveals that every organization need to devise Employee engagement practices to attract and retain best talent in the market . The Practices of the organization will determine the fate of the organization whether to run in the race or be left behind in competition. The study reveals that Employee Engagement is a best practice that helps Organizations to work towards achieving a performance driven culture by creating a positive atmosphere where employees are able to perform to their full potential for competitive advantage.     References:  Jyothsna bhatnagar & Somendubiswas,” Predictors and outcomes of employee engagement: Implications for the resourcebased view perspective,Vol.46, Indian journal of Industrial relations,October,2010  Jackw.wiley,”The impact of effective leadership on Employee Engagement”,wiley periodicals,2010  Ther esa M .Welbourne,”Employee SELP Journal of Social Science    11 engagement:Beyond the Fad and into the Executive suite’, Spring,2007 Peter blausten,”Keep your focus on engagement”HR magazine,Janauary,2009 A.Shimazu,”Work engagement in japan:Validation of japan version of the Utrecht work engagement scale,”2008, Authors, Journal compilation Reeshad s dalal, Bradely JB rummel,Sareena wee and Lisa L. Thomas, ”Defining Employee engagement for productive research and practice”, Industrial organizational Pscyhology,2008 Angle H.L. and Perry J.L., “An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Commitment and Organizational Effectiveness,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 (1), 113 (1981). Beer M., Spector B., Lawrence P., Quinn M. and Walton R.E., Managing Human Assets, New York, The Free Press (1984). Buckingham M. and Coffman C, First Break All the Rules, What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently, Sydney, Australia,Simon & Schuster (1999). Employee Engagement report 2011, Blessing white research HRM in Global Scenario : Practices and Strategies for Competitive Success - S K Bhatia  Management in action : motivating employees by Daniel kehoe, Tatamcgraw hill October - December 2012
  12. 12. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 A CRITICAL STUDY ON ECONOMIC IMPACT OF INDIAN FLORICULTURE INDUSTRY T.Thamizhvanan Assistant Professor of Economics, Govt. Arts College (A), Kumbakonam. ABSTRACT The floral industry today has grown too much larger proportions and offers a wide scope for growth and profits. Worldwide more than 140 countries are involved in commercial Floriculture. The leading flower producing country in the world is Netherlands and Germany is the biggest importer of flowers. In India, Floriculture industry comprises flower trade, production of nursery plants and potted plants, seed and bulb production, micro propagation and extraction of essential oils. Though the annual domestic demand for the flowers is growing at a rate of over 25% and international demand at around Rs.90,000 crore India’s share in international market of flowers is negligible. Key Words: Floriculture, Liberalization, Trade, Government of India & Cultivation Introduction India has an ancient heritage when it comes to floriculture. It has grown flowers for various purposes ranging from aesthetic to social and religious. However, commercial floriculture has been of recent origin. A consistent increase in demand for cut and potted flowers has made floriculture as one of the important commercial trades in Indian agriculture. Emphasis has been shifting from traditional flowers to cut flowers for export purposes. The liberalization of economy since 1991 has given an impetus to the Indian entrepreneurs for establishing export oriented floriculture unit under controlled climatic conditions. Availability of skilled manpower are factors that are beneficial for the growth and development of this sector in to a potential SELP Journal of Social Science earner of foreign exchange This paper is discussed in Economic impact of floriculture India in the view of various angle. Objectives  To study the present position of floriculture development in india.  To study the export constraints of floriculture industry in india.  To suggests certain remedial measures to solve the problems of floriculture industry in india.  To analyses the employment & income generation of floriculture buries Methodology The study is mainly based on secondary data taken from the reputed 12 October - December 2012
  13. 13. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 published sources like Economic survey various books Reports, Journals, News Papers, Magazines and statistical hand book. made it feasible to import planting material of international varieties. According to Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), more than 170 EOUs have been approved in the sector. But many of them operate at less than their capacity. These units export roses, carnations, orchids, gladioli and anthodium to Japan, Netherlands, USA, Germany and France India also exports seeds, bulbs, bulbs, dried flowers, ferns, leaves and grass. Indian producers and traders are now also sending flowers directly to the European countries rather than through Netherlands. With the growing competitiveness and fall in international prices, floriculture units in India have been facing constraints. With redressed of the problems, the industry may turn to be a viable one earning foreign exchange. Majority of the floriculture units are based in South zone mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The domestic flower production goes on increasing annually. Technical collaborations with for eign companies have been approved for India, in order to increase total share in the floriculture world trade. Production Scenario In 2001-02, the total area under floriculture cultivation was estimated to be 1,06,000 ha. With an estimated production of 5,35,000 MT of loose flowers and about 2,565 million (numbers) of cut flowers. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana have emerged as major floriculture centres in recent times. Tamil Nadu is estimated to have the highest area under floriculture production followed by karnataka, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The focused attention to florticulture has resulted in an increased production and export. Large areas were brought under improved cultivation, with quality planting materials, training, and innovative technology like drip irrigation, green house cultivation. Conducive Conditions Floriculture cultivation and exports can create sound economic future for India. The prospects are good for floriculture trade because of the following reasons:  Climatic conditions are ideal during the winter months (October to April).  Low cost of inputs including labour.  Strategic location to cater to major flower consumption centres like Europe, Japan and Middle East Countries.  High foreign exchange earning capability, 20 to 30 times higher than any other agricultural product. Exports From India Floriculture has been identified as a thrust sector for development of exports in the post-liberalization era. The global markets offer a vast potential and advantages for India. Table -1 India’s export of Floriculture products over the years. Export Oriented Floriculture Development A number of Export Oriented Units have been set up in the floriculture segment in the last decade and half. Liberalization and the plant, Fruits and seeds Order, 1989, also known as the New Seed Policy have already SELP Journal of Social Science The potential is enormous which can be exploited scientifically with of proper management of resources and technology. Efforts by some successful growers have 13 October - December 2012
  14. 14. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 related to trade environment, infrastructure and marketing issues such as high import tariff, low availability of perishable carriers, higher freight rates and inadequate refrigerated and transport facilities. At the production level the industry is faced with challenges mostly related to availability of basic inputs including quality seeds and planting materials, efficient ir rigation system and skilled manpower. With regard to marketing, major challenges faced by the Indian flower exporters are related to low level of product diversification, lack of professional backup, unorganized domestic market and tedious phyto-sanitary certification. In order to overcome these problems, steps must be taken to reduce import duty on planting material and equipment, reduce airfreight to a reasonable level, provide sufficient cargo space in major airlines and to establish model nurseries for supplying genuine planting material. Training centres should be established for training the personnel in floriculture and allied areas Exporters should plan and monitor effective quality control measures right from production to post harvesting , storage, and transportation. demonstrated the feasibility entering this trade on a very large scale. Exhibit 1:1 shows the trend values of Indian floriculture exports to major importing regions of the world. Europe is the largest destination for Indian floriculture exports followed by USA, Asia, the MiddleEast, Oceania and Africa. India’s floriculture industry is growing at a compounded annual growth rate of about 30%, and is likely to cross Rs.8,000 crore mark by 2015. Currently, the floriculture industry in India is poised at about Rs.3,700 crore with a share of a meager 0.61% in the globle floriculture industry which is likely to reach 0.89% by 2015. Employment opporunities in floriculture: Flor iculture has emerged as an important agribusiness, providing employment opportunities and entrepreneurship in both urban and rural areas. During the last decade there has been a thrust on export of cut flowers. The export surplus has found of its way into the local market influencing people in cities to purchase and use of flowers in their daily livers. It has been great employment opportunity to farmers of income generation and extended to floriculture business the world. It also offers careers in production Marketing , export at research. On this Hand, employment in the floriculture industry as a farm manager, plantation expert, supervisor or project coordinator. In addition, floriculture also provides career opportunities in services sector which include such jobs floral designers, landscape designers Landscape architects. Government Incentives Initiatives The liberalization of industrial and trade policies paved the way for development of export-oriented production of cut flowers. Commercial floriculture is becoming an important segment from the export angle. It is being viewed as a high growth segment. Government of India acknowledges the potential of the floriculture industry and has conferred the industry a 100% export oriented status. Various incentives are being offered by the government of India, which have enabled the setting up of a number of floriculture units for producing and exporting flowers. Most of these are located near Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi. These units have obtained technical Export Constraints In spite of an abundant and varied production base, India’s export of floricultural product is not encouraging .The low performance is attributed to many constraints like non-availability of air space in major airlines. The Indian floriculture industry is facing with a number of challenges mainly SELP Journal of Social Science 14 October - December 2012
  15. 15. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 References: Abraham, V.K, (2002). The International Conference on Commercial Floriculture, Summary Report, 11-12 August, Bangalore. Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd. (1999). Development of Horticultural Exports From Karnataka. Mumbai: AFC South Regional Office. Agarwal, K.G. and D.D. Duhijod (1997). An Economic Analysis of Winter Floriculture Grown in the Vicinity of Nagpur City of Maharashtra. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 52(3): 622-23. Ajjan, N. and N. Raveendran (2002). Economics of Production and Marketing of Cut flower – Gladiolus in Nilgiri Distr ict, Tamilnadu. Plant Horti Tech, 2(4): 68-70. Ajjan, N. and N. Raveendran (2001). An Economic Analysis of Production and Marketing of Cut Flowers – Carnation and in Niligiri District, Tamil Nadu. Plant Horti Tech, 2(5): 53-58. Alagumani, T.M. Anjugam and R. Rajesh (1997). Performance of Flower Crops vis-à-vis Field Crops in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 52(3): 620-21. Ali Md. Hasrat and B.N. Banerjee (2000). An Economic Analysis of Marketing Aspects of Bela Flower in West Bengal – A Case Study. Agricultural Marketing, Vol. XLIII(3): 5-8. Anonymous (1998). AP Plans Model Farm to Keep Flor iculture Units in the Pink. Economic Times, Bangalore, July 14. Floriculture Today, July: 38. APEDA (1996). Formulation of Ninth Plan, Working Group on Agricultural Exports. New Delhi: know-how from Dutch and Israeli consultants. The new seed policy has already made it feasible to import planting material of international varieties. Tax benefits are offered to new export oriented floriculture companies in the form of incometax holidays and exemption from certain import duties. Import duties have been reduced on cut flowers, flower seeds and tissue – culture plants. Financial support upto 50% for the pre-cooling and cold storage units is available, as well as financial support for using improved packaging material. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), is responsible for export promotion and development of floriculture in India. Conclusion Floriculture activity has a tradition of attracting newer participants. However, only alert market participants are witnessing success, as the product is highly perishable. The participants need to be tolerant with price fluctuations, including intra-day price fluctuations. Producers must invest in laboursaving techniques in order to continue making profits. They need to consistently deliver an attractive product of consistent quality. Quality is paramount in the international trade of floriculture products. Many small units are facing problems due to uneconomic returns and high overheads leading to reorganization and restructuring of product portfolios by entrepreneurs. However, there is ample scope for even small and marginal entrepreneurs to exploit the global demand of flowers with improvements in quality of planting material, infr astructure, training programmes in production, harvesting and post – harvest management techniques backed by adequate marketing support. SELP Journal of Social Science 15 October - December 2012
  16. 16. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 A STUDY ON THE PERCEPTION OF CHILDREN TOWARDS INNOVATIVE LEARNING METHODS INCORPORATED BY KIRIYA PUSHPA, FAMILY HELPERS PROJECT, MYSORE Sandhyarani, M.C Research Scholar, DOS in Social Work, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore. Laxmi Associate Professor, DOS in Social Work, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore. C.Usha Rao Assistant Professor, DOS in Social Work, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore. Chandramouli,H.S Assistant Professor, DOS in Social Work, PBMM PG Centre, Mysore. ABSTRACT Innovation is a new method introduced in learning or a creation (a new process) resulting from study and experimentation. It is the process by which an idea or invention is translated into a good or service for which people will pay, or something that results from this process. Innovation involves deliberate application of information, imagination and initiative in driving greater or different value from the resources and encompasses all processes by which new ideas are generated and converted into useful product. This particular study focuses on the different innovative practices, which have been adopted as school intervention for the age group between 4 to 15 years as educated and confident children, with special reference to Kiriya Pushpa Family Helpers Project, Mysore. Key Words: School, Good Governance, Innovation, Downtrodden, knowledge base Introduction There is increasing evidence that education is a powerful instrument towards developing intellectual skills for better adaptations and living. True education should deepen our insight, widen our horizon and create a meaningful outlook, says Shri.Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, the great educationalist and philosopher. Innovation is a new method introduced in learning or a creation (a new process) resulting fr om study and experimentation. Innovation involves deliberate SELP Journal of Social Science application of information, imagination and initiative in driving greater or different value from the resources and encompasses all processes by which new ideas are generated and converted into useful product. Concept of Innovation: Innovation is something new, fresh and improvement in the old view point and way of doing things in a new manner. Oxford English Dictionary (1970) defines innovation as a 16 October - December 2012
  17. 17. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 change made. Change, however, can be incidental or accidental or planned and deliberate and is for the better. Innovation refers to the second category of change. It may, therefore, be stated that all innovations are for changes but all changes are not innovations. It is an idea perceived as new by a person or a group of persons who initiate and adopt it on the basis of planned and deliberates efforts for the qualitative improvement of the system though it may not be very new for others. According to Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary (2002) “Innovation is a new idea or method that is being tried for the first time or the use of such ideas or methods in the latest innovations in education”. slum areas. The main objective is to achieve the economic independence of women living in slum areas as well as to make their children literate. Kiriyapushpa has covered 1674 children from 18 slums in Mysore city. Children living in the slum areas are vulnerable in every aspect of life. Focusing on the well being of these children the Kiriyapushpa conducts many activities for slum children. They are Skill Improvement & Reading Improvement Program (SIP & RIP), Child Club, Dream Corner and Holiday Camps are the platform where the various activities are conducted. Need for Innovation in Education Education, by and large, suffers basically from the gap between its content and the living experience of its pupils. Education in its real sense should prepare pupils to face the multifarious challenges that they are bound to face in the society. The growing complexity of the world demands education to provide maps of a world in constant turmoil and compasses that will enable people to find their way in it. In this view of the future, traditional responses to the demand for education that are essentially quantitative and knowledge-based are no longer appropriate. It is not enough to supply each child early in life with a store of knowledge to be drawn on from then on. Each individual must be equipped to seize learning opportunities throughout life, both to broaden her/his knowledge, skills and attitudes and to adapt to a changing, complex and interdependent world. Skill Improvement in Mathematics & Reading Improvement Programme (SIM & RIP): Kiriyapushpa conducts SIP & RIP programmes in identified schools which includes both private and Government schools situated in and around slum areas. 20 schools with 520 children from these schools were covered under this programme till date. It also identified school drop outs and brought them back to the schools through counseling. The RI Programme covers the activities like word card, sentence card and stray card reading programmes which will be given to the children. The children who are not able to read and identify the word, sentence in the card will be given special classes after the school hour. Permission from the school was obtained to identify these students. The classes will be taken up in the premises of the school from 2pm to 3pm. There are special teachers recruited by the kiriyapushpa with qualification of B.Ed and D.Ed to teach the slow learners. Profile of Kiriya Pushpa, Family Helpers Project, Mysore: The Kiriyapushpa a Non-Governmental organization started its work as early as in 1982 and focused on the upliftment of children of Child Club: The child club is another program which aims at bringing out the hidden talents of children. The club conducts activities like Quiz, pick and speech, and other competitions SELP Journal of Social Science 17 October - December 2012
  18. 18. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 Indoor games and outdoor games like carom, chess, business games, police and thief, hit and run and cricket respectively. These indoor games develop the IQ level of the children. They are engaged with other cultural activities like dance, singing, folk songs, dancing with sticks, drama all these help them to develop confidence. to showcase the talents of children. Kiriyapushpa has started 20 child clubs in its working areas covering nearly 394 children belonging to the age group up to 16 years. The child club works on weekly and holds meeting. The children select their own leader and name their club. In the club they identify and discuss their own area or community problems as well as they try to find out the solution through bringing this problem to the notice of Panchayath leaders seeking necessary action. Holiday camps Holiday camps work during summer holidays. These camps cover 556 children. In the holiday camps children will be provided with entertainment and fun through TV shows – cartoons, story plays etc. It includes indoor and outdoor games, dance, singing, drawing and painting. It works from 10am to 3pm children enjoy themselves with all these activities. Dream Corner Dream corner is one of the effective programs run by the Kiriyapushpa covering 20 centers with 204 children. Dream corner works during evening from 5pm to 7pm, weekly 5days. This is a place for extracurricular activities for the children to explore their talents. Children do attend Dream Corner regularly the due to various reasons. Since these children from slum areas and no support by the parents regarding their education, disturbance by the drunken father, lack of electricity power at home, societal disturbance are the some of the problems that force the children to attend the Dream Corner. In the dream corner, children will be given with newspapers, story books, drawing - painting and training on sports and games to develop their knowledge as well as physical activity. The aim of building this dream corner is to meet the dream of the child. Each child will be having its own potential, and this potential has to be met as early as possible. So dream corner is one of such centre where the dream of each child will be flourished through nourishment by the teachers. Through the activity the confidence level of the children will develop. Guest lecture was organized for the benefit of these children on the topic Child Rights Act 2005. Competition was also took place on greeting card making, painting - thread painting, rangoli, crafts and drawing. Children were engaged with indoor and outdoor games. SELP Journal of Social Science Objectives of the study  To analyze the learning methods practiced by the Kiriya Pushpa for children  To study the effectiveness of these innovative practices on the children Research methodology The researcher has used descriptive research design. The aim is to describe the innovative learning methods practiced for the benefit of the children. The universe of the study is Kiriya Pushpa, Family Helpers Project, Mysore which covers the total number of children around 1674 children. Out of 1674 children 165 were selected for the study which constitutes 10% of the universe (both male and female children). Stratified random sampling technique was used to identify the sample. A self prepared interview schedule was used to collect pertinent data from the children. Secondary data was collected through books, journals and website. Analysis and Interpretation The data has been tabulated, interpreted and presented in the tabular. The data have been drawn from the interview 18 October - December 2012
  19. 19. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 impact of the program on the children before and after joining SIM & RIP. It was found that out of 50 children (respondents) 94% said that their academic performance was average before they joined SIM & RIP compared to 3 % who said that their performance was good. It was also found that 88% of them said that their academic performance is good after joining SIM & RIP compared to 12% schedules which were used as testing tools. The variables covered include age, gender and their interest in different learning methods. Table 1 Age Wise Cross Tabulation of the Children according to activities Table 4 Cross tabulation for methods used to teach difficult subject under SIM and RIP Source: Field Survey Note: Numbers in brackets represent percentage. The above table presents the age distribution of children according to the activities. It was found that out of 165 children, more numbers of children (between 10 to 12 years) were involved in all the activities compared to 7 to 9 years and 13 to 15 years of the children. Table 2 Gender wise and school type Cross tabulation of children according to the activities Source: Field Survey Note: Numbers in brackets represent percentage. The above table shows various methods used to teach difficult subjects under SIM & RIP. The above table shows that more number of students said that most of the teachers used or use word card compared to stones and sticks. Source: Field Survey Note: Numbers in brackets represent percentage. The above table presents the gender and the type of school. The above table shows that more numbers of children were engaged from government schools compared to private schools. It is also clear from the above table that more number of females were involved in all the activities compared to males. Table 5 The table showing the issues discussed and solution brought Table 3 Cross tabulation showing changes before and after joining SIM & RIP Source: Field Survey Note: Numbers in brackets represent percentage. The above table presents responses regarding issues discussed by the respondents Source: Field Survey Note: Numbers in brackets represent percentage. The above table gives responses of the SELP Journal of Social Science and the solution sought. Out of 40 respondents 58% of the respondents said that they discussed area/ 19 October - December 2012
  20. 20. Vol . III : Issue. 13 community problem as well as they have brought possible measure to overcome problems compared to the respondents who said that they have not discussed area/community problem as well as they have brought possible measure to overcome problems ISSN:0975-9999 sports, drawing to make the children sustain at least in their own fields.  Compulsory follow-up to the school by the mentors, to check the performance of the children  Appointment of social workers to avail the counseling services to the children who are slow learners. Major Findings  Majority of the respondents (74%) between the age group of 10 yrs to 12 yrs are part of the program.  Majority of the respondents (77%) are from Government school  Majority of the respondents (65%) are Female children  Majority of the respondents (88%) have said that they have become good after attending to the classes.  Majority of the respondents (36%) said that mathematics found to be more difficult than any other subject  Majority of the respondents (55%) said that the teacher use word card to make them understand the difficult subject easily.  Majority of the respondents (58%) said that they discuss the problems of their own community in the club and brought possible solution to it.  Majority of the respondents (45%) said that they have chosen dream corner which is suitable place for accomplishing their dreams and academic achievement due to disturbance at home.  Majority of the respondents (41.8%) have preferred holiday camp to enjoy all the activities. Suggestion  Involving the trained teacher or imparting refresher course to the teachers at least once in a year to become more efficient and to make the children to understand the difficult subject  Introducing more and more innovative learning methods and learning through them  Covering more number of children to discuss the problem of their own community in the child clubs so that enhancing the problem solving capacity among them.  Appointment of Special teachers to teach the children activities like drama, singing, crafts, SELP Journal of Social Science Conclusion As far as human beings are concerned there is a creative urge in all human beings, but a child is more creative than an adult because he/she is curious, imaginative and original. This originality has to be identified by the teachers through intervention strategies for overall development of the children, stressing their specific skills and needs. References  Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary (2002): Cambridge University Press.  D.C Joshi (1980): Management of an Innovation: A case of school for a planned change. Journal of Indian Education, 5 (2), 8-14.  H.S Bhola, (1980): Ibid  J. Adair, (1990): The Challenge of Innovation. England: the Talbot Adair Press.  M.T Richard, (1965): Seminar and conference for all the implementation of educational innovations. Santa Monica – California System Development  Miles, M.B (1964): Innovations in Education. New York: Teacher College Press.  P.S Balasubramanian., (1979): A Critical Study of the Strategies adopted for the installation of Innovations in High Schools in Vellore (Tamil Nadu), Ph.D. Edu. M.S.University of Baroda.  Pant, Madhu., (1994): Creativity and teaching the Young Child”, Journal of Indian Council Child Welfare, I (3&4), 60-65  S. Pathak. (2004): Innovations towards Instructional Setting for Development of Creativity in School Children, GCERT, Gandhinagar.  Subbarao (1967): An enquiry into the factors that contribute to the promotion/inhibition of educational innovations. Ph. D Edu. S.P.University  Verma, Anjali., (2012): Innovative Teaching Strategies – The Role of a Pre-School Teacher, Navtika Journal, VIII (1) 62-68. 20 October - December 2012
  21. 21. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 A STUDY ON CUSTOMERS’ EXPECTATION IN POSTAL SERVICES REFERENCE TO SALEM DISTRICT Dr.G.Thangapandi, Associate Professor of Commerce, Muthayammal College of Arts & Science Rasipuram, Namakkal District, Tamil Nadu ABSTRACT The Indian economy has moved on to a high economic growth trajectory involving an average annual growth rate of about 6% over the last 16 years with further acceleration in recent years. As the courier services are managed by private people, they work with a competitive spirit. They manage to attract the attention and confidence of the common man and at present various courier services are thriving very well at the cost of government postal services. The India Post which till recently reigned supreme throughout India is now undergoing setbacks not because of its incompetence but because of so many other reasons. Key words: Postal, Expectation,Friendly approach, Introduction An efficient and reliable Communication network is the lifeline of the nation which plays a crucial role in the socio – economic development and the integration of the country. For nearly a century and half, the postal system has been the main component of the communication infrastructure for the country. The Indian economy has moved on to a high economic growth trajectory involving an average annual growth rate of about 6% over the last 16 years with further acceleration in recent years. India post requires a new policy framework because of the emergence of several significant trends such as liberalization and Globalization, demographic shift towards urbanization leading to increasing internal and SELP Journal of Social Science 21 Communication, IT enabled. external migration requiring to be serviced. Given the need for a strong communication and financial infrastructure, India post will meet both challenges and avail of the opportunities presented by current market conditions As the courier services are managed by private people, they work with a competitive spirit. They manage to attract the attention and confidence of the common man and at present various courier services are thriving very well at the cost of government postal services. One advantage of the courier services is that they can modify their rules, regulations and charges to suit the needs of the time and persons. Because of the severe competition posed by the courier services, the postal department has started incurring revenue losses. Therefore October - December 2012
  22. 22. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 there is an urgent necessity to undertake a study of this nature. More over, the impact of Information and Communication Technology on India Post is another area of concern. 38 post offices which were rounded off to 40 for arithmetic convenience. In the third stage, out of the 40 post offices identified, 10 customers from each post office were randomly chosen. The field work of this study was conducted during the period of January 2012 and April 2012. The data were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. For the study, descriptive statistics namely, Percentages, Mean and standard deviation were used to understand the nature of the sample. Kendall’s co-efficient was used for ordinal type of data (ranked data) to find out the similarity among the respondents in ordering the item. Statement of the Problem The India Post which till recently reigned supreme throughout India is now undergoing setbacks not because of its incompetence but because of so many other reasons. The Indian postal services have been doing a wonderful service to the society, particularly to the common man as the only means of cheap communication. Post cards, envelopes, money orders etc., were delivered promptly at cheap rates. It enjoyed monopoly in the sale of post cards, envelopes and stamps. But, during the course of the last 10 years, many private courier services have sprung up and these pose great challenge to India Post. Customers’ Expectation Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a post office to meet or surpass customer expectation. The following table 4.6 describes the customers’ expectation from the post office. Objectives of the Study The study has been made with the following set of objectives:  To analyse the opinion of the customer expectation regarding postal services.  To offer suggestions for the improvement of postal services offered by India post. Table – 1 Customers’ Expectation - Ranks Methodology The study is both a descriptive and analytical one and it was carried out through sampling. The primary data have been collected directly from the post offices of Salem west division in Salem District and the customers of post offices through a pretested interview schedule. The Secondary data have been collected from the published documents like, Annual reports, Information booklets, Hand book of postal products and services, Hand books of postal Training College and other relevant books and journals. The sampling was done in customers, 15% of the total number of post offices was chosen. This comes to around SELP Journal of Social Science Source: Primary data The table indicates the customers’ expectation. 91 percent of the postmaster gave first rank for ‘Friendly Approach’ followed by 83.5 percent of them gave second rank for ‘Immediate Response’, 92 percent of them gave third rank for ‘ Quality’, Timings (fourth rank) and IT enabled services (fifth rank) were the other expectations of the customers. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance Kendall’s Coefficient of concordance (W) was applied to find out the extent of similarity among the respondents in assigning 22 October - December 2012
  23. 23. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 and quality service to the customers is the prerequisite for retaining the present market share of the India Post. For this, certain service standards have to be fixed and monitoring of delivery has to be ensured. Networked handheld digital devices could be developed to be carried by Postmen/Postal staff to enable not only delivery of articles and intimation of their status in real time, but also for booking of articles. A policy of allotting exclusive pin codes to bulk mailers could also be followed which will increase the customer base in addition to cutting cost for Department of post. the ranks to the given items. The value of W varies between 0 and 1. Higher the value of W higher will be the similarity among respondents in assigning the ranks. Table – 2 Customers’ Expectation - Kendall’s W Source: Primary data Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance Kendall’s W Conclusion The study found that, for India Post, there is no alternative than to leverage its infrastructure, trust and related services into a much larger role in e-commerce and egovernment. To be successful in Competition with other (private) competitors, it must be ready to offer high-quality IT – related services. .787 Looking at the above table, it was seen that, there was higher level of similarity among the respondents in assigning the ranks to the five items for finding the customers’ expectation. The respondents were asked to assign ranks by giving rank 1 to the most preferred item and rank 2 to the next most preferred item and like wise the least preferred item, a rank of 5. Looking at the mean ranks, it could be understood that the highest preference was given to the ‘Friendly approach’ and the lowest preference was given to ‘IT enabled services’ and ‘Timing ’. The moderate level of preferences was given to ‘Quality’ and ‘Immediate Response’. Reference 1. Avadhani V.A, “Investment Management” Himalaya Publishing House, First, Edition, New Delhi, 1996. 2. Grolier incorporation, Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 22. USA, 1984. 3. Charles Bravo, “United States Postal Service’s Environmental Strategy of Leadership and Compliance”, Environmental Management Policy, Engineering, United States Postal Service, 75L’Enfant Plaza SW, Washington, DC 20260-2810, USA, 2008. 4. Chris Nicholson, “Access Pricing in competitive postal services”, mnoGo search, 2008. 5. Crew, Michael A & Kleindorfer, Paul R & Smith, Marc A, “Peak-Load Pricing in Postal Services”, mnoGo Search, 1990. Suggestions Any institution will not be able to function effectively if required minimum manpower is not available. At present, in the postal department, dearth of man power is great. This condition should be corrected by appointing suitable qualified persons. The customer should be considered the most valuable element in the business plan for individual postal products. Ensuring timely SELP Journal of Social Science 23 October - December 2012
  24. 24. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 APPLICATION OF RS AND GIS FOR LAND USE/LAND COVER MAPPING& ENVIRONMENT CHANGE DETECTION IN MADURAI DIST,TN S.Muthu Meenakshi, Research Scholar Dr .A.Sundram Senior Professor & Head , Department of Solar Energy/Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021 ABSTRACT The present study was focused on demarcating boundaries of different land use/land cover units from an analysis of different types of color registrations of land use/land cover units from satelli te imagery. Based on visual image interpretation techniques, author divides the study area into forest, Land under cultivation, Land not suitable for cultivation, Land not available for cultivation classes. This study evaluates the effectiveness of High-Resolution satellite data and computer aided GIS techniques in assessing the land use change dynamics with in the study area Madurai District, from 1995 to 2005. Satellite images were used for the year 1995 and 2005 at scale 1:50000. Key Words: Land Cover Mapping, Land Form, Topography, Geomorphic Introduction Land use and land cover change means quantitative changes in areal extend (increase or decrease) of a given type of land use or land cover respectively. The detection and measurement of change depends on the spatial scale; higher the spatial level of detail, larger the changes in areal extent of land use and land cover which can be detected and recorded. In case of land cover as well as land use, the meaning and conceptualization of change is much broader. Change could be because of conversion or modification. In case of land cover change, conversion involves. Conversion from one type of use to another i.e. changes in the mix and pattern of land uses in an area. SELP Journal of Social Science Major Sectors for Land use and Land cover change The “determinants” or “driving forces” or “Sectors” of land use change are in general belonging either to bio-physical or socioeconomic categories. The bio-physical sectors include characteristics and processes of the natural environment such as weather and climate variables, landform, topography, geomorphic processes, volcanic eruptions, plant succession, soil types and processes, drainage patterns, availability of natural resources. The socioeconomic sectors comprise demographic, social, economic, political and institutional factors and processes such as population, population 24 October - December 2012
  25. 25. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 change, industrial structure and change, technology and technological change, the family, the market, various public sector bodies and the related policies and rules, values, community organization and norms, property regime.It is important to note that bio-physical drivers do not cause land use change directly. They do cause land cover change which, in turn, may influence land use decisions. Land use change may result in land cover changes. In this context, human driving forces, human mitigating forces and proximate driving forces are of much importance. Proximate driving sources are the aggregate final activities that result from the interplay of human driving and mitigating forces to directly cause environmental transformations either through the use of natural resources, through the use of space, through the output of waste or through the out put of products that in them affect the environment. Some of the examples of proximate sources of change are biomass burning, fertilizer applications, species transfer, plowing, irrigation, drainage, livestock, pasture improvement etc. Study area location: The District lies between 10°25’ and 9°65’ north latitude and 77 ° 48’ and 78° 35’ east longitude. The total geographical area of the district is about Madurai District consists of Seven Taluks, namely 1.Madurai north, 2.Madurai south, 3.Vadipatti, 4.Melur, 5.Thirumangalam, 6.Peraiyur and .Usilampatti. The Madurai District is divided into 13 Blocks. Materials and Methods Image interpretation can be carried out in two most popular ways e.g. Digital Analysis and Visual interpretation.During digital classification process training areas for different classes are defined on to the satellite imagery on spectral response pattern in different spectral bands is generated. Based on these training areas satellite imagery is classified into different classes using parametric or non parametric classifiers. Digital analysis is fast and output image is raster, which simpler in structure but big in size. Masks are often used for improving the classification of known areas. This portion details the description of different steps need to be followed during analysis of Land Use Land Cover using two temporal data of LISS -I and LISS -III. The methodology essentially is based on on-screen I head’s up interpretation using image interpretation keys. Semi automated approach can also be considered while analyzing few categories at local level. In onscreen visual interpretation the imagery is displayed onto a computer screen (normally as FCC) and intended classes are delineated based on image interpretation elements, ancillary and legacy data. Resultant output from this will be vector format, which supports complex GIS analysis and has smaller file size. Aims: (1) Analysis and Management of Evaluating Resource and impact of human dimension on land use land cover change. (2) Projecting future land use / land cover scenarios using appropriate models. Objectives: In order to arrive at the above aims, following objectives have been set three: 1. To generate land use / land cover database with uniform classification scheme for 1995 and 2005 using satellite data at 1: 250,000 scale. 2. To create database on demographic, socioeconomic, infrastructure parameters. 3. To integrate demographic, socio-economic, infrastructure parameters and minimum core climate. SELP Journal of Social Science Methodology The geo-corrected satellite data of IRS25 October - December 2012
  26. 26. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 Such information is useful for general planning purposes when detailed information is not mandatory. Built-up land, agricultural land, forest, wasteland, water bodies coastal lands and others comprise the land use/land cover categories. LISS-I and IRS-LISS-III for pre monsoon the period 1995 and 2005 will be utilized in order to understand the determination of land use/ land cover change. The land use / land cover maps generated for the period 2005 at 1:50,000 scales will be harmonized at 1: 250, 000 scales. During the process of harmonization, the polygons in the vector layer of master map (LULC map for the period 2005 at 1: 50,000 scale) will be resample in view the minimum mapable area at 1: 250,000 scale which is 56.25 ha. Thus, polygons smaller than 56.25 ha will be dissolved with the adjoining polygons so as to generate the map at 1: 250,000 scale. Land Use/Land Cover: Land use refers to ‘man’s activities and the various uses which are carried on land’. Land cover refers to ‘natural vegetation, water bodies, rock/soil, etc. Although land use is generally inferred based on the cover,yet both the terms are related and interchangeable. Categories that are enlisted under Level 1 contain broad land use/land cover classes that can be delineated using a coarser resolution satellite image with minimal assistance from supplemental information, at 1:1000000 scale. Classification scheme : Land use and land cover are not equivalent although they may overlap. Land cover is the physical state of the earth’s surface and immediate subsurface. In other words, Land cover describes the physical state of the land surface: as cropland, mountain or forests. Moser (1996) noted that the term – land cover originally referred to the type of vegetation that covered land surface, but has broadened subsequently to include human structures, such as buildings or pavement, and other aspects of the physical environment, such as soils, biodiversity, surfaces and ground water. Briefly, land use denotes the human employment of land. Activities which are directly related to land, making use of its resources or having an impact on them. International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) has accordingly released a LANDUSELANDCOVER 2005(HA) 1995(HA) 2005% 1995% Barren Land 1391 2298 0.62 0.37 0.25 Built-up 13615 5406 3.66 1.45 2.21 Crop Land 99675 94738 26.83 25.50 1.33 Dense Forest 9985 13025 2.69 3.51 -0.82 Evergreen Forest 6203 2770 1.67 0.75 0.92 Fellow Land 68423 111897 18.42 30.12 -11.7 Moderate Forest 3661 6476 0.99 1.74 -0.75 Plantation 98542 30299 26.52 8.15 18.37 Scrub Land 43942 70506 11.83 18.98 -7.15 Water Bodies 23485 22926 6.32 6.17 0.15 Waste Land 1724 12120 0.46 3.26 -2.8 TOTAL 370714 370714 100.00 100.00 SELP Journal of Social Science 26 Change October - December 2012
  27. 27. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 classification scheme for Land Use Land cover Change studies. The classification scheme adopted for the present paper is in the IGBP scheme for implementation at 1:250,000 scale. Table1.Gives the LULC classification scheme for the paper. Table1.Area covered by various - Land Use and Land Cover classes during 1995 & 2005 Accuracy assessment: In order to know how accurate the map is for use, the accuracy of the map generated can be determined in the following manner after collecting the ground survey. While conducting the ground survey, care must be taken to ensure that the ground measurements are based on the entire mapped polygon or some subset of that polygon with the understanding that the subset will be used as a surrogate for the entire mapped polygon. At this point in the analysis, we will have sample points with ground reference data and original map. The sample point observations can be integrated in the following ways, so as to find out that the real world observation is similar to the mapped observations. The calculation of Kappa coefficient is as follows: Modeling land use and land cover change: The two time period data has been use to model the land use change in Thindivanam Taluk. The 1995 and 2005 vector layer data has been used to modeling.The land use change model used was CA- Markof model which gives a Markof’s probabilistic model of the probable land use change.The land use change from 1995 to 2005 has been a result of var ious anthropogenic as well as climatic factors. Till date there has been little work towards quantitative assessment of the various sectors of land use changes. Since the assessments of various socio-economic factors are qualitative, there has been at the onset to select the sectors which will lend themselves to statistical evaluation. We have selected the following socio-economic and the environmental sectors for their identification and quantification Table2. Variation Land Use and Land Cover classes The Methodology followed for this paper is described in the previous chapter. Multispectral satellite data for 1995 (IRS-1B LISS-1) and 2005 (IRS P6 LISS-III). Major Classification of 2005 data for 6 major land use and land cover types have been carried out using a combination of unsupervised classification followed by on screen interpretation of the various classes for correct representation of the various land use and land cover boundaries. This has been done to ensure that all the land cover classes in the study area is taken care of while interpretation of the region. using 1995 and 2005 images land use and land cover vector layer is prepared. SELP Journal of Social Science Analytical result: The Land Use and Land Cover change which have occurred in the Madurai District as well as the ongoing change are influenced by mainly two sectors, i.e. the anthropogenic as well as the bio-geo-climatic sectors. Since the bio-geo climatic sectors sector are at a very coarse spatial scale when we into account the spatial extent of a study area, so it is the anthropogenic sector which are playing a major role in the spatial variability in the land use and land cover changes in the region. This is does not means that the bio-geo –chemical factors are non-existent, in fact bio-geochemical factors in association with the anthropogenic 27 October - December 2012
  28. 28. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 factors have solely responsible for the changes in the land use and land cover in the region. As an indicator of bio-geo-chemical sector we have taken the rainfall as the representative of sector and the total population as the representative of the anthropogenic pressure. It has been observed that in 1995 the waste lands, salt affected area, scrub land have shown the highest level of correlation coefficient with respect to the combined influence of the anthropogenic influence where as in 2005 the highest for crop land and built up followed by waste land scrub land and salt affected land. This is an interesting piece of information as it gives a clear impact of the various developmental policies which have caused the changes in various land use and land cover. References:  ERDAS, ERDAS Field Guide, Fourth Edition, Revised and Expanded, ERDAS, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, p. 35, p. 152, 153.  Congalton, R. G., 1991. A Review of Assessing the Accuracy of Classification of Remotely Sensed Data, Remote Sensing. Environ. 37: 35-46.  Aplin, P., Atkinson, P. M., and Curran, P. J., 1999. Fine Spatial Resolution Simulated Satellite Sensor imagery or Land cover Mapping in the UK, Remote Sensing. Environ., 68: 206-216.  S.N.Das,R.Inoke, B.R. M Rao and B.M. Singh - Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing VOL 16,NO;2,June 1988. Conclusion:  M Kudrat and A.K.Tiwari Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing VOL 18, NO; 4. During the 50yrs, demand for food by a wealthier and 50% of layer global population will be the major driver of global environmental change. Earth observations have the potential to respond to the growing and urgent demand for timely and accurate land cover information over large areas. In the recent past, land cover mapping form satellites has come of age. Through research on various issues regarding data pre-processing, classification and accuracy assessment .the future research in LU/LC change studies need to address the best way of taking advantage of satellite derived land cover databases through LULC change modeling techniques which provide important for studies in the emerging areas of environmental monitoring, global warming climate change and hazards managements. SELP Journal of Social Science  Anjireddy [2001], Remote sensing and GIS BSP publication , Hydrabad  Lillsand, Thomas, Ralph. W. Kiefer[1994],Remote sensing and Image  Interpretation, 3 rd edition john widely sour New York.  Nithya Kalyani M[1999] development of rural settlement in Madurai Area Sabins, FF. Floyed.K [1986] ,Remote Sensing Principles.  Interpretation 2nd edition, W.H. Freeman and CO, New  R.E.Hourseasa, D.C. Hoshale, S.S.Dhaliwal, Minakshe, P.K. Sharma, 28 October - December 2012
  29. 29. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol III : Issue. 13 October - December 2012 INTERNET ADDICTION AND RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR OF MARRIED IT PROFESSIONALS Robin Mathew John MSc Applied Psychology Dr. K. Manikandan Associate Professor Department of Psychology, University of Calicut , Calicut University (P.O) Kerala ABSTRACT Nowadays, many individuals are working with software industry or computer assisted works where they are forced to meet their target within the time limit, which makes them internet addicts. This internet addiction affects family or individual relationships positively or negatively which may leads to problems in human relation especially in family life. The purpose of this study was to fin d out the internet addiction and relationship behavior of IT professionals. The participants of study consist of 140 IT professionals. Internet Addiction Scale and Relationship Quotient Inventory were used for data collection. Keywords: Internet Addiction, IT Professionals, Relationship Behavior. which resulting in impairments of real life relationships, family, academic, financial and occupational problems. The research has found that internet addiction is a type of impulsive control problem and Young (1999) claims as internet addiction can be categorized as cyber sexual addiction, cyber- relationship addiction, net compulsion, information overload and computer addiction. There have been several needs such as sexual needs, need for altered state of consciousness, need to belong and need for relationship, that evoke understanding of internet addictive behaviour (Young, 1996). For some people, the cyberspace supplement to in-person relationships. They try out with Introduction Internet addiction is a problematic computer use or excessive computer use that interferes or troubles with the daily life of internet users. Goldberg in 1995 first described the phenomenon of internet addiction. According to Gawel (1998), internet addiction is defined as “when the individual using computer for pleasure, gratification or relief from stresses; feeling irritable and out of control or depressed when not using it and neglecting work, school, or family obligations”. Some internet users may develop emotional attachments to online friends and enjoy aspects of the internet that allow them to meet, socialize and exchange ideas through the use of chat rooms or virtual communities, SELP Journal of Social Science 29 October - December 2012
  30. 30. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 new ways to express themselves and types of relationships. For those who rely too heavily on cyber companions to the exclusion of inperson socializing, the outcome can be less satisfying, disappointing, and even destructive. Internet addiction occurs when the person fails to see these problems. The excessive preoccupation with cyberspace relationships often is a preoccupation with one’s own psyche. The anonymous text-only communication of chat and e-mail can draw out powerful transference reactions. Transference reactions also can be amplified by a lack of response. Interpersonal or intimate relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from fleeting to enduring. A relationship is normally viewed as a connection between two individuals which usually involves some levels of interdependence. Because of which, most things that impact one member will have some level of impact on the other member. Kerala. To select the participants’ incidental sampling method was used. The age of the participants ranged from 21-50 years. The sample comprises of male (62.14%) and females (37.86%) among them 25.70% are of age 25 and below, 45.70% are of age 26-30, 17.10% are of age 31-35, 7.10% are of age 3640 and 4.30% are of age 41 and above. Among the participants 55 (39.30%) are of first born, 55 (39.30%) are of second born and 30 participants (21.40%) are of later born. Out of 140 participants 100 (71.4%) are having their spouse employed and 40 (28.6%) with unemployed spouse. Regarding marital life 69 (49.3%) participants having below 2 years of married life and 71 (50.7%) with above 2 years of married life. Instruments To collect data from the participants, Student Internet Addiction Test-SIAT (Sandheesh & Sam Sananda Raj, 2009) and Relationship Quotient Inventory (Jayan & Sreelatha, 2012) were used and details of the instruments are discussed separately. 1. The Student Internet Addiction Test: This instrument consisted of 18 statements with 5 possible responses for each. It is an effective measure to assess the severity and change over time on symptoms of Internet addiction. The response categories of this test is Strongly disagree (A), Disagree (B), Uncertain (C), Agree (D), Strongly agree (E) respectively. The SIAT have an inter rater reliability of .92. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was found to be .84. The concurrent validity of SIAT with Internet Addiction Test is 0.88. The SIAT consisted of both positive and negative statements. For positive items the scores run: 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5; and 5, 4, 3, 2, & 1 for negative items. 2. Relationship Quotient Inventory: This inventory is measuring the relationship behavior of subjects and consists of 20 items Objectives 1. To find out the correlation between internet addiction and relationship behaviour. 2. To find out the influence of internet addiction on relationship behavior. 3. To find out the association of demographic variables with the variables under study. Hypotheses 1. There will be significant correlation between internet addiction and relationship behavior. 2. There will be significant influence of internet addiction on relationship behavior. 3. There will be significant association between internet addiction, relationship behavior and demographic variables. Method Participants The participants of this study consisted of 140 married IT professionals working in software industries situated inside and outside SELP Journal of Social Science 30 October - December 2012
  31. 31. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 with 6 response categories as A, B, C, D, E, and F denoting Strongly disagree, Neutral, Mildly agree, Moderately agree, Agree, and Strongly agree. Higher scores indicate high relationship behavior and lower score indicates low relationship behavior. The inventory has a Cronbach alpha coefficient of .96 and claimed to have face validity. The RQI had a 6 point response format in which 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 scores were given for the response categories A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. The minimum possible score is 0 and the maximum score is 100. (1999) who reported that powerful potential to romantic and sexual relationships on-line which negatively impact one’s stable marriages. Young (1996) who reported that addictive use of the internet have a significant impairment to family life, thus affecting their relationship. Blais, Craig, Pepler and Connolly (2008) found that Internet activity choice influenced later relationship quality in both best friendships and romantic relationships. Chou, Condron and B2lland (2000) found that the high communication pleasure score to be a high predictor of dependence and, aspects of relationship did cor relate with Internet addiction. But Grov, Gillespie, Royce and Lever (2010) provides finding that men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem online sexual activity fostered better sexual communication with partners. To find out the relationship pattern of internet addiction and relationship behavior for males and females, separate correlation between internet addiction and relationship behavior for males and females were computed and found that there exists no significant corelation between internet addiction and relationship behavior for male subjects. Ko, Chih-Hung, Ju, Chung, Huei, and Cheng-Fang (2005) examined gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents and they found that lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. But among females participants the correlation coefficient was significant (r = -.50, p< .01). Alonzo (2005) suggests that there is a significant positive relationship between the level of internet use and sexual intimacy as experienced by the wife and there was a significant negative relationship between Procedure After getting consent from the managers of human resource department and employees; the instruments were distributed to the participants then the purpose, nature and importance of the study were clarified. The managers arranged a favorable environment for data collection. Assurance was given to each participant that the information gathered from them would be used only for research purpose and their identity would be kept confidential. After completion, the instruments were collected back and checked for any omissions, then scored according to the scoring scheme given in the manual. The data were entered into statistical software for analysis. The statistical techniques used in this study are correlation, one-way ANOVA and Scheffe’s F test. Results and Discussion To test the first hypotheses Pearson product moment correlation was calculated and it was found to be -0.36 (p<.01), implying that there exist a negative significant correlation between internet addiction and relationship behavior and indicates that when internet addiction of the subjects increased it will result in decreased interpersonal/intimate relationship patterns or relationship behavior. The result supports the findings of Young, O’Mara and Buchanan SELP Journal of Social Science 31 October - December 2012
  32. 32. Vol . III : Issue. 13 ISSN:0975-9999 husband’s internet use and intimacy experienced by the couples. The results of comparisons of mean scores of relationship behavior (Scheffe’s procedure) by internet addiction revealed that the level of internet addiction affects the relationship behaviors of high and low internet addiction groups (F = 15.98 p < .01) and average and low internet addiction (F = 9.83, p< .01). The calculated mean score of low internet addiction is 79.55, for the high internet addiction mean score is 65.90 and for the average internet addiction is 71.57 respectively on their relationship behavior. Since, the subjects are IT professional they are working with internet which helps them to meet their targets, so that they become addicted to internet which badly affects their relationship. Influence of Internet Addiction on Relationship Behavior To find out the influence of internet addiction on relationship behavior, the variable internet addiction was classified into three groups as low internet addiction, average internet addiction and high internet addiction based on the principle of Mean ±1SD. This has yielded 29 (20.7%) participants to low internet addiction, 90 (64.3%) participants to average internet addiction and 21 (15%) participants to high internet addiction category. One-way ANOVA was carried out to know the influence of internet addiction on relationship behavior and the results are presented in table 1. Internet Addiction, Relationship Behavior and Demographics To know how the demographic variables like sex, education, and duration of marriage are associated with internet addiction and relationship behavior, t-test and one-way ANOVA was computed separately for each demographic variable on internet addiction and relationship behavior. The results are presented in the following tables. Table 1 Summary of one-way ANOVA of relationship behavior by internet addiction **p<.01 From the table 1, it can be seen that there is a significant difference exist among the three groups of internet addiction on relationship behavior (F(2, 137) = 8.56, p<.01). To know which group makes the difference on relationship behavior, multiple comparisons of means (Scheffe’s procedure) were calculated and presented in table 2. Table 3 Mean, Standard deviation, and t value of Relationship Behavior and Internet Addiction by Sex and Employment status Table 2 Comparisons of mean scores of relationship Behavior (Scheffe’s procedure) by internet addition. SELP Journal of Social Science *p< .05 The above table gives Mean, Standard Deviation, and t value of internet addiction and relationship behavior by sex and employment status. From the result it can be inferred that 32 October - December 2012