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RESEARCH EXPLORER -2 ISSUE RESEARCH EXPLORER -2 ISSUE Document Transcript

  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 DUAL MODE SERIES RESONANT DC-DC CONVERTER FOR WIDE LOAD VARIATIONS Harine Kanagaraj Institute of System Science National University of Singapore, Singapore ABSTRACT In order to satisfy demands like higher conversion efficiency and power density, many topologies and control methods are proposed. Among them, dc to dc series resonant converters with zero voltage switching features are getting more attention. This paper presents the design of a dual mode full-bridge series resonant converter (FB-SRC). It is operated in series resonant mode at normal loads or higher loads. The switching frequency is varied to regulate the output voltage. The fixed frequency phase shifted pulse width modulation, on the other hand, is used to adjust the effective duty cycle and regulate the output voltage at light loads . The proposed converter exhibits high conversion efficiency for wide range load conditions. Keywords : Conversion efficiency, phase-shifted full-bridge converter, series resonant converter (SRC), Zero volatge switching (ZVS), pulse width modulation (PWM) Introduction of ZVT soft-switching power converters is the installation of resonant components that reduce conduction losses [6]. The switching devices in converters with a pulse width modulation (PWM) control can be gated to synthesize the desired shape of the output voltage or current. However, the devices are turned on and off at the load current with a high di/dt value. The switches are subjected to a high voltage stress and the switching power losses increases [2]. The turn on and turn off losses could be a significant portion of the total power loss. The electromagnetic interference is also produced due to the high di/dt and dv/dt in the converter waveforms. The disadvantages of the pwm control can be eliminated if the switching devices are turned on and turned off when the voltage and current are forced to pass through zero crossing by creating an LC-resonant circuit , thereby called a resonant pulse converter [4]. The main benefit of the converter is the extension of resonant time using two clamp diodes. The improvement in the voltage and current stress over th ose obtai ne d usin g tradi ti onal re so nant components implies in reduction of switching losses and the elimination of parasitic effect. Due to its high current gain, series resonant converters are mainly used for applications like arc welding, electronic ballast, induction heating and fluorescent lighting involving wide range load variations. Series Resonant Converter Principle of operation The series resonant converter shown in fig.1 converts dc voltage into ac through full bridge inverter and then converts ac voltage again to dc. It works on the basis of resonant current oscillation. The resonating components and switching devices are placed in series with the load to form an underdamped circuit. The size of resonating components is small due to the high switching frequency. The operating frequency is generally The primary design feature of ZVS PWM power converters is the addition of an auxiliary switch in the quasi-resonant circuit. Resonance is dominated by the auxiliary switch, which generates resonance and temporarily stops a period that can be regulated, there by overcoming the disadvantages of fixed conduction or cutoff time in a quasiresonant power converter. The main design feature Research Explorer 1 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 snubber capacitors and subsequent turn on of the reverse diode for conduction close to the resonant frequency of the tank. Operation with switching frequency lesser than resonant frequency is called sub reson ant frequency operation. The input voltage sees a net capacitive tank circuit and facilitates ZCS. When switching frequency is greater than resonant frequency, the operation is termed as super resonant frequency and the tank presents a net inductive circuit which facilitates ZVS. The delay time has to be small enough to prevent the tank current from reversing before the switch turns on. The Resonance Concept From a circuit standpoint, a dc-to-dc resonant converter can be described by three major circuit blocks as shown in the figure 2 Dual mode condition The dc-to-ac input inversion circuit, the resonant energy buffer tank circuit, and the ac-to-dc output rectifying circuit For a series resonant converter, the output voltage is regulated by changing the switching frequency. However, it is impractical to raise the switching frequency at lighter loads due to the limitation of semiconductor switch device. Several schemes are proposed to solve this problem such as burst mo de con trol [7] , turn off ti me modulation,etc. The penalty is that the ZVS feature is no longer kept. In this paper, the phase-shifted duty cycle control with ZVS at a fixed highest switching frequency is proposed to regulate the output voltage at light loads. Although the phaseshifted modulation features the constant switching frequency and ZVS function over wide input voltage and output load ranges, its efficiency at heavy load is lower than that of an SRC due to the high duty cycle loss. Therefore, the proposed control scheme adopts the frequency modulation with heavy-load efficiency and the phase-shifted modulation [5] with a better output voltage regulation and ZVS function at light loads. Through this dual mode operation higher conversion efficiency is fulfilled for widerange load variations. The resonant tank serves as an energy buffer between the input and the output is normally synthesized by using a lossless frequency selective network Th e ac-to-dc co nversi on is ach ie ve d by incorporating rectifier circuits at the output section of the converter Proposed Circuit and Its Operation It consists of a full bridge inverter consisting of four MOSFETS fed by a dc source. The next section is the resonant tank section formed by a resonant inductor and capacitor connected in series. Finally a diode rectifier along with filter and load circuit is used. Here Dc to Ac and again to Dc conversion is carried out. Figure 3 shows the circuit diagram of the proposed series resonant converter. Zero voltage switching When the PM-SRC is operated such that its switching frequency is greater than the resonant frequency of the tank, zero-voltage turn-on of the inverter devices is possible because the effective impedance offered by the resonant tank is inductive. Tank current lags the input voltage. ZVS ensures the inherent output capacitance in the switching devices is discharged prior to switch turnon, thus prevent turn-on losses and generated EMI. Fig 1 Proposed series resonant converter The proposed FB-SRC has 4 MOSFET switches Q A ~ Q D with the output parasitic capacitors Coss, A ~ Coss, B. Lr and Cr forms the series resonant circuit. A centre tapped transformer of turn ratio n: 1:1 is used. Two rectifying diodes D1 and D2 are employed. The filter capacitor is Co. RL is the load resistance. The control signals of QA/QD and QB/QC are complementary. Dead times preventing the simultaneous conduction of switches are inserted to delay the turn-ons of the Basic requirements of ZVS · The device should turn off with a positive current flowing through it · The delay time and turn off current have to be large enough to completely charge/discharge the Research Explorer 2 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 switches. When QA/QD or QB/QC conducts, the input power is transferred to the output load. Zero voltage switchings are achieved by the resonance of Lr and the equivalent capacitor formed by the parallel connection of Cr and the output parasitic capacitors of the switches during dead times. ISSN:2250 - 1940 The gate pulses applied to the above converter is shown in fig 3. The leading leg switches are given by S1 and S1’ and lagging leg switches are given by S2 and S2’. The tank current i(t) is rectified by a diode bridge rectifier and filtered by a capacitive filter to get required output voltage. The magnitude and wave shape of the resonant current depends on fs, D and the load factor (Q) of the converter. Q is defin ed as the ratio o f reson an t tank characteristic impedance and the resistive load as seen from the resonant tank. Fig 3 The gate pulses for switching frequency modulation mode This mode of operation can be explained under 3 states. They are:  First energy transfer state (t0 d” t d” t1)  First resonance state (t1 d” t d” t2)  First commutation state (t2 d” t d” t3)  For phase modulation full bridge inverter with fully controlled devices is required as shown in fig 3 each device is switched at 50% duty ratio with the switching of the devices on the same leg being complementary. As shown in fig 4, conduction of switches on the same leg of the inverter (S1 and S1’) is phase shifted with respect to the conduction of switches on the lagging leg (S2 and S2’) , resulting in the quasi-square input voltage. First Energy Transfer State (t0 d” t d” t1) : In this state, QB and QC are turned on, and QA and QD are turned off. D1 conducts and energy is tran sferre d to th e se co ndary throu gh the transformer.  First Resonance State (t1 d” t d” t2) All the switches are turned off during this state. Since the inductor current iLr must be continuous, it discharges Coss, A and Coss, D to zero voltage, and charges Coss, B and Coss, C to VI. Then zero- voltage turn-ons of QA and QD can be achieved. As long as iLr is larger than the reflected secondary load current, D1 is still conducting. The load power is supplied by Lr. Fig 2 Gate waveforms of series resonant converter  In this state, QA and QD are turned on, and QB and QC are turned off. iLr flows through body diodes DA and DD initially. Since the energy at the primary side is insufficient, the load power is supplied by C0. Modes of Operation There are two modes of operation in the proposed FB-SRC. They are:  B. Phase shift modulation mode Frequency Modulation keeping duty ratio constant  The gate signals for phase shift modulation scheme are presented in fig 4. For the PS PWM, it can be observed that dead times. During which ZVS is accomplished, are inserted before turning on switches . It can also be noticed that before ZVS takes place, there are two resonance states (t1 ~ t2 and t3 ~ t4) . Phase Shift Modulation keeping switching frequency constant A. Switching frequency modulation mode The gate signals for switching frequency modulation mode is shown in fig 3. Research Explorer First Commutation State (t2 d” t d” t3) : 3 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 the required energy. The transformer is in freewheeling state. A short circuit appears at the transformer secondary . To achieve ZVS, the energy stored in the equivalent resonant inductor must be larger than that in the equivalent resonant capacitor.  Commutation State (t4 d” t d” t5) : During this state, the transformer primary is short-circuited. A voltage of -VI is across the Lr – Cr combination. Therefore, iLr decreases linearly until its magnitude is larger than the reflected load current. Then, the transformer starts to transfer energy and the other half switching cycle begins. D1 is turned off, and D2 conducts. Co is also charged. Fig 4 The gate signals for phase shift modulation scheme Here there are 5 operating states They are :  Energy transfer state ( t0 d” t d” t1) Defining Terms and Assumptions  First resonance state (t1 d” t d” t2)  Linear Discharge state (t2 d” t d” t3) The resonant tank has a natural frequency determined by the resonant capacitor and resonant inductor.  Second resonance state (t3 d” t d” t4) fs = switching frequency  Commutation state (t4 d” t d” t5) fr = resonant frequency  Energy Transfer State ( t0 d” t d” t1) : Pin = Input power Pout = Output power In this state, QB and QC are turned on, and D1 conducts. The input energy is transferred to the secondary through the transformer, and C0 is charged.  D = Duty ratio = Efficiency First resonance state (t1 d” t d” t2) : At t1, QC turns off. iLr stops increasing , then charges Coss, C to VI and discharges Coss, D to zero voltage. DD conducts at t = t2 . The equivalent resonant inductor (Lr) and the equivalent resonant capacitor ( Cr + Coss) starts resonanting. Since the primary current is larger than the reflected load current , D1 still conducts and D2 carries no current.  where Lr and Cr are resonant tank elements D = Ton / Ts/2 Where Ts = switching period VI = Input voltage Vo = Output voltage short-circuited. A voltage of Linear Discharge state (t2 d” t d” t3) : M = gain = Vo/ VI DD conducts at the end of the last state. Therefore QD can be turned on at zero voltage . The primary voltage is zero. The energy stored in Lr is transferred through the transformer to the secondary.  The parameter Zc called the characteristic impedance of the tank is defined as Capacitor Cr can be found by the following relation Second resonance state (t3 d” t d” t4) : Cr = 1/ùrZc This state starts when QB is turned off. iLr charges Coss, B to VI and discharges Coss, A to zero voltage. Then DA conducts and the resonance stops. During this state, Lr is not capable to supply Research Explorer Inductor Lr can be given by Lr = ùr/Zc Current is given by i = VI / Zc 4 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Conclusion S.B.Zheng and D.Czarkowski, “ Modelling and digital control of a phase-controlled series-parallel resonant converter” , IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron ., vol. 54, no.2, pp. 707-715. Apr. 2007. To avoid poor output voltage regulation and low conversion efficiency at light loads, a dual-mode control strategy is presented in this paper. The FB SRC is operated under switching frequency modulation for most of the load range to achieve ZVS and low switching noises. For the lighter loads, the FB SRC is operated under phase-shifted duty cycle modulation to regulate the output voltage and maintain the ZVS feature. The proposed two-mode control scheme for a FB SRC is especially suitable for applications with wide input voltage and load variations. Z.M.Ye, P.K.Jain, and P.C.Sen, “ A full-bridge resonant inverter with modified phase-shift modulation for high frequency ac power distribution systems”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 2831-2845, Oct. 2007 G.B.Koo, G.W.Moon and M.J.Youn, “New zerovoltage-switching phase-shift full-bridge converter with low conduction losses”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron ., vol.52, no1, pp 228-235 , Feb 2005. References Y.K..Lo, S.C.Sen and C.Y.Lin , “ A high efficiency ac-to dc adaptor with a low standby power consumption”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.55, no.2, pp. 963-965, Feb 2008. M.K.Kazimierczuk , “S ynthe sis o f phase modulated resonant Dc/Ac inverters and Dc/Dc converters”, Proc. Inst.elect. Eng. B – Elect. Power Appl. . vol. 139, no.4, pp. 387-394, Jul 1992. B.R.Lin, K.Huang, and D.Wang, “ Analysis and implementation of full-bridge converter with current doubler rectifier “, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. – Elect. Power Appl., vol 152, no.5, pp.1193-1202, Sep. 2005. M.K.Kazimierczuk and D.Czarkowski, Resonant Power Converters, New York : Wiley- Interscience, 1995 X.Ruan and Y.Yan,” An improved phase shifted zero-voltage and zero-current switching PWM co nverte r”, in Pro c. IEEE. Appl . Po we r. Electron.conf.1998, pp 811-815. BOOKS AVAILABLE IN SELP TRUST The following books are available with attractive discount in the Selp trust office Books Financial Management Author Price ( Rs) Discount (%) C.Paramasivan T.Subramanian 200 20 Research methodology C.Paramasivan 250 25 Human Rights C.Paramasivan 100 25 Women Empowerment C.Paramasivan 1350 50 Bank finance to SSI C.Paramasivan 850 50 IT in financial sectors C.Paramasivan 500 50 A¿]ÂïVâ|© AéDÃ_ï^ ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 g>oªV_ ïV>_ ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 yâÄ[B ÃVìçk ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 ÄV>çªï^ ÄVÝ]B¼ ïsB[Ã[ 50 20 Research Explorer 5 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 TOBACCO USE AMONG STUDENTS IN A RURAL COLLEGE IN ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS Dr. B. Prabhuram Associate Professor and Head, Department of Cooperative Management, Mahatma Gandhi Government College, Mayabunder-744 204, Andaman and Nicobar Islands ABSTRACT The present study was conducted in order to find out the use of tobacco among the students in a rural college of North and Middle Andaman District. From the total 556 students, 283 were boys (51 per cent) and 273 girls (49 percent). Majority of them hailed from rural areas and stayed in hostel. About 180 (32.4 per cent) were using tobacco in both smoking as well as smokeless form (boys 53.7 per cent and girls 10.3 per cent); 72 (12.9 per cent) were past tobacco users and remaining were non-users. Smokeless form of tobacco use was more popular among boys and girls and girls did not smoke. Use of tobacco was high among the students hailing from rural areas and among the students staying in hostels. Key Words : Tobacco use, college, Students, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Introduction Tobacco is the second major cause of mortality leading to the death of one in ten adults worldwide, accounting for about 5.4 million deaths every year constituting approximately 12 per cent of global deaths. The death toll from tobacco is expected to increase to eight million a year by 2030; and if the current trend continues unchecked, there will be up to one billion tobacco-related deaths during 21st century, many of which will be from developing countries. The state of the epidemic of tobacco use in India was comprehensively described in the recently completed Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Over 35 per cent of adults in India use tobacco, primarily smokeless (about 164 million), but there are 42 million users of both smokeless and smoked products, and an additional 69 million who only smoke. India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world; second only to China where tobacco is popular both in smokeless as well smoked forms. With the growing evidence of harmful and hazardous effects of tobacco, the Government of India enacted various legislation and comprehensive tobacco control measures. The Government of India enacted comprehensive legislation, the “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Research Explorer 6 Products (prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act” (COTPA) as a multimeasure law in May 2003. This Act sought to curb tobacco use through a variety of measures, including requiring smoke free public places, banning advertising of tobacco products and sale of tobacco products to minors, mandating pictorial depiction of health warnings on tobacco packets, and prohibiting tobacco sponsorship of sports and cultural events. Rules were framed to implement this law, most recent was “The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Packing and Labeling) Rules, 2006” on July 5, 2006. India has played a strong leadership role in the global fight against tobacco and in the development of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Materials and Methods In the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, there are four colleges established by the Government – three situated in Port Blair the capital of the UT (each one in Arts and Science; Education and Engineering) and the fourth one in a rural area of North and Middle Andaman district. The study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Government July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 College, Mayabunder in North and Middle Andaman district(offers three year degree course in six disciplines in arts and science) being the only college in rural area; covering total students of 556. A se lf-admin iste re d, an on ymou s pre-te sted questionnaire for tobacco use survey of college students consisting of questions related with the identification data and tobacco use by students was used. The self-administered questionnaire was administered in the class room. Students were explained about how to fill up the questionnaire and motivated to provide authentic information. They were assured that all information would be kept confidential. The survey was carried out in February and March 2012. There were 556 (86.5 per cent) responses out of 643 students on roll; 87 students (13.5 per cent) were absent. From a total of 556 students 283 were boys (85.6 per cent to total boys of the college) and 273 were girls (87.2 per cent to total girls). ISSN:2250 - 1940 Students used tobacco because it made them feel alert, quieted their nerves or helped them control their appetites – or just because smoking or chewing tobacco felt good and not smoking or not chewing tobacco doesn’t. The arguments for not consuming tobacco are logical and persuasive. Hence the reasons for not continuing the tobacco use by past users i.e., 72 students were recorded. Among 72, two-third of the students has tasted tobacco just for fun because of peer group influence. About one-fourth informed that they did not find the taste in food after having consumed tobacco. Use of tobacco among rural and urban students: The table 2 depicts that out of total 441 rural students more than one-third of them (i.e. 35.1 per cent) used tobacco in this college, as compared to 22 per cent of the urban students 115. Not a single urban girl was using tobacco during the survey period in this college. The inter-area (rural vs. urban) differences in use of tobacco among the college students are significant statistically as the calculated c2 value is higher than table value at the 5 per cent level. Result A total of 556 (51 per cent boys and 49 per cent girls) students (17-25 years old) were studied. Among these, 70 per cent of students (almost an equal number of boys and girls) were residing in hostels. Of the 556, 441 students i.e. 79 per cent came from rural area and the remaining 115 (21 per cent) from urban area. Of the total students, about 39 per cent had studied in first year degree course; 32 per cent in second year and 29 per cent were in third year. Table 1 depicts that among 556 students of the college, 180 of them i.e. 32.4 per cent were current tobacco users in this college. The boys had high rate of current tobacco use (53.7 per cent) as compared to the girls (10.3 per cent). Three hundred four students i.e., 54.7 per cent (Boys 29.3 per cent and Girls 80.9 per cent) had never used tobacco at any point of time in their past life. Seventy-two students forming 12.9 per cent had not used or tasted tobacco just before 30 days of the survey. Table 2: Rural-Urban Classification of Students using tobacco Boys n (%) Girls n (%) Rural 28(10.3) 48(17.0) 24(8.8) 83(29.3) 221(80.9) 283(100) 273(100) 152 (53.2) 28 (10.3) 180 (32.4) Boys n (% ) Hosteller 111 (56.9) Day Student 41(47.1) Total 152 (53.2) Girls n (% ) Total n (% ) 20 (10.4) 131(33.6) 8 (10.1) 49 (29.5) 28 (10.3) 180(32.4) Hostellers=390 Students (Boys=195; Girls=193) Day Students =166 (Boys=87; Girls=79) c2 = 0.348 Table value: 3.84 Table value: 7.81 Research Explorer 25(21.7) Table-3: Classification of Tobacco Users as Hostellers and Day Students 556(100) 2 = 155.84 0 Consumption of Tobacco by Hostellers and Day students: 304(54.7) Total 25(47.1) c2 = 5.37 Table value: 3.84 72(12.9) Not Consuming 155(35.1) Rural =441 Students (Boys=232; Girls=209) Urban=115 Students (Boys=51; Girls=64) 180(32.4) Past users of tobacco 28 (13.4) Total Boys n (%) Girls n (%) Total n (%) Current tobacco users 152 (53.7) 127(54.7) Urban Table-1: Distribution of Tobacco Users Tobacco Use Total n (%) 7 Among the hostellers, 33.6 per cent used tobacco while it was 29.5 per cent in day students (Table 3). Even though there was higher per cent of tobacco users in boys hostel than the day students July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 (56.9 per cent vs. 47.1 per cent), there was no much difference between the hostellers and days students of the girls in use of tobacco. The c2 statistics show that there is no significant difference in use of tobacco between hostel students and day students. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Figures in parentheses indicate percentage (Yule Co-efficient of association Total: 0.43; Boys: 0.30 & Girls: 1) The college was established in 1994 at Mayabunder. Till then the college did not have play ground and the existing indoor games facility would accommodate less than 10 per cent of the students. Further, no co-curricular and extra-curricular activities were conducted in this college since November 2009. The teaching work starts in this college at 9.00 am and ends at 2.40 pm. The college could not engage the students especially the hostel inmates in productive way after college hours. He nce it may be i nferre d that th e po or infrastructure might be the reasons for additional tobacco users year after year. The structural weakness in implementing the ban on tobacco use on campus was another reason for more tobacco users. More than half of the tobacco users used tobacco during the college hours that formed 17 per cent to the total students surveyed. There was no comprehensive tobacco control effort in this college which is substantiated that two-third of the employees, especially the teachers were also tobacco users. The use of tobacco products by the teachers and other staff in front of the students sends a dangerous message about the social acceptability of tobacco use on the campus. Hence it may be said that tobacco use by parents, teachers and friends are associated with students’ tobacco habits in the present study. Factors Associated with tobacco use: An attempt was made to assess the factors associated with tobacco use among the college students. The factors were assessed in two phases: at the student level and at the college level. As student level factors it was observed that among the current tobacco users, 50 per cent of them entered the college with the habit of tobacco use who formed 16.2 per cent to the total students of the college. The prevalence and intensity of tobacco use progressively increased with the number of years in this college. For instance, the use of tobacco increased from 16.2 per cent in the beginning of the first year to 27.2 per cent in beginning of second year; to 31 per cent in the beginning of third year and ultimately to 32.4 per cent at the end of third year. Thus it may be said that these 16.2 per cent of the students influenced their friends which became 32.4 of the tobacco users in this college. It was observed that 178 out of 180 current tobacco users and all the past tobacco users i.e. 72 students in this college said that their friends were the first source to uptake tobacco use. Thus peer pressure is an important direct factor that influenced the tobacco use of young people. However, the parental influence cannot be ignored in tobacco use among the college students. It is noted that out of the total tobacco users in this college 91 per cent of them belonged to the family in which at least any one family member, parents or siblings consumed tobacco while only 9 per cent belonged to non-consuming family (Table-4). When 89 per cent of the tobacco using boys belonged to tobacco consuming family, the entire tobacco using girls belonged to the tobacco consuming family. Discussion This is the first study in Andaman and Nicobar Islands to assess the prevalence of tobacco habit among college students. The study had two limitations, first: it was based on tobacco users’ self report; second: the tobacco use among staff of the college was based on personal identification or personal count, which might have been prone to recall bias. This study has showed that nearly half (45.3 per cent) of respondents had used a tobacco in the past month and one-third (32.4 per cent) currently used tobacco and similar results were obtained in a survey conducted among U.S. college students in 1999 which reported 45.7 per cent of students had used a tobacco in the past year and 32.9 per cent consumed tobacco the tobacco cu rren tl y. Whil e ci gare tte smo ki ng w as predominant among health care students in Jaipur, this study pointed out that the smokeless tobacco Table-4: Distribution of tobacco users according to the tobacco consuming family and none consuming family -wise: Research Explorer 8 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 use was predominant practice among this college boys and girls, reflecting the cultural practices of the community. According to GATS (Global Adult Tobacco Survey) 2009-10 report, 34.6 per cent of adults currently used tobacco in India (47.9 per cent of males and 20.3 per cent of females). This study indicated that the prevalence of tobacco use among college students was less than the national average especially among girls – 10.3 per cent but the use of tobacco among the boys was above the national average i.e.., 53.7 per cent. This study reported some good news; there was no smoking habit among college girls. The social and cultural taboo attached to smoking by young girls was reflected in the present survey. In this college, tobacco use was more popular in smokeless form. The simple reason was that the students found convenient to use tobacco anywhere at any time. Some students saw it as being less harmful than smoking. The smokeless tobacco needs as much attention in control efforts because of high prevalence of spitting leading to an unhygienic environment. have simply followed in the first step of their parents; if mother and father used tobacco, chances were good that the children would also. Conclusion: The decision to use tobacco is a lifestyle choice that impacts health, longevity and the quality of life. College appears to be a time when many students are trying a range of tobacco products an d are in dang er o f de ve lopin g ni co ti ne dependence. Many studies have shown that tobacco free workplace policy was found to have a si gn ifican t associati on w ith l ow er tobacco prevalence. College offers a potential site for interventions to discourage tobacco use. One key component is to make college buildings including hostels tobacco free. Hence tobacco cessation programme should be initiated on the campus. There is need of community based tobacco cessation facilities. Much more survey needs to be carried out in urban colleges of these islands in order to build comprehensive data base for future policy decisions on tobacco control and cessation programmes. All the students including the tobacco users were aware that tobacco was harmful; however, they were unsure about the type of damage it causes. All of them were only aware that tobacco causes cancer. While all were aware of the relationship between tobacco and cancer, they did not realize that an even stronger link existed between cigarette smoking and coronary heart disease. This is proved from the reasons for not continuing the tobacco habit recorded in this study: only insignificant po rtio n of the past u se rs said that th ey discontinued due to health problems. Despite all the students including the tobacco users said that tobacco is injurious to health, they have continued to use tobacco. It is not ignorance that moves the students to use tobacco. By the time they were in school most know that use of tobacco is dangerous. Then the reason for starting tobacco might be that they did not identify with illness and death, viewed as old people problems. The students might have thought that life would go forever. Another reason was peer pressure. No teenagers wanted to appear different or strange; the group mentality might have been very strong during these years. For many of the students, tobacco use might be a means of becoming an accepted part of the group. That’s why the majority of the past users replied that they used tobacco just for fun. Some students might Research Explorer References 1. Editorial, World No Tobacco Day 2011: India’s progress in implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Indian Journal of Medical Research, May 2011: 455-457. 2. Editorial, It is time to make smoke free environments work in India, Indian Journal of Medical Research, May, 2007: 599-603. 3. El-Amin, Salma El-Tayeb., et al., The role of parents, friends and teachers in adolescents’ cigarette smoking and tombak dipping in Sudan, Tob Control 2011; 20:94-99. 4. Gao, Jia Ning, et al., Workplace Smoking Policies and their Association with Male Employees’ Smoking Behaviours: A crosssectional survey in one company in China, Tob Control, 2011; 20: 131-136. 5. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Global Adult Tobacco Survey: Fact S he et I ndia 2009-10, M umbai: International Institute for Population Science. 6. Gupta, P.C. and C.S. Ray, Tobacco, education & health, Indian Journal of Medical Research, October 2007; 126: 289-299. 9 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 7. Gupta, Prakash C. et al., Smokeless Tobacco: A Major Public Health Problem in the SEA Region: A review, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 199-209. ISSN:2250 - 1940 14. Mishra, Gauravi A. et al., Workplace tobacco cessation program in India: A success story, Indian J ournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2009; 13(3): 146-153. 8. HRID AY ( He alth Re late d I nformati on Dissemination Amongst Youth), Tobacco Control Laws and Initiatives in India: Issue Based Factsheets, New Delhi, n.d. 15. Narain, Raj, et al., Age at Initiation and prevalence of tobacco use among school children in Noida, India: A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey, Indian Journal of Medical Research, March 2011; 133: 300-307. 9. Jiloha, R.C. Tobacco Smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem? Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 2012; 54(1): 64-68. 16. Satyanarayana G. et al., A Smoking Survey of College Students in India: Implications for Designing Antismoking Policy, Japan Journal of Cancer Research, 1991; 82: 142-145. 10. Kaur, Jagdish and D.C. Jain, Tobacco Control Po li ci es i n In di a: Impl emen tati on and Challenges, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 220-227. 17. Singh, Iqbal., et al., Prevalence of Tobacco Habits Among Health Care Students in Jaipur, JK Science, 2010; 12(3): 116-119. 11. Kishore, Surekha, et al., Tobacco Addiction Amongst Adolescents in Rural Areas of District Wardha, JK Science, 2007; 9(2): 79-82 18. Sinha, D.N. et al., Tobacco Use among Youth and Adults in Member Countries of South-East Asia Region: Review of Findings from Surveys under the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 169-176. 12. Man-kit Leung, C. et al., Fighting Tobacco Smoking – a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2009; 6(1): 69-83. 19. Rigotti, Nancy A., et al., US College Students’ Use of Tobacco Products, JAMA, 2000; 284(6): 699-705 13. Mathur, Prashant and Bela Shah, Evidence Building for Policy: Tobacco Surveillance/ Surveys and Research in India, Indian Journal of Public Health, 2011; 55(3): 177-183. 20. Toghianifar, Nafiseh, et al., Smoking Cessation Support Availability, Sources & predictors, Indian Journal of Medical Research, June 2011; 133: 627-632. SELP ACADEMY SELP academy is a unit of SELP trust which established mainly for providing in-depth coaching to the competitive examinations and specialized in TRB, TET, NET, SET. Classes are conducted by eminent professors and subject experts with intensive teaching and model examinations. Success rate will be predetermined with restrictive strength in each section of classes Reader gracious study material with full coverage of syllabus will be supplied to the candidates in the first class itself and reviewing the performance in regular intervals. Research Explorer 10 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 INEQUALITY AND GROWTH: CHALLENGES FOR INDIAN ECONOMY Dr. Anurodh Godha Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University, Kota (Rajasthan) India ABSTRACT India is the largest democracy in the world, something to be very proud of, but, does this democracy really offer average Indian the choice that it ought to? Rapid economic growth over the past decade in India was the main driver of poverty reduction, but, rising income and non income inequalities (e.g. inequalities in health, education, and economic assets such as land) could be an inherent by-product of the growth process. Inclusive growth focuses on creating opportunities rapidly and making them accessible to everyone but in India the growth is not uniform across various sectors; and large cross sections of the population remain outside its purview. Several economic, political and social factors need to be tackled for sustaining a rapid rate of growth, as well as to make the growth inclusive. Key Words: Inequality, Inclusive growth. Introduction gradation and it obviously gives us pride to see highest Billionaires in Asia are from India. India is roaring but I bet they need to save face to know that India houses highest numbers of BPL (below poverty line) people in world. Our malnutrition data are worst. According to a recently conducted survey by the NSSO, around one- fifth of rural India survives on Rs 12 a day. “The benefits of growth seems to have bypassed the overwhelming majority of India’s population, the Indian economy’s rapid expansion has actually widened inequality, shrunken job opportunities and reduced w ages” - National Commi ssion for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS). The pain of hunger is the worst thing to happen in someone’s life. We can never feel how it feels, when there is nothing to eat, and it is impossible for those people who take pills to increase their appetite. We are living in a society where one person is dieing of over eating and the other without food. Looking at the darker side the growth is lopsided. There are people in this country still who can’t afford two square meals a day. We still find so many people begging, picking rags and plastics from garbage. The government instead of doing the balancing act is playing facilitator to big industries. Th e grow th of i ncome in equ al ity is a phenomenon that is being witnessed in all countries, both developed and developing, but in a democracy like India, these inequalities are likely to lead to social unrest because greater degree of income inequality put lower impact of growth on poverty reduction. As rising income inequalities and the persistence of unacceptably high levels of non income inequalities pose a clear and present danger to India’s progress, so the paper advocates some strategies to make that growth inclusive. Likewise in the realm of health and education and other human development indicators, India’s performance has been far from satisfactory. The rich-poor divide has increased and poverty reduction figures of India are now lower than those of Bangladesh. There are disparities among regions, states, sectors, and communities. Among the states, the north-eastern and the central regions, which have large tribal populations, are lagging behind. Among sectors, agriculture has fallen behind industry and the service sector. Although some of the poorest states are rich in natural and forest resources, the predominantly tribal population is unable to take advantage of this. Since independence the Indian economy has striven hard for improving its pace of development. Notably in the past few years the cities in India have undergone tremendous infrastructure up Research Explorer 11 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 All countries: rich or poor, all administrators: politicians or bureaucrats, all governments: democratic or totalitarian, all systems: capitalist or socialist have claimed to be working for “inclusive growth”. They have all perhaps done their bit in finding ways for such a growth. There are theories and philosophies propounded for the purpose; there are programmes and schemes announced with that intent. There are measures and machineries put in place. Governments have won and lost elections on this issue. However, the issue remains there today, as it was before centuries and decades. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Challenges and Prescriptions: collective efforts for inclusive growth “If inclusive growth is the objective, we need to shift focus from formal to informal sector given its size,” - K.P. Kannan (a former commission member of National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector) The main problems in India are poverty & corruption. The later one that is corruption is the main cause for the underdeveloped condition of our country even after 60 yrs. There is a race amongst bureaucrats, politicians and entrepreneurs to enrich themselves at any cost: corruption being a central tool in this game of enrichment. Corruption is definitely one of the ills that prevent inclusive growth, rather, enabling the rich to get richer and keeping the poor poorer. In India you have to work hard to get something correctly and in legal way but if you offer bribe to somebody in the middle then your work would be over in minutes. Rajiv Gandhi had once remarked that hardly ten percent of the money earmarked for rural projects in India reached the actual beneficiaries. Unfortunately, the situation hasn’t changed much at all since. What is Inclusive Growth? Each one of us will have a different definition of the term “inclusive growth”, different approaches for analyzing the issue and different strategies for arriving at solutions. However, the term, in common parlance, would mean “growth by which everyone benefits”. There cannot be any dispute with either the letter or spirit of this definition. It is an ideal, which must be achieved. Growth is inclusive when it allows all members of a society to participate in, and contribute to the growth process on an equal footing regardless of their individual circumstances. Inclusive growth by its very definition implies an equitable allocation of resources with benefits accruing to every section of socie ty . The re are some attri bu te s of inclusiveness and these are: The most disquieting aspect of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore confined to politicians or the government machinery alone. It is prevalent amongst almost every section of the society at every level. It does not shock Indians anymore to know that not only the politicians, ministers and IAS & IPS officers are corrupt but even the judges, professors, doctors and NGO organisations are. Opportunity: Is the economy generating more and varied ways for people to earn a living and increase their incomes over time? Capability: Is the economy providing the means for people to create or enhance their capabilities in order to exploit available opportunities? The study of world phenomenon on corruption has repeatedly branded India as one of the most corrupt countries in the world. Unfortunately, this view has not disturbed most of the Indians at all and they do not seem to care as to what others think of them. Access: Is the economy providing the means to bring opportunities and capabilities together? Security: Is the economy providing the means for people to protect themselves against a temporary or permanent loss of livelihood? The ‘educated’ Indian is well aware of the condition of the poor, the apathy of the corrupt politician and the flawed system, but is too self centred, busy in making the most of the ever ballooning stock market, they are not at all bothered about the system, everyone want to be a part of the ‘dirty game’ that is politics, movies like Rang De Basanti are rare to make and if produced than these type of movies put impact on Indian youth only in theatres. In India growth is far from inclusive. We all know it, we see the beggars on the streets, about the biggest slums in the world, we know of the cleaning lady who cannot afford treatment for her ailing husband, we read about the farmer suicides in Punjab and Maharashtra but who went to India Gate with candles??? Who talked hours together in Main TV channels??? Who came voluntarily to fight their case...??? We all understand their plight; we even sympathize and empathize with them, for the ten minutes after reading an article in a newspaper or seeing an amputated beggar on the street. Research Explorer Now, what can be the future of the Indian society in such conditions? Corruption exists in all societies at all levels, especially developing ones. The point is how serious we are about tolerating it. It is sad that those who are in charge of the nation today do 12 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 not appear to realise this and still are merrily going ahead with their dealings unconcerned about the harm that it would inevitably do to the larger national cause. Th e strate gy to tackl e corru ptio n mu st necessarily be multi-pronged – at the legal level, the enforcement level, as well as at the educational and social levels. Efforts at inclusiveness of society are predestined to failure unless more than just a semblance of attention is brought about on the corruption front. The system would be changed only when there is a perfect legislation that the hands that give bribe and take them should be cut and when it is implemented the scenario would change. One of the tools to deal with the corruption issue is to bring about greater transparency, both in the policy making and in the delivery systems. The Right to Information Act was a step in this direction. Though in its infancy still, its implementation does appear tardy. Governments have been defensive in their thinking. No growth can be inclusive unless it takes adequate care of women and children. In India exploitation of labour is widely prevalent. Despite the promulgation of minimum wages, the feudal system in the rural areas and industry in the urban conglomerates continue to fleece labour, paying them wages far below than prescribed. Child labour has been banned by law in India and there are stringent provisions to deter this inhuman practice. But millions of young children continue to work in roadside eateries, glass factories, carpet looms or sweeping and cooking in homes which is a violation of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act. To stop this there is a need to tackle poverty which is the main reason driving parents into pushing their young children to work instead of sending them to schools. This mammoth problem is one of the main challenges to resolve in addressing inclusive growth. We need to attract children from poverty stricken families to schools. Mid-day meal schemes of Governments have met with partial success. Again, however, lack of transparency has ensured that funds and rations are misappropriated and misused. Ri gh ts o f wo me n, ch il dren , mi no ri ty communities and the other marginalised sections of society must be constantly watched and protected if we wish to reach our goal of a truly developed society. In recent years, India has become a country of demonstrations, agitations and ‘bandhs’ (forcible closure of shops, offices & transport). For Research Explorer 13 ISSN:2250 - 1940 the slightest pretext, trains are stopped, buses and private vehicles burnt and offices and business establishments forcibly closed. This leads to unimaginable loss of man hours and economic output, besides loss of confidence of the outside world for making investments. A peaceful and stable environment is a must for sustained foreign and domestic investments. In this regard, one has to look at initiating proper reforms in the criminal justice system, especially in the police. The Supreme Court has time and again reminded the Government of the need to reform the police force. The outdated Police Act of 1861 needs to be replaced with a modern Act. The Police force needs to be made more responsive and accountable. It should no longer be a tool in the hands of corrupt politicians but responsible to the law of the land. Only then would it be able to provide a secure atmosphere for economic activity to prosper and remove age old impediments towards inclusiveness. While on the subject of economic growth and its impediments, we must also refer to the impact and consequences of increasing world fuel prices and the associated threat that looms large over India’s future economic growth as oil prices go through the roof, India’s situation is becoming difficult. Within the last one year, the fuel prices have more than doubled from 65 dollars to nearly 150 dollars a barrel of crude oil, upsetting the entire economic applecart. We need to do some serious reflection on how to tackle this. We have to pay much more attention towards alternative sources of energy. “An overall growth of nine per cent will further increase income disparity between agriculture and non-agriculture households, unless around 10 million people currently employed in agriculture find remunerative non-agricultural employment,” - RBI Governor Y V Reddy. Every major industrialised economy in the world has followed a path which began with agriculture being the main source of income for the majority of the population and ended with agricultural employment being a very small fraction of the total labour force. In India more than 60 per cent of the population depended on agriculture while it contributes only 20 per cent to the GDP. Agriculture is extremely important for inclusive growth, since a large majority of the Indian population is dependent on farming. Improved agricultural productivity would bring in its wake increased family incomes for this vast majority. It is possible that growing urbanization, improved July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 include elements of technology training and introduction to new practices, to improve farm efficiencies and productivity. It is also equally important to invest in value addition, in marketing chains and food processing. standards of living and consumption, would see a build up of pricing pressures on cereals, pulses and oilseeds in India. As an opportunity, this gives scope to revitalizing investments and returns in agriculture. The centre of focus for the business has shifted somewhere else but not the villages and agrarian economy. To achieve high pay-offs in terms of growth and inclusiveness we have to pay special emphasis on development of rural infrastructure such as rural roads and housing, primary and secondary education, health and sanitation SMEs and labour-intensive export-oriented industries and social sector expenditure like MGNREGA. • • There should be a policy of distribution of cooking fuels like kerosene and domestic gas at subsidized prices, as well a food grains at below market prices to urban poor. • Increased public spending on education and health care, including strengthening the midday meal programme and offering scholarships to the needy • Empowering the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, other backward classes, minorities, women and children, socially, economically and educationally. • True inclusive development would mean that even the poorest Indians get a chance to move into the modern, high-productivity sectors. For that, we will need greater liberalization. Three reforms will be especially important. One, we have to create a entrepreneurial spirit, Two, new labour laws that will give companies a reason to use less expensive capital and more permanent labour, Three, The national rural employment guarantee scheme needs to be extended to urban areas where most of the affected workers are likely to be found. We believe some of the following reforms will also ensure truly inclusive growth. These include: Increased rural employment, including the provision of a unique social safety net in the shape of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme. • Such contra-cyclical small-ticket targeted government expenditure (eg. MGNREGA) attempts to address the issue of a equitable distribution of income and balanced growth. They are very basic social security schemes at best and lodestones of corruption at worst. But Inclusive growth doesn’t mean farm loan waiver and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme only. Increased credit availability, particularly to farmers an d othe rs, and o fferin g th em remunerative prices for their crops. Ensuring that, through public investment, the growth process spreads to backward regions and districts of our country. Local selfgovernment, as elaborated in our Constitution, provides the essential means of reconciling ‘accelerated growth’ with ‘inclusive growth. • The quantity and quality of public investment (in electricity, irrigation, rural roads, and storage and transport of food grains) in agriculture and rural infrastructure needs to be substantially increased. • R&D for innovation in agriculture needs to be encouraged. The Green Revolution that substantially increased food grain output and productivity were as a result of better seeds and technology. India needs to continue to leverage global technologies to increase yields. India has the third largest pool of scientists, engineers and doctors in the world, but it has yet to reach anywhere near its full potential with a majority of its vast population still illiterate or semiliterate. There are around 550 million youths in the country, almost half of the total population. However, due to poverty and social inequalities and caste system, more than a hundred million youths are illiterate or uneducated. In rural India, drop out rates of children attending school are very high. There are many institutions in rural areas, but their prospects are dim, because of lack of good governan ce, lack of far-sighted poli cies on education, etc. • Abolishing controlled prices, eliminating taxes on inter-state movement of goods, allowing farmers to sell directly to organised retail, and removing restrictions on land holdings (which are currently circumscribed by land ceiling acts), leading to fragmented land holdings, would increase productivity. It is important to In fact, the challenges are mighty and it may take long years to achieve the goal. Nevertheless, we need to work towards the betterment of our country through cooperation and collaboration. We need to go to the base; we need to explore our villages, not the forests and mineral resources only, but their inner talents of the people. Being about Research Explorer 14 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 70% of our population are in rural India; the development of the country depends totally on the development of rural communities. And that development will be achieved only when the people are educated for what education is one of the most powerful instruments to reduce poverty, inequality an d so un d go vernance. The me an in g of a democratic country will be clearer and clearer only when its people are educated. Literacy levels have to rise to provide the skilled workforce required for higher growth. We should give emphasis on building an intellectual environment in our villages and rural areas. This implies that the government should increase its spending on educational sector far and wide across the country. Better governance is the need of the hour, because the government in India still has a majority stake in almost all essential sectors e.g. the crucial sectors of health, sanitation, water arms, railways etc. A well-functioning democracy should allow citizens to have more voice in evaluating the quality of services they receive, for governments and service providers to be accountable, and for citizens to pay directly for services received. Without better governance, delivery systems and effective implementation, India will find it difficult to educate its citizens, build its infrastructure, increase agricultural productivity and ensure that the fruits of economic growth are well established. To resolve these issues, there has been greater accountability of politicians to the citizen, greater ability of citizens to hold service providers to account for the services they deliver. The elements of reform, in our view, should comprise: Encou rage greater private-sector participation; the regulatory constraints need to be removed. The private sector should take more social responsibility and contribute towards making growth more inclusive. There also ought to be greater accountability for politicians and civil servants. Allowing the private sector to provide public services in most essential sectors such as health, primary education, building infrastructure, water supply and inner-city transport would solve several important problems. It would enable the government to fulfil its obligations to supply core services, which are badly served. Citizens would exercise choice over providers, and it would clearly separate the role of provider and regulator, with the government becoming the latter (regulator). By decentralising provision of public services, the government can unbundle responsibilities across tiers of government to create checks and balances. Research Explorer 15 ISSN:2250 - 1940 This can only happen if the Government and the private sectors become equal and willing partners. All impediments in the path of publicprivate partnership should be removed. The Government needs to come out with transparent procedures for schemes like Special Economic Zones (SEZ), and also make willing partners and shareholders in the process to the people/farmers, whose lands are acquired for this purpose. Inflation, which is a major obstacle today to make the growth inclusive, worst affect the poor man. To reduce the impact of price hike on poor people the government should subsidise only the lowest income people and not special groups of people, provide help to people in investing their own skills and future incomes, playing the role in economy as light as possible (to the regulatory extent), making tax rates low and broad based, try to keep the ratio of public debt to GDP under control by limiting liabilities and finally applying rigorous social cost benefit tests to all spending and regulation decisions. The main instrument for a sustainable and inclusive growth is assumed to be productive employment. Employment growth generates new jobs and income for the individual (from wages in all types of firms, or from self employment, usually in micro firms), while productivity growth has the potential to lift the wages of those employed and the returns to the self-employed. After all, in many lo w-in co me cou ntri es th e proble m is n ot unemployment, but rather underemployment. He nce, i ncl usive growth is n ot on ly abo ut employment growth, but also about productivity growth. Moreover, it is not only about wageemployment but also about self-employment which means that returns to capital, land and other assets matter to the income potential of the focus group as shown in the identity above. Conclusion India has been endowed with some of the world’s most essential minerals, beautiful places, cultural diversities and capable & talented people. It is the time to make the most of what other countries can never even dream to have. There is much to be done, but if done and done correctly and then nothing can stop us from reaching the pinnacle of the world. References: www.ecomomictimes.indiatimes.com, www.google.com, www.rbi.org.in, www.economicshelp.org, www.economywatch.com, www.financialexpress.com, www.indiamart.com July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 MICRO FINANCE BY BANKS IN INDIA Dr. C. Paramasivan, Ph. D., Assistant Professor & Research Supervisor R. Anandaraman Ph. D Full Time Research Scholars PG & Research Department of Commerce, Periyar EVR College, Trichy – 23 ABSTRACT Micro finance is the basic concepts helping to self-employment people, low income groups, poor entrepreneurs in rural areas. It provides thrift, credit, savings and other financial services and products of small amount to poor in rural, semi urban or urban areas. Micro finance is the target raising their income, improve standard living, increasing economic growth, and reduce poverty. Micro finance is another aspect given empowers to poor women especially for handicapped women, divorce women, widow women. This paper focus on the role of banks in micro finance in India Key words: Entrepreneurship, Eradication of Poverty, Social Capital, Bank Finance Introduction marketing, money transfer, life cycle product, fund transfer etc. Microfinance means provide small loans to poor families helping them to engage in productive activities of small business namely petty shop ,flower shop, idly shop, candle making, vegetables, vending, wire basket, weaving etc. The term Micro finance refers to extending the whole range of financial services from savings to credit to micro insurance to micro enterprises and a lot more for the poorer sections of society whose scale of operations are so small and hence are generally excluded from the purview of the existing service providers. The effectiveness of microfinance is better realized by the deprived sections when their capacities are also enhanced along with access to financial services. In the Indian context, the search for supplementary delivery mechanism to provide microfinance started with internal introspection regarding the innovations, which the poor had been traditionally making, to meet their financial service needs. Review of literature Amutha. J and Ramakrishnan (2011) suggest th at the G overnmen t o f In di a en co urag es entrepreneurship among micro entrepreneurs through EDP. Cooperative banks linkage to retail credit outlets of the formal banking sector comprising 12,000 branches of district-level cooperative banks, over 14,000 branches of Regional Rural banks and over 30,000 rural and semi-urban branches of commercial banks; in addition to 1,12,000 cooperative credit societies at village level. Micro Finance The concept of micro finance was introduced Grammen bank of Bangladesh by Mohammed yunus severing over 7.34 million people with recovery rate of 98.35 percent. Micro finance refers to the provision of financial service to low income groups and self employment people. Micro finance has come to include a broader range of services li ke savin g, cre di t, in su rance, remittance, Research Explorer Kayar Kami (2011) concluded that the Self Help Group really helps the women folk to participate in organized activities apart from helping members to mobilize funds. The present study concludes that the respondents are economically and social empowered by becoming members of SHGs in Tuticorin District. 16 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Saravanan. S (2008) said that micro finance Programmes have proved that is an effective instrument for eradication of poverty. The spread of micro finance and the mobilization of women serve the twin purposes for enabling the state to withdraw from economic activities and diffusing any form of resistance against the state in the present economic conditions. banks and saving amounted to Rs. 701630.28 Lakhs off which 6098034 SHG exclusively belongs to women SHG and their savings amounted to Rs. 529864.47 Lakhs. Table – 2 Bank Loans Disbursed to SHGs Agency-wise (Rs. in Lakhs) Narbada Ghimire (2011) concluded that even though microfinance collateralizes social capital and makes credit accessible to the poor more than traditional banking institutions, some of the poorest women remain excluded, particularly those who might represent high risk in the eyes of other group members who evaluate the appropriateness of loan. Narayanan. B (2008) pointed that micro credit Programme has become an important tool to eradicate po verty in In di a. It is gathe ri ng momentum to become a major force in India. The Self-help groups (SHG) model with bank lending to groups of poor women without collateral has become an accepted part of rural finance. Source: NABAR Report 2011 Table no 2 reveals that the loan disbursed to SHG with bank position as on 31 st March 2011.commercial bank disbursed loans to 667941 SHG which amounted to Rs. 972455.27 Lakhs of which Rs. 879829.07 Lakhs disbursed exclusively to women SHG during the period. Co- operative bank disbursed loans to 229620 SHG which amounted to Rs. 162556.33 Lakhs off which Rs. 95956.54 Lakhs disbursed exclusively to women SHG during period 2011. Regional rural bank disbursed loans to 296773 SHG which amounted to Rs. 319761.59 Lakhs off which Rs. 286447.78 Lakhs disbursed exclusively to women SHG during the perid-2011. As on whole Rs. 145477.19 Lakhs disbursed to 1196134 SHG which includes Rs. 1262233.39 Lakhs exclusively to 1017218 women SHG Table – 1 Savings of SHGs with Banks Agency –Wise (Rs. in Lakhs) Table – 3 Bank Loans Outstanding Against SHGs Agency - Wise Soruce: NABARD Report 2011 (Rs. in Lakhs) Table no 1 indicates that the savings of SHG with bank wise position as on 31st March 2011. There are 4323473 Lakhs SHG opened account with commercial bank, of wise 3655322 Lakhs SHG exclusively belongs to women. Savings of the SHG with commercial banks amounted to Rs. 42300.42 Lakhs off which Rs. 332560.07 Lakhs by women SHG. Savings of the SHG with Co-operative banks amounted to Rs. 135084.19 Lakhs of which Rs. 78059.57 Lakhs by women SHG. Savings of the Regional bank Rs. 143539.67 Lakhs off which Rs. 119244.83 Lakhs by women SHG. As on whole, there are 7461946 SHG were opened account with Research Explorer Source: NABARD Report 2011 Table 3 reveals that the bank loans outstanding against SHGs wish position as on 31st March 2011. Rs. 2188325.67 Lakhs loan outstanding in commercial banks including of Rs. 1848765.4 Lakhs exclusively from women SHG Rs. 190785.65 17 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 Lakhs outstanding. In co-operative banks including of Rs. 114678.62 Lakhs exclusively from women SHG Rs. 743005.23 Lakhs loan outstanding. In regional rural bank including of Rs. 648931.55 Lakhs exclusively from women SHG. The table concludes that the total loan outstanding amounted to Rs. 3122116.55 Lakhs which includes Rs. 2612375.57 Lakhs exclusively women SHG. Table – 4 Non Performing Assets of Bank against SHGs Loans Outstanding (Rs. in Lakhs) ISSN:2250 - 1940 As on total there are 469 MFIs were disbursed loans to the SHG which amounted to Rs. 760518.02 Lakhs. Suggestions Banks are playing a key role in the field of socio economic development of the country trough providing micro finance to the rural women SHG in the country. With the help of SHG, mobilisations of micro savings in the banks have been increased in a remarkable position. Hence, bank and micro finance is the interdependent mechanism which promotes the smooth running of the banking services as well as SHG. SHGs in the India is one of the largest segment in the world which consists of 43, 23,473 groups with the savings of Rs.423006.42 Lakhs in th e ye ar 2011.Thi s is o ne of the n otable achievement of the SHG with help of bank and micro finance institution. Hence, the Source: NABARD Report 2011 It i s se en fro m abo ve table n o 4 th at nonperforming assets of banks against SHGs loans outstanding bank wise position as on 31st March 2011. NPAs against SHG were highly recorded in co-operative banks (7.04% ) followed by commercial banks (4.88% ) and regional rural bank (3.67% ) average NPAs against SHG as march 31st 2011 is 4.72 percent. Commercial bank placed first in amount wise NPAs (Rs. 106698.92 Lakhs) followed by regional rural bank (27281.73 Lakhs) and cooperative bank (Rs. 13430.15 Lakhs). Table - 5 Bank Loans provided to MFIs during 2010-2011 and Loans outstanding (Rs. in Lakhs) Banks the banks should encourage the SHG to increase the savings habits also deal more micro finance Bank financial assistance to SHG is not in appreciable manner due to adverse mantality of the banking personnel. Hence, the banking personnel should change their attitude towards the SHG Loan distributed to SHG by banks during the year 2011 is also progressive trends as compare to the previous years. Commercial banks are the largest loan distributors to the SHG. But it compare to the saving of SHG, the amount of loan will be nominal. Hence, the commercial banks should come forward to liberalise the loans to the SHG Loan outstanding is one of the indicators which reflect the repayment of the loan wider in a time. Most of the banks are unable to recover their loans to weaker section and poor people due to personal and political reason. In the situation bank should develop a voluntary mechanism to reduce the loan outstanding in due course. NPA against SHG loans is also quit common, which can not eliminate completely. The banks should aware about the utilization of the loans amount by the beneficiary Source: NABARD Report 2011 It is seen from the above table no 5 that the loans provided to MFIs during 2010-2011 and loan outstanding as on 31st March 2011. Commercial banks provided loans to SHG through 460 MFIs amounted to Rs. 760102.33 Lakhs regional rural bank provided loans to SHG through 9 MFIs provided loans to SHG through has not applicable. Research Explorer Conclusion Micro finance is an important tool of poverty alleviation programmee in India which helps to re duce the poverty i n rural are as. Overall performance of micro finance, commercial bank has good performance in India. Co-operative bank has very poor performance of microfinance through self help groups. Regional rural bank must improve the overall progress of MF. Especially the banker July - December 2012 18
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 5. Narayanan. B (2008). Micro credit in India-an Overview, Micro Credit and Rural Development, pp 21-26. provided credit to MFI has poor performance in India. Banks are responsible to actively involved in the field of Micro finance wide social development of the country. Cooperative banks must meet the rural people to promote the Micro credit and provide liberal micro finance to needed people and make them as a self sustainable person in the society. 6. Narbada Ghimire. (2011). Micro finance as a Policy Tool for Women Empowerment, Oregon State University, pp 1-33. 7. Neeta Tapan. (2010). Micro Credit Self Help Groups and Women Empowerment, New Century Publication, New Delhi. Reference 1. Amutha. J and Ramakrishnan. (2011). Role of women Self Help Groups in Co-operative Bank Linkage-with Reference to Nagapattinam District, Tamil Nadu Journal of Co-operation. 8. Paramasivan.C. (2012). Women Empowerment Issue and Challenges, Regal Publications, New Delhi. 9. Prasenjit Bujar Baruch. (2009). Self Help Groups and Asset Creation: A Case Study of Deharkuchi Gaon Panchayat of Nalbari District Assam, Journal of the Centre for Micro Finance Research, Volume. 1, No. 1, pp 183-194. 2. Aranganathan. T Sundar. K and Sathees kumar. L (2008). Micro Credit and Rural Development, Sabanayagam Publication, Chidambaram. 3. Jamie Morgan and Wendy Olsen. (2011). Aspiration Problems for the Indian rural Poor: Research on SHGs and MF, Institute for De ve lo pmen t Pol icy an d M an ag emen t, University of Manchester, pp 1-22. 10. Saravanan. S (2008). Micro Finance and Rural Development in Tamil Nadu, kissan world, Volume.35,No.8, pp 9 11. Sudhansu kumar Das and Sanjay kavi Das. (2011). Micro finance and India’s, Rural Economy, New Century Publications, New Delhi. 4. Kayarkani. (2011). SHG Based Micro finance on Women Development-an Empirical Study, Self Journal of Social Science Volume. 2, No. 7. SELP AWARD Scientist and academicians with outstanding contribution in their academic and social service fields are honoured by the trust by confirming them awards on the recommendation of the experts. Resume should be submitted to the president of the trust in the concerned application forms. SELP- Young Social Scientist Award Academician and researchers in the field of social sciences below the age of 40 are motivated in their field. SELP - Best Faculty Award To motivate the college teachers belong to the social sciences subject with the age of below 35 years are eligible to apply. Ambethkar Social Service Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of upliftment of weaker sections are eligible to apply. Periyar Social Reformer Award Those who are contributing outstanding performance in the field of inter caste marriage, abolition of caste and religions are eligible to apply. Research Explorer 19 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY: A FOCUS STUDY ON HOUSING FINANCE Dr. Kastoori Srinivas Sr. Lecturer & Project Director Department of Commerce, Vivek Vardhini (AN) College of Arts & Commerce, Jambagh, Hyderabad- 95. ABSTRACT Shelter is a basic human need. To a modern man no other problem is as intriguing and mind boggling as the housing problem. The capital cost of a house is very high multitude of the average income of the person. Against the milieu of rapid urbanization and a changing socio-economic scenario, the demand for housing has grown explosively. Having identified housing as a priority area in the present five year plan, the National Housing Policy has envisaged an investment target of Rs. 2500 billion (App) for this sector. In order to achieve this investment target, the Government needs to make low cost funds easily available and enforce legal and regulatory reforms. The present paper analyzes the extent of role for public sector and private banks related to housing finance. Keywords: Banking, Housing banking, Housing Finance, ICICI, Commercial banks. Introduction attempting to reduce the scale of national housing problems through public expenditure. Conversely, improving housing conditions can have a major in fl ue nce on po ve rty al le viati on throu gh improvements in the living standards of low-income families, and on poverty reduction via increased employment opportunities. Furthermore, the problems of poor housing and poor environmental conditions are closely interrelated in many cities. The scale of housing problems in Latin America is vast, and the dimensions of the problem varied and broad. Currently most Latin American economies do not supply fully serviced dwellings for all the population. The formal mechanisms of housing production and financing do not reach all segments of the population, while informal mechanisms produce solutions that are either substandard r expensive. Lack of sanitation se rvices, overcrow din g an d in su fficie nt environmental protection are the most pervasive problems, while extended travel time to employment and urban services centers worsens the problem for most urban households. Poor housing affects mostly low-income households in urban areas. Rural housing problems are also serious yet attract less attention. Housing problems are not only complex and severe, but vary in character from place to place. Interventions in one housing sub market often have spillover effects in others. The physical housing unit superstructure is only one dimension of the problem. Indeed the critical issue of poor housing may have little to do with the condition of the physical superstructure. Infrastructure (water, sewerage, electricity, telephones, transport) and access to employment are often as or more important problems. Moreover, when it comes to providing solutions, families and communities have some capacity to build their own houses, but have difficulty solving these o ther no n-divisible problems. One set of factors deserves emphasis. Poverty is both cause and effect of poor housing conditions. Lack of effective demand resulting from the low income of households is the underlying cause that prevents the private provision of houses through normal channels for most of the population an d pre sen ts a ch all eng e for g ove rnmen ts Research Explorer 20 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Bank activity in the Housing Sector: LowIncome Focus: leaves to do documentation for housing loans. Interest rates were also made by the institution a major issue to think before deciding on housing loans. Bank experience with housing projects shows the difficulties of establishing efficient and sustainable mechanisms to reach the poor. Many attempts have proven unsustainable and others lacked the capacity to reach the target population. Success often came with a high financial and institutional price tag for governments. However, IDB-8 mandates commit the Bank to emphasize lending for poverty alleviation projects, and lending for housing can be very effective in solving povertyrelated problems of households. Shelter and sanitation services provided by housing projects rank high in the priorities of households and governments. Cautious adaptation of successful cases will enable the Bank to effectively collaborate with governments in establishing low-income housing support mechanisms that respond to ho useh ol d ne eds an d pri oritie s, and are institutionally and financi ally sustai nable. Management of the Bank will ensure that, as part of the process of project identification, the relative merits of different types of programs will be duly considered. This consideration should include an estimate of how the benefits of different programs might be distributed over different income groups. ICICI Opens New Era in Housing Finance It is life time achievement for a person to purchase a sweet home for him and his family. The accommodation in Mumbai is affordable by and large with the help of housing finance. One has to keep in mind so many options available in the market. ICICI, a premier financial institution in the country is offering best financial product with value added services. It is not just finance but it is love and affection, which is been transacted. Most personalized service at your door step offered by the ICICI for housing finance seekers. Like a family member and good friend ICICI fulfills your need to have your sweet home. When you want someone to guarantee on your behalf to some financial institution, it is quite embarrassing. As if you are beggar, begging for your own money. ICICI is giving loans only on your credentials. There is no need to give any guarantor to ICICI. If you are lucky enough and had won a lottery or your father has given a large sum in his will or you have got casual income in lumsum and you are in a position to repay entire loan at one go, then you have to pay penalties. But ICICI is welcoming such steps and imposing no penalties on prepayment of loans. Most competitive interest rates and services at your door step, so that you do not bunk office hours, is been offered by ICICI. People working in ICICI are real assets since most professionalism and polite in manner gives ICICI true sense of belonging in the industry. With hitech technology ICICI also offer on-line processing of your loan application. Housing Finance: Housing finance is becoming major issue and  major area of operation for corporate in India. Besides private sector, semi government and nationalized banks are in the race. With various schemes to suit your requirement and with attractive interest rates, these housing finance companies are offering most attractive finance options for home seekers. Recently entered ICICI and IDBI bank have changed total equations in the housing finance market. With personalized housing finance loans to suit every need are offered by ICICI. IDBI Bank has first experimented with in-house customers, and now in big leap with other corporate in the league. It is learnt, that more then 100 crore disbursement by  ICICI,  has started ball rolling in the market. With most professional team, the institution has achieved and created new horizon in the housing finance market. The retail outlays of the institutions are giving services, which home seekers often do not get with traditional housing finance companies. One has to take countless Research Explorer Commercial banks and housing finance: The commercial banking sector, consisting mainly of the nationalized banks, makes a small contribution to house financing efforts. An overall quantum equivalent to about 0.5 per cent of total bank credit is earmarked every year for housing finance for various category for borrowers, excluding housing loans to banks own employees. The major portion is to be provided by way of subscriptions to the guaranteed bonds and debentures of HUDCO and various state housing 21 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 boards as well as by way of direct finance to individuals / groups of borrowers belonging to scheduled castes / tribes and economically weaker sections of the community. The balance amount is to be provide directly to HDFC. Commercial Banks could also finance housing cooperative societies, depending upon the feasibility of such housing projects. In case any housing project requires big investment, a consortium may have to be arranged comprising commercial banks, HUDCO, LIC, housing boards and other bodies, depending upon the type of scheme. areas for low /middle income groups. (v) Education, health, social, cultural and other institutions / centers which are part of housing projects and considered essential for the development of markets or townships. (vi) Shopping centers / markets catering to the daily needs of residents of housing colonies. NHB’s as an apex in housing finance: Th e Nati on al H ou si ng Ban k (NHB), established by an Act of Parliament (1987) as an Apex H ousing Fin ance I nsti tution , started functioning from July 9, 1988. NHB is responsible, inter alia, for the development of housing finance system on sound lines. The Act empowers NHB to make loans and advances, among others to scheduled commercial banks in respect of their lending for housing. Accordingly, a refinance scheme has been formulated for scheduled commercial banks in respect of certain categories of housing loans extended by them. The refinance scheme will be effective from January 1, 1989 and specified housing loans granted by the scheduled commercial banks as from that date will be eligible for being covered under the scheme. Scheduled commercial banks desirous of availing refinance facilities from the NHB will have to execute an agreement in the prescribed form and have an appropriate resolution passed by their respective Boards of Directors. The agreement will need to be stamped in accordance with the laws in force in a particular state where the agreement is executed. After execution of the agreement, the bank concerned will become eligible for refinance facility from NHB in respect of housing loans sanctioned on or after January 1, 1989. The RBI’s Working Group on Housing (1978) in its report on “Finance for Housing Schemes” estimated that the total annual advances of banking sector averaged at Rs. 75 Crore till 1980 and Rs. 100 Crore in 1991. Commercial banks do not lend money for more than 10 years for any housing scheme, because long-term housing loans have problems like (i) problems of liquidity arising out of the high statutory reserve ratio imposed by the RBI, (ii) lack of technical and financial expertise for appraising housing finance proposals and (iii) the feeling that housing is basically a speculative activity in nature. Another problem for banks is that of security, against which they have to lend for housing. Though house property has some book value, it has negligible marketable value and further legal problems make it difficult for banks to realize the value of security in the event of default. In view of these risks and peculiar nature of h ousing finance, the commercial ban ks cautiously refrained from this field. But, however, of late, there has been a tremendous change in their outlook. Banks now have been directed to treat housing as a priority sector for the purpose of lending. Under the 20-Point Economic Programme, the banks are required to extend direct loans up to Rs. 5,000 to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and other weaker sections of the society. They also finance Government agencies for constructing houses exclusively for the benefit of scheduled castes / tribes and low income groups where the amount of loan does not exceed Rs. 5,000 per unit. The objective of this refinance scheme is to encourage construction of new houses / flats as also extension and up gradation (including major repairs) of the existing stock by persons belonging to low income category, i.e., the small man first. Refinance will be provided only in respect of direct lending to individuals / groups of borrowers (formal or informal, including cooperative societies). Housing finance routed through Regional Rural Banks by Sponsor banks will be treated as direct lending of the latter. Refinance will be restricted to housing loans – (i) up to Rs. 50,000 per individual for acquisition or construction of a new housing unit not exceeding 40 sq.mtrs., of built-up area, and (ii) up to Rs. 30,000. Bank l oans can be avail ed for : ( i) Construction of houses and hostels for scheduled castes / tribes. (ii) Houses under the slum clearance schemes. (iii) Family planning clinics and health centers covered under the public health programs. (iv) Housing schemes in urban and semi-urban Research Explorer 22 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 The HFCs are now eligible to basic refinance limit from NHB up to 5 times their Net Owned Funds (NOF is paid up capital plus reserves). Additionally a separate refinance limit is given to HFCs up to Rs. 10 crore of NOF, additional refinance up to 3 times the amount of their deposits is allowed. For HFCs above Rs. 10 crore of NOF, additional refinance up to 2 times the amount of deposits is allowed. Special consideration is given by NHB for finance provided to rural areas by the concerned HFCs. Taking all these factors into account, an overall ceiling is kept at 15 times the NOF for all types of refinance by NHB to HFCs. requiring separate house), and replacement/ upgradation of kutcha/ unserviceable kutcha houses and obsolescence/ replacement of old houses, etc. had grown over the decades. Indian public sector banks to lead and initiate to improve the housing situations in india. References 1. Basu D.N. and Mehta V.K., 1993. Housing Finance System in India, Urban India, XIII (1), January – June; 36 – 50. 2. Chitharanjan, K.V. 1986. Finance for Housing, Economic Trends, 15, (17), September, 5 – 9. The Extent Problem 3. Das Samantak, 1996. Housing Finance – Some Relevant Issues. The Management Accountant, December, 888 – 893. The Working Group on Rural Housing for the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007- 12), has estimated the total housing shortage in rural areas at 47.43 million units at the end of 2012. As per Government estimates, the total housing shortage in the urban areas, at the beginning of the 11th Plan period was around 24.71 million units and is likely to go up to 26.53 million units by 2012. The urban situation is equally appalling with 99 per cent of the housing shortage pertaining to the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) categories. It is also of major concern that 90 per cent of the rural housing shortage (approximately, 42.69 million units) are in respect of Below the Poverty Line (BPL) categories. 4. Lal, V.D., 1987. Budget and Housing Sector. Economic and Political Weekl, 22, (15), April 11 : 671 – 675. 5. Munjee, Nasser, 1985 – 86. Conceptualizing a viable housing finance system. Capital (Annual Number), PP : 47 – 50. 6. Nambirajan, R., 2001. Home loans and Tax Benefits, Indian Infrastructure, May, PP 42 – 43. 7. Nathan Narendra, 2002. Cheap and Best. Intelligent Investor, October 31, New Delhi, PP 50 – 56. According to a report of ICRA†, housing loans as a percentage of GDP have remained at around 7 per cent, significantly lower than the levels achieved in most of the developed countries. It indicates the extent of opportunity for deeper penetration of such marke t. With impro vin g demo graphics and economies of scale, the mortgage to GDP ratio is likely to increase. The stakeholders, however, need to reckon with problems and impediments in the process which may arise from changes in the economic cycle, uncertainties surrounding land acquisiti on poli cies, chang es in the poli cy framework and systemic risk that could arise out of rapid credit expansion with lax due diligence standards. 8. Various Annual Reports of NHB, New Delhi. 9. Various Trends and Progress of Housing in India, NHB, New Delhi. 10. Annual Reports of HDFC, PNBHF, LICHF, SBOP and Housefed 1990 – 91 onwards. 11. Narasimham N.V., 2005. The Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol. 58, NO. 2, PP 71 – 78, April – June, 2005. 12. Vasant D asai, 2006 – 07. Ban ks and Institutional Management in India, Himalaya Publishing House, Hyderabad, Housing Finance (23), PP 372 – 389. Conclusion 13. Annual Reports, ICFAI Publications in Banking Sector, Journals and Other Response Books. Housing shortage has always been a major problem over the years in our country since independence. Such shortage estimated as excess households over houses including houseless households, congestion (number of married couples 14. Jasmaindeep Kaur Brar and J.S. Paricha, 2005. Article on Housing Loans – A Comparative Study of Institutions published in the Indian Journal of Commerce, Vol. 58, No. 2, April – June, 2005. Research Explorer 23 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 E-GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: SOME ISSUES Devendra N. Vyas Asst. Professor, Department of Commerce, G. S. Science Arts and Commerce College Khamgaon, Dist. Buldhana 444 303 (MS) ABSTRACT E-Governance means giving the citizens the choice of when & where the access to the government information and services so that openness, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency may be achieved. E-Governance would also cater to automated applications for the government sector, which helps in achieving SMART governance which some define as - Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent Governance. Egovernance is not just about government web site and e-mail. In this paper objective, challenges, opportunities in terms of different models and issues for successful implementation of e-governance are discussed. For successful implementation of e-governance Standards, Infrastructure, Legislations, Strategy all needs to be in place. It requires a Global Vision and local implementation. Key Words : E-Governance, accountability , back office automation, knit infrastructure Introduction E-governance is the application of electronic means in (1) the interaction between government and citizens and (2) in internal government operations to simplify and improve democratic, government and business aspects of Governance. In simpler terms E-Governance means giving the citizens the choice of when & where the access to the government information and services so that openness, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency may be achieved. There are three aspects of E-governance: culture of self-service wherein citizens can help themselves wherever and whenever required. 2) Government can become more integrated into the community itself. Also government can focus its resources where they are needed the most. The specific objectives are: a) IT enabling the government functions something similar to back office automation b) Web enabling the government functions so that citizens will have direct access and 1. To develop the high-level awareness and co mmitme nt that wil l carry fo rw ard eGovernance for development. 2. To develop the capacities necessary to address e-governance strategically. 3. To develop the human and data infrastructure necessary for e-governance. 4. To implement pilot projects. c) Improving government process. Challenges: Objectives of E-Governance: The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify the process and activities for government and citizens. For a government to operate effectively government-community-citizens infrastructure should be in place. A closed knit infrastructure would yield to fold benefits, which would save time and money for all concerned1) Citizens can enjoy faster, effective and timely government services. This would also evolve a Research Explorer 24 The fundamental strategic challenge faced by egovernance is e-readiness. This is a multi fold challenge posing basic questions such as: i) ii) iii) iv) Are the Data Systems infrastructure Ready? Is the institutional infrastructure Ready? What about the Legal infrastructure? Can we cou nt o n the techn ol og ical infrastructure? v) Is the human infrastructure ready? July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Phase III: Transaction vi) Are we equipped with the leadership and strategic thinking? Wi th phase thre e th e co mpl ex ity of the technology is increasing, but customer (G2C and G2B) val ue w ill also be h igh er. Co mple te transactions can be done without going to an office. Examples of online services are filing income tax, filing property tax, extending/renewal of licenses, visa and passports and online voting. Phase three is mainly complex because of security and personalization issues – e.g., digital (electronic) signatures are necessary to enable legal transfer of services. Opportunities for e-governance: There is no dearth of opportunities for egovernance; government may follow some of the popular models implemented world across, which is bound to create varied opportunities. Government-Citizen conjoined model: With the advent of information technology, there is a probabili ty of adoption of gove rnme nt community conjoined model, which will inherit its traits from the culture of each government and society. Phase IV: Transformation The fourth phase is the transformation phase in which all information systems are integrated and the public can get G2C and G2B services at one (virtual) counter. One single point of contact for all services is the ultimate goal. Service delivery model: In the service delivery model, citizens will also participate in decision making processes, replacing the top-down process that characterizes too many governments. The ultimate focus will be on effective and efficient delivery of government services. Issues for E-Governance: The fundamental issues that need to be stressed to meet good governance goals in India are Gartner’s Model This is an innovative model suggest by Gartner (An E-business Research consulting Firm). As per this model, the e-governance is a FOUR-phase activity. Funding: Since there will be more focus on the long term capitalisation of the investments made in this area, though the e-governance could have very laudable objectives and ambitious work plans, they have to be weighed in terms of available resources both in the plan sector and outside it. Funding is the foremost issue in e-Governance initiatives. Phase I: Information In the first phase e-governance means being present on the web, providing the external public (G2C and G2B) with relevant information. The format of the first government websites is similar to that of a brochure or leaflet. The value to the public is that government information is publicly accessible; processes are described and thus be come mo re tran sparent, w hich improves democracy and service. Internally (G2G) the government can also disseminate information with static electronic means, such as the Internet. Management of Change: Most often, when the E-governance initiatives are implemented, it would lead to mandatory changes which do affect both people and levels of the Delivery chain through which services are delivered. The delivery of Government services through the electronic media including Internet and other IT based technologies would necessitate procedural and legal changes in the decision and delivery making processes. Phase II : Interaction In the second phase the interaction between government and the public (G2C and G2B) is stimulated with various applications. People can ask questions via e-mail, use search engines for information and are able to download all sorts of forms and documents. These functionalities save time. In fact the complete intake of (simple) applications can be done online 24/7. Normally this would have only been possible at a counter during opening hours. Research Explorer Privacy: The privacy of the citizen also needs to be ensured while addressing the issues. Whenever a citizen gets into any transaction with a Government agency, he shells out lot of personal information, which can be misused by the private sector. Thus, the citizen should be ensured that the information flow would pass through reliable channels and seamless network. 25 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Authentication: Cyber laws: Secured ways of transactions for the Government services are another issue of concern. The identity of citizens requesting services needs to be verified before they access or use the services. Here digital signature will play an important role in delivery of such services. But the infrastructure needed to support them is very expensive and requires constant maintenance. Hence a pertinent need still survives, compelling the authorities to ensure the authenticity in their transactions thereby gaining absolute trust and confidence of the citizen. Cyber laws should be available to the public as early as possible so that IT system and information documents stored in the system will have the same legal validity as the documents stored on the paper. Interoperability: A major design issue for integrated service delivery sites is, how to capture data in a Webbased form and transfer it to an agency’s systems for processing and sharing that information in a common format. In fact the interoperation of various state Governments, the various ministries within a state Government is a critical issue. Delivery of services: The ability of citizens to access these services is another major issue. Since the penetration of PCs and Internet is very low in the country, some framework needs to be worked out for delivery of the e-Services that would be accessible to the poorest of the poor. What will be the Government’s network to deliver those services? Could we have so me th in g li ke a si ng le stop sho p of the Government?. Standardization: De fi ni ng the standards for the vario us Government services is another issue that needs to be addressed. Technology Issues: A number of organizations, both in the Center and the States functions autonomously in India, it is very likely that they might go in for heterogeneous hardware/software platforms. The major challenge will lie with integration of the data and integration of subsets of these applications from all these on a common platform, which is bound to pose a problem in the near future. Use of local languages: The access of information must be permitted in the language most comfortable to the public user, generally the local language. There do already exist technologies such as GIST and language software by which transliteration from English into other languages can be made. Research Explorer 26 Spreading Awareness: Pe rh aps th e most impo rtant aspect of computerization and spreading awareness of IT is bringing a change in the mindset of the government servants who have accustomed to work only in the manual mode. It is necessary to train all employees in basic IT usage. There should be workshop & seminars at all levels. Conclusion E-Governance would also cater to automated applications for the government sector, which helps in achieving SMART governance which some define as- Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent Governance. According to one school of thought, e-governance is not just about government web site and e-mail. It is not just about service delivery over the Internet. It is not just about digital access to government information or electronic payments. It will change how citizens relate to government as much as it changes how citizens relate to each other. It will bring forth, new concepts of citizenship, both in terms of needs and responsibilities. References: 1. Amsden, H.A. (1994). “Why isn’t the Whole World Experimenting with the East Asian Model to Develop? Review of the East Asian Miracle in World Development Vol. 22, No. 4, pp 627-633. 2. Becker T. (1981) ‘Teledemocracy, Bringing power back to the people’, The Futurist, December 6-9 3. Bhatnagar Subhash, Schware Robert (2000), ‘Information and Communication Technology in Development - Cases from India’. Sage Publications, New Delhi / Thousand Oaks / London 4. Blackburn, P. Coombs, R and Green, K(1985) Technology, economic growth and the labour process , Basingstoke : Macmillan 5. David Whitely ,E-Commerce Strategy & Applications, ( TMGH). 6. Ramraj Palanisamy, Issues and challenges in governance, International J of Electronic, Vol 1, no.3/2004. 7. Taylor J.A. (1992) Information networking in government’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 69: 37589. 8. Venkataraman N. (1991) ‘ IT-induced business reconfiguration’, in M.Scott Morton (ed.) The corporation of the 90s. Information technology and organizational transformation. Oxford University Press. 9. Ministry of Information Technology, Govt of India, http:// egov.mit.gov.in July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 A STUDY ON NON-PERFORMING ASSETS IN PRIMARY CO-OPERATIVE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS IN CUDDALORE DISTRICT Dr.T.Aranganathan, Professor and Head, A.Vennila, Assistant Professor, Commerce Wing, DDE, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, TN ABSTRACT Agriculture is the largest sector of economic activity and has a crucial role to play in the country’s economic development. Agricultural credit in a practical sense is a nucleus of the system of farm operation. Co-operative movement dawned in India a century ago to eradicate indebtedness and to accelerate agricultural production in India. However, credit risk is acute in co-operative credit system, predominantly manifested in short-term credit. However, non-performing assets are growing by both external and internal factors. One of the main reasons for non-repayment or less repayment of loans was the unwillingness of the borrowers to repay rather than their inability to pay and that willful defaults were responsible for the pathetic state of co-operative banking system. In this context the authors examined the perception of the defaulters towards non-performing assets of the PCARDBs in Cuddalore District. Key words: Agricultural credit, overdues, NPAs, willful default, non-willful default. Introduction Finance is the lifeblood of all economic activities and plays a dominant role in the economic development of a country which is true in India as its major activity is agriculture. Agriculture is the largest sector of economic activity and has a crucial role to play in the country’s economic development by providing food, raw materials and employment to a very large population, capital for its own development, and surpluses for national economic development. Agriculture is a productive occupation and one of the essentials of agriculture production is capital. This may be provided by the cultivator himself or may borrow it from someone else and repay it from the output of the field in which he has invested. According to an old French proverb “credit supports the farmer as the hangman’s rope supports the hanged.” Thus credit injects life into lifeless agriculture, resulting in enhanced crop productivity which benefits both the farmers and the country. Agricultural credit in a practical sense is a nucleus of the system of farm operation. It Research Explorer provides a flow to the system averting ruin which would have occurred due to lack of monetary capacity of a farmer. In India agricultural credit is a two-fold problem of inadequacy and unsuitability that perennially presented. Co-operative movement dawned in India a century ago to eradicate indebtedness and to accelerate agricultural production in India. However, credit risk is acute in co-operative credit system, predominantly manifested in short-term credit. Mounting overdues contribute to the accumulation of non-performing assets in the co-operative banks. Concept of Non-Performing Assets The concept of non-performing assets evolved through the Narasimham Committee Report, 1991, has a critical impact on profit ascertainment of banks. Non-performing assets, according to the Reserve Bank of India, are those loans advanced by the bank that have not yielded interest for 180 days and the amount of principal that needs to be repaid is also defaulted. They are also called as bad debts. Further, if any one of the credit facilities July - December 2012 27
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 enjoyed by a client becomes non-performing asset, all of the other credit facilities enjoyed by the client also deemed to have become non-performing assets and are treated accordingly. Statement of the Problem Non-performing assets are the smoking gun threatening the very stability of Indian banks. Nonperforming assets smash a bank’s profitability both through a loss of interest income and write-off of the principal loan amount itself. Non-performing loans may spill over the banking system and contract the money stock, which may lead to economic contraction. Non-performing assets are growing by both external and internal factors. Majority of defaults occurred not because of in abil ity of th e bo rrow ers to re pay du e to circumstances beyond their control but due to the lack of will and initiative of the defaulters to repay. One of the main reasons for non-repayment or less repayment of loans was the unwillingness of the borrowers to repay rather than their inability to pay and that willful defaults were responsible for the pathetic state of co-operative banking system. Socio-economic conditions of borrowers being responsible for non-payment of debts. The size of land ho ldings of the defaulters, amount of borrowings, educational status, etc. had a direct bearing on the repayment of dues. Low repayment capaci ty , cro ppin g inten si ty , con su mpti on expenditure and income from dairy farming, etc significantly influenced the repayment performance of the borrowers. Absence of linking of credit with marketing led to lesser income, resulting in higher incidence of non-performing assets. Even a properly selected activity, though economically viable, would suffer from non-availability of adequate and timely finance. If adequate finance is not available, the borrowers restrict the scope of operations and under these circumstances, an account becomes nonperforming. In this context the authors examined the perception of the defaulters towards nonperforming assets of the PCARDBs in Cuddalore District. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the present study are as follows: 1. To assess the perception of the defaulters towards non-performing assets of the Primary Co -o pe rati ve Ag ri cu lture and Rural Development Banks in Cuddalore District. 2. To offer suitable suggestions for effective management of non-performing assets in the Research Explorer ISSN:2250 - 1940 Primary Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks in Cuddalore District. Testing of Hypothesis The study is based on the formulation of the following null hypotheses. Ho 1: There is no significant relationship among the acceptance level of the defaulters belonging to different socioecon omic con ditio ns tow ards in fl ue nce of psychological factors for non-repayment of loan in the Primary Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks. Sampling Design The study is confined to all 6 Primary Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks in Cuddalore District. Regarding the respondents, the defaulters in the farm and nonfarm loans were considered as total population. The total defaulters of farm and non-farm loans were 338 as on 31.03.2010 in all Primary Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks in Cuddalore District. By adopting census method, all 338 defaulters were taken for this study. Table 3.1 shows the defaulters distribution of the present study. Tools for Data Collection The present study is empirical in nature based on survey method. The first-hand information for this study was collected from the officials of the Primary Co-operative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks. The study encompasses both primary and secondary data. The primary data were collected from the defaulters of the farm and nonfarm l oans from six Pri mary Co -o pe rati ve Agriculture and Rural Development Banks in Cuddalore district. A pilot study was conducted during August 2011, selecting 25 defaulters. In the light of the experience gained from the pilot study, few changes were incorporated in the revised schedule. On account of low level of education and July - December 2012 28
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 poor comprehension of banking operations, schedule method was employed to collect primary data from the defaulters. The data so collected were entered into a master table and tabulated to arrive at useful conclusions. For collecting the primary data relating to policy matters, personal discussions were held with the Special Officers and officials of the PCARDBs. The secondary data were mainly collected from books, journals and government reports. The secondary sources of information also were extracted from the records of the Primary Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks of Cuddalore district. ISSN:2250 - 1940 defaulters towards influence of psychological factors for non-repayment of loan to PCARDBs. 4. Out of 338 respondents, 18.93% , 22.48% , 25.14% , 18.34% and 15.08% of the respondents strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and strongly disagree respectively towards influence of psychological factors for non-repayment of loan to PCARDBs. The average acceptance score reveals that the respondents have higher acceptance level towards involvement of political elements for non-repayment of loan (3.28), followed by the diversion of loan for non-productive purposes (3.24. However, with regard to inadequate loan due to lack of security, the respondents have lower acceptance score (2.88). Framework of Analysis In order to study the perception of the defaulters towards non-performing assets of the PCARDBs, various statistical analyses such as student t test, analysis of variance, co-efficient of variation, multiple regression analysis, multiple discriminant function analysis, discriminant function analysis, and percentage analysis were employed. 5. Discriminant function analysis was employed to construct a function with what are all the attitude items which significantly discriminate th e wi ll fu l de faul ters from n on -w il lful defaulters. The ‘borrowers need not pay back the loans’ is the maximum discriminating variable between willful defaulters and nonwillful defaulters, followed by ‘repayment of loan is secondary’, ‘insufficient income to repay the loan’ in that order. Other variables’ contribution in discriminating between willful defaulters and non-willful defaulters are less than 8% . Findings 1. There is no significant relationship among the acceptance levels of the respondents belonging to different genders towards influence of psychological factors for non-repayment of loan to PCARDBs. However, a significant relationship is found among the satisfaction level of the respondents belonging to different age groups, educational status, categories, purposes of borrowing, banks they belong to and types of defaults towards influence of psychological factors for non-repayment of loan to PCARDBs. 6. Multiple discriminant function analysis is used to study the attitude of the borrowers of PCARDBs to wards th e in fl ue nce of psychological factors on non-repayment based on their land holdings. The borrowers were divided into 3 categories based on their land holdings as small, medium and big farmers. The discriminant function have predicted 63.90% of the cases correctly in to their respective groups, where as considering each category, the function has predicted 76.60% of small farmers into its own group and 49.60% of the medium farmers into its own group and 60.70% of big farmers into its own group indicating that on the whole, the classification accuracy of the discriminant functions is 63.9% for the given selected variables. 2. Female respondents, respondents in the age group above 50 years, the illiterate respondents, big farmers, respondents who borrowed loan for farm purpose, borrowers in the PCARDBCuddalore, non-willful defaulters have higher level of acceptance towards influence of psychological factors for non-repayment of loan to PCARDBs. 3. There is a consistency in the acceptance level amon g th e male borrow ers, amo ng the borrowers in the age group 41-45 years, among the borrowers having H.Sc qualification, among the medium farmers, among the respondents who borrowed loan for non-farm purpose, amon g th e borro we rs i n the PCA RD BKattumannarkoil and among th e will ful Research Explorer 7. Respondents ranging from 33.13 per cent to 40.82 per cent suggest that regular monitoring, preventive measures, use of extra-ordinary recovery methods and recovery camps will 29 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 enhance the PCARDBs to reduce their nonperforming assets in Cuddalore district. About 42.89% , 44.97% and 49.11% of the respondents suggest that training to the employees for recovery, education to borrowers on repayment ethi cs and g ivin g the w arni ng sig nals respectively will reduce the amount of nonperforming assets in the PCARDBs. More than 52.667% of the respondents state that regular recovery, establishment of recovery cell, careful scrutiny and appraisal system and recovery incentives to the employees of PCARDBs will help the PCARDBs to reduce their nonperforming assets in Cuddalore district. Suggestions 1. Names of defaulters should be published in the local news paper and the list of defaulter borrowers under NPA category may also be notified on the notice board of the PCARDBs. The idea is simply to draw attention of the defaulters to contact the officials of the PCARDBs for the repayment of loan. 2. There is a need for the PCARDBs to streamline their efficiency of recovery and the development of compressive procedure. A special cell may be established in each PCARDB to monitor and take follow up action for the recovery of nonperforming assets. This special cell must monitor at least the top 50 non-performing assets accounts directly. 3. Suitable training programs should be organized for the employees of the PCARDBs connected with recovery and credit aspects. They should be properly trained on effective and scientific appraisal. 4. The PCARDBs should institute a system of early warning signals for potentially weak loans accounts. Some key signals are persistent default over-drawl, diversion of funds, lowering of rates, etc. It requires different stages, namely early and comprehensive detection of all signals pertaining to the health of the borrowers; thorough analysis of those signals to take a view in the borrowers business; and fast initiation of action upon warning signals to contain damage. ISSN:2250 - 1940 6. More careful and responsible scrutiny and appraisal system, which includes timely sanction, realism in fixing repayment schedule and adequacy of credit with efficient delivery is to be implemented in the PCARDBs. Conclusion The co-operative banking sector, with its more than a century old existence, plays an important role in enlarging the reach of institutional credit bo th fro m ge og raph ic an d so ci o-econ omic perspective. They came into existence with the enactment of Co-operative Credit Societies Act, 1904. Since their inception, these banks and their affiliated agencies have been playing a significant role in the socio-economic development of the country. However, the financial health of most of the co-operative banks has been a cause for concern and has so far proved to be a serious handicap in reaching out to the larger population. References 1. Ajjan, N (1994). An Analysis of Performance of Co-operative Credit Institutions in Tamil Nadu, Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vo1.XLIX, No.3, July-September, p.511. 2. Baiju, S and Gabriel Simon Thattil (2003). Performing Banks with Non-performing Assets: An analysis of NPAs, Yojana, Vol.44, March, pp. 5-9. 3. Debabrata Das (2001). A Study on Repayment Behaviour of Sample Borrowers, The Arunachal Pradesh State Cooperative Review, Vol.39, No.2, pp.139-147. 4. Ghosh Debarshi and Ghosh Sukanya (2011). Management of Non-Performing Assets in Public Sector Banks: Evidence from India, International Conference on Management, pp.750-760. 5. Indira Raja Raman, Suman Bhoumik and Namita Bhatia (1999). NPA Variations across Indian Commercial Banks: Some Findings, Economic and Political Weekly, January, pp.14-16. 6. Jayasree, M and Radhika, R (2011). Non-performing Assets: A Study of Scheduled Commercial Banks in India, International Journal of Research in Commerce, Economics & Management, Vol.1, No.1, May, pp.60-63. 7. Lisher, B.A, et al. (1986). Institutional Finance in Agricultural, Economic Affairs, Vol.31, No.1, pp.997-986. 8. Majumdar, D.K and Baruah, H.K (1999). Repayment Performance of Institutional Finance on Allied Agricultural Activities: A Case Study, Indian Co-operative Review, July. 5. Regular recovery should be organized by the PCARDBs in order to reduce the level of non9. Rajana Kumar (2005). Agricultural Rural Development performing assets. The provision of SARFAESI Banks: Some Issues, The Co-operator, Vol.43, No.2, pp.61-65. Act should be used for seizure of securities. 10. Ranga Reddy, A (1989). Measures for Reducing Farm CoBesides, regular monitoring makes the borrowers operative Overdues: A Study in Guntur District, Indian not to divest the funds for purposes other than Co-operative Review, Vol.28, No.1, pp.27-39. the purpose for which the loan is sanctioned. Research Explorer July - December 2012 30
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 THE ROLE OF ENGLISH IN ENHANCING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES Ms. Anuradha S. PhD Scholar in English Mother Teresa Women’s University, Kodaikanal ABSTRACT The paper touches upon the use of English as the binding language across the world in various areas of functioning. The advent of English as a force in the third world countries is dealt with in detail, including aspects like economic and financial growth of the third world countries. The impact of the rise in educational and awareness levels, combined with the growth in per capita income on the employability of the citizens of the third world countries is also dwelt upon. Growing desires of the people, coupled with a deep-rooted need to have an improved standard of living and how these factors play a vital role in employability are also examined. The paper also identifies the various employment opportunities that have opened up in the third world countries, with the opening up of the economy and the entry of brand names into the economy. Key words: Economies, Education, Employment Opportunities, Developing/third world countries growing steadily in the recent past. In addition to higher levels of awareness, better standards of education have contributed to this development, which has resulted in an increase in the per capita income in these countries, as seen in South Korea, where it rose from $350 in 1980 to $2,900 by the end of the 80s.1 While agriculture has remained the major source of income in the developing countries, the increase in the per capita income is evidence of an economy where employment opportunities are now available in several different fields, thereby bringing about a gradual decline in the high levels of unemployment in these countries. This has been the fallout of the growing aspirations amongst the people for a better lifestyle. No more is there just one breadwinner in the family; double income families are the norm, with more stress being laid on the education of the next generation, leading to better employment. Awareness levels are high and people know that education is the only way to rise above the lower class or lower middle class strata of society, thus leading to a brighter future. In addition to this, there is awareness that more income is required to fulfil the various desires and needs of the upcoming class; subsequently, there is an increase in the number of people seeking Introduction In recent times, the world has gradually become a global village. Accessibility amongst countries has become easier, intercontinental relations have increased, and international economies have come up more rapidly. With this gradual metamorphosis of the world into a global village, one striking aspect comes out very vividly – the importance of English. It has become the language of commerce, politics, trade, economics and all types of development. Indeed, it can be said that it is the single language that has gained in importance as a fallout of the apparent shrinkage in the size of the world. Needless to say, this is due to the fact that one common binding factor was required to ensure that communication channels were transparent and unambiguous amongst all the people concerned, and English fitted the bill perfectly. The reach of English is evident even amongst the third world countries. Majority of the people in these countries belong to the lower middle class. This strata of society is gradually growing in awareness and nurturing a desire to raise its standard of living. Consequently, the economies of Korea, India and Africa, to mention a few, have been Research Explorer 31 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 employment in the developing countries. The aspirations and desires of this segment of people are not to reach for the skies; they are just to raise their present living conditions. And they are completely aware that the better employment opportunities needed for this require better educational levels in general and improved knowledge of English in particular. Employability, as the Chambers’ dictionary defines it, is “the quality in a person that makes him or her employable or eligible to be hired for a particular job”. As we are all aware, the employability of a person improves with better levels of English knowledge2, which will be explained subsequently. ISSN:2250 - 1940 qualification required amongst those wishing to be employed in these sectors of the economy – decent levels of working knowledge of English. Given the nature of the jobs and the profile of the customers that these outlets cater to, it is imperative that the prospective employees have sound knowledge in those areas pertaining to their area of work. This is required as in the developing countries, most of the products in such chains are imported from various parts of the world. Uniformity in packaging language has been established by the exporting countries by ensuring that the labelling is in English. For better communication between the retailer and customer, suitable levels of English are required on the part of the salesperson. In the case of FMCG items, the sales person needs to be able to verify various aspects of the products like the expiry date, constituents of food items and so on in order to cater to the queries from the customers. Thus, the level of English knowledge would need to go beyond mere mechanical understanding and include a level of anticipation and comprehension. One of the varied employment opportunities that are opening up in the third world countries is tourism. In the case of our country, from being known as the land of ‘snake charmers and elephants’, India is today recognised as a culturally rich country with a deep-rooted heritage. This realisation, coupled with the suitable marketing of our country’s many wonders, has given an impetus to the tourism industry in India. The milling tourists have given rise to employment opportunities in the form of travel agencies and guided tours, which require a decent level of English knowledge to cater to the multitude of international tourists from various countries. Another area where more and more employment opportunities are opening up today is in call centres. Today, almost 2,00,000 jobs have been outsourced to India through call centres5. The primary population working in call centres belong to the lower middle class where the employees are not very highly qualified or educated and are required to work as an economic need in the family. Ironically, despite their social and educational backgrounds, these very employees, by virtue of their job description, are required to interact primarily with people residing outside our country, understand their queries and problems and be able to provide the right solution to them. Thus, this includes not just appreciable levels of English knowledge but also a decent level of comprehension of different accents. Employment opportunities have also come up due to the increased sale of consumer goods in the developing countries. This has manifested itself as the fast-expanding ‘mall culture’. Malls catering to th e bran d-co nsci ou s publi c have come up everywhere and are continuing to do so. The opening up of the economy has also led to the influx of various reputed foreign brands striving to establish a foothold in the burgeoning third world markets. In addition to various international brands, international supermarket chains like Walmart are also making an entry into the developing countries3, competing with the existing chains like Food World, Spencer’s and Big Bazaar, all of which have now started outlets even in smaller cities. The growing employment opportunities have been added to with the entry of multi-national corporations in to the third world countries6. These MNCs naturally, due to their very characteristic, expect decent levels of English knowledge amongst their employees. With the opening up of the economy, even government companies like Public Sector Undertakings today have regular dealings with foreign companies through collaborations, exports, technological consultancy, etc. All of these require extensive communication in English to ensure the success of the partnerships and Other consumer goods stores seen making a name for themselves in the developing countries are Shoppers’ Stop, Crossword and Pantaloons, to name a fe w.4 These consumer stores h ave presented the local populace with tremendous employment opportunities. There is scope for employment as salespersons, marketing, desk jobs, liaison, and so forth. However, there is a basic Research Explorer 32 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 profitability of the company. The market has also today changed from being a sellers’ market to a buyers’ market, where the customer is king. Hence, presenting the right image about the company is absolutely essential when interacting with the various foreign partners of the company. ISSN:2250 - 1940 enhancing the standard of living amongst the people. Works cited 1 http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc1/Third WorldEconomicDevelopment.html English is equally important in other job profiles in PSUs. These key areas include Public Relations, Purchase, Education and Training, in addition to Marketing. All these aspects of work involve extensive use of English in fairly proficient levels; thus, even PSUs, which normally have a central method of recruitment of officers, test the knowledge levels of the aspirants in English. In the private sector also, English language skills are expected from those seeking employment and the same is assessed through the interviews that are conducted among the candidates. 2 Geddie, William, ed. Chambers’s Twentieth Century Dictionary. 1st ed. Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1964. Keeping the above in mind, it can thus be reiterated that English is an absolute necessity to ensure the employability of people today. Better language skills in English will increase employment opportunities and provide more avenues, thereby 6 Ahiakpor, James CW. Multinational Corporations in the Third World: Predators or Allies in Economic Development? Religion & Liberty. Vol. 2, No. 5. 3 Rathore, Rajender Singh, ed. Case Studies on MNCs in India: The Competitive Strategies - Vol. I. Hyderabad: ICFAI Books, 2008. 4 http://promiseofreason.com/mall-culture-inindia-part-2-effects/ 5 http://www.articlegrandeur.com/articles/callcenter-16.html CALL FOR PAPERS We have the great pleasure to inform you that we are bringing out an Edited Book on titled “EMERGING TRENDS IN FINANCIAL SYSTEM”. The Book will be published by a Delhi based reputed publisher with ISBN Number. We would like invite you to share your ideas, thoughts, and initiatives taken on the above topic. Hence, we are requesting the learned researchers like you to send research paper(s) on any topic(s) in these areas. Please intimate this invitation to other colleague’s /staff/ friends and Research Scholars who have made significant contribution in these areas and notify the same in the academic notification for wide publicity. We request you to kindly send your article to be included in this book. You may send your article to tamilselp@yahoo.in The objective of the book: prime purpose of this book is to comprehend the recent concepts, practices, theoretical background and results of empirical studies relating in the areas of financial system. Look forward for your contribution on or before 31st December 2012 .  Editor Research Explorer 33 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 IMPACT OF AGRO–BASED INDUSTRIES ON RURAL ECONOMY STUDY OF SANGLI DISTRICT - MAHARASHTRA : A CASE Shri.S.S.Shejal Assistant Professor, G.A.College of Commerce, Sangli (Maharashtra) ABSTRACT India has the greater potential market for processed food the vis-a-vis states and districts. Sangli district in Maharashtra state predominantly agricultural district endowed with abundant natural sources. These recourses can be utilized for agro-based processing. The number of main workers and female work participation have increased over a period of time due to increases in processing industries which are absorbed in production units like sugar factories, agricultural processing, weaving, cotton mills. The membership, reserve fund and working capital of production units with employment by size increased during 1980-98. Simultaneously, 1.04 percent and 0.83 percent increased a Sangli district NDP and PCI during 2001 to 2010. Hence India in general vis-à-vis a district. Key words : Agro-Based Industries, labour intensive, food processing, plant protection Introduction lives in rural areas, and it has no means to channelize the saving. The same can use in agroindustries in rural areas. The feature of The development of Agro-Based Industries in developing countries like India is that these Industries Integrate agriculture with industry which helps in solving the employment problem, inequalities of income, regional imbalance by locating Agro-Based Industries in the Rural areas. NCAER [1965] has defined Agro-Based Industries as those, which use either agriculture raw- material or make things that farmers need their agriculture needs. They include not only seeds, fertilizers, implements, plant protection chemicals but also the repair and servicing of farm implements. According to FAO these industries provides two third of employment in developing counties. These industries are labour intensive and save capital. In our country the share in total production of agroprocessing is 50 percent and the value addition is 22.86 percent. Currently food production and processing account 26 percent of India’s GDP with 60 percent of employment. India is largest producer of food and it has the growth potential of processing in du stry because of h er vast popul atio n. Accordingly the government is providing incentives to encourage value addition and to boost the trade. It bridge gap between rural and urban economies nearly 70 percent of the total population in India Research Explorer Opportunities for Food Processing Food processing industry helps for economic growth. India is the largest producer of milk, tea, fruits and vegetables in the world. But it share in the world Rs.280 bn. Global trade processed food is less than 1 percent. 40 percent of the fruits and vegetables produce is wasted every year. Only 1.3 percent of the fruits and vegetables are processed as against 40 percent in developing countries and 70 percent in developed countries. From entire agricultural produce only 1 percent is converted into value added product in India. India’s GNP has grown by 3.5 percent to 5.8 percent and PCI by 1.2 to 3.6 percent during 195080 to 1990-00. Average Indian spends 52 percent of income on food. Due to increase in PCI he will spend more on processed food. The rapid economic development through processed industries, the country will translate into disposal income. The increased income due to increase in disposal income again the Indian’s will spend more on processed food. Hence food processing sector will increase from Rs.70 bn. to 140 bn. by 2010. The food habits 34 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 are moving towards value adde d. The food production is likely to doubled and there is an opportunity for investment in technology, skill and equipment. Opportunity will also be available to reduce the losses. For sustained production of processing industry, the contract farming taking place, so that themselves procure the raw-material. Radiation and bio-technology also increased in improving varieties of fruits and vegetables. Increased urbanization, improved standard of living has potentialities in food processing and marketing sectors. Big global food giants yet to reach scale of economy. The food and Agricultural Integrated Action (1997) prepared by Mc.Kinsey has estimated that, changing consumer preference, the annual consumption of value added foods would grow to Rs.225000 crores by 2007 which is larger than manufacturing sector. Overall value of the Indian food industry has increased from Rs.3.09 trillion in 2000-01 to Rs.3.99 trillion in 2009-10. ISSN:2250 - 1940 skills for production of a large varieties of agricultural crops. Total population of the district is 2582 (000) as agai nst 96752 (000) in Maharashtra state. At present there are 2190 production units including, sugar industries 17, cotton textile 21. The district occupies a pereminent position in respect of food and commercial crops. Along with resource based agro-industries, Sang li district h as g ot vast sco pe for the development of subsidiary industries related to agricultural such as daring, livestock, meat and poultry industries. Agro-based industries are so lu ti on to the u ne mplo yme nt, re gi on al backwardness, congestion and pollution, slum, housing in cities. Migration from rural to urban will be reduced and thereby pressure of population in urban area. Ma i n w o r k e r s a n d Participation Rate : The Ministry of Food Processing estimated the size of food processing industry at Rs.3350 bn. (US$70), including Rs.990 bn. (US$ 22 bn.) of value added products. Further it is estimated to grow at 9-12 percent on the basis of an estimated GDP growth rate of 6-8 percent during 10th plan period. Value addition of food products is expected to increase from current 8 percent to 35 percent by 2025. Fruits and vegetables currently 2 percent to 10 percent by 2010 and 25 percent by 2025. At present industry employs 1.6 mn. Workers directly. The number of people employed by the industry is projected to grow to 37 mn. direct and indirect job worker by 2025. The export likely to increase by Rs.146 bn for 2002-03 as against 136 bn. in 200102. The marine export contribution will be 40 percent. These will be tax holiday for new processing units in fruits and vegetables along with other benefits. India being largest producer of milk in the world estimated production of 91 mn. tones in the year 2002-03. Milk and Milk products accounts for 17 percent of India’s total expenditure on food products like cheese, butter, ghee, dairy whitener and ice-creams. The total size of the Indian Snack Food market is estimated over 4 lakh tones and Rs.100 bn. in value terms and it has grown by 10 percent during 2005-06. work Number of workers and work participation rate has increased over a period of time. They were absorbed in agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Processing industries also helped to absorb the population. Table No. 1 Shows that the ACGR of Number of main workers and female workers participation rate has increased by 1.54 Percent and 3.45 percent during 1991 to 2010. The work participation rate of person and female has increased from 31.09 to 37.91 percent and 10.72 to 24.75 percent during the same period. Number of Production Units Repairing Services and Daily Workers:Production units repairing services which consists of various types of agro-based industries have increased over a period of time. Production unit have increase from 2978 to 19210 during 2001-10. 68 percent were situated in rural areas and remaining 32 percent in urban areas with total workers of 165950. 95 percent were in private sector. Average per unit of worker were 2. Nearly 45 percent workers were employed wages. Agro-Based Industries in Sangli District: Sangli district in Maharshtra state has grater potentiality for processing industry. It is endowed with abundant resources and wealth of traditional Research Explorer Fema le 35 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 more or less constant. The share of primary and secondary sector has slightly increased from 32.71 percent to 37.80 percent and 18.47 percent to 19.52 percent whereas tertiary sector has marginally declined from 45.82 percent to 42.67 percent during 2004-05 to 2009-10. The share of tertiary sector was higher because of expansion of primary and secondary sector. Conclusion Agro-based industries in developing country like India is that these industry internet agriculture with industry which helps to solve the unemployment, inequalities of income regional imbalance locating agro based industries in rural this is industries provide two- third of employment in developing countries theses industries are labour intensive and save capital, India has the largest potential of processing industry because of her vast population, India PCI has increased from 1.2 to 3.6 present during 1950-80 to 1900-00 the increased PCI will increase the purchasing power which will be potential market for processed food in export, processed food in less than 1.30 present of fruits and vegetables are processed as against 40 percent in developing countries and 70 percent in developed countries Mc.Kinsey has estimated that value added food would grow to Rs 225000 corers by 2007 the minster of food processing estimated the size of processing industry at Rs 3150 bn. The export is likely to increases by 146 bn. For 2006-07. Indian snack food has grown by 10 percent during 20052010. Table No.2. shows daily workers employed in different units. Daily workers employed in rural and urban area per unit has declined from 8.14 percent to 2.14 percent and 13.96 to 9.54 percent because of growth of production units and social services units from 11.26 percent to 8.72 percent in rural area and 10.63 percent to 7.71 percent in urban area during 2001 to 2010. Which helped to increases district net domestic product and per capita income. Because of growth of the various sectors NDP has increased from Rs. 240075 Lakh to Rs. 362552 Lakh registering ACGR of 1.04 percent and PCI has growth from Rs. 1038 to Rs. 14476 registering ACGR of 0.83 percent during 2004-05 to 2009-10. Sector-wise Percentage Share in Total District:The percentage share of district income [NDDP] to state income at constant prices was increased from 2.35 percent to 2.56 percent Sangli District contribution was much higher compared to other districts. Districts sector wise share in the total income was as follows. Reference:1. Economic Survey of 2010-2011. 2. Socia-economic Survey of Sangli District 2001 and 2010. 3. enkaih V., Impact of Agro-based Industries on Rural Economy, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay 1987. Table No.4 shows the sector-wise percentage in the district income sector-wise share of income was 4. http://online:com/mog/fopo;html Send your Article / Notes / Feedback / Enquries to the flowing mail id for for for for Trust / Publication Indian Academic Researchers Association SELP Journal of Social Science Research Explorer Research Explorer 36 : : : : tamilselp@yahoo.in iara.selp@yahoo.in sjss.selp@yahoo.in re.selp@yahoo.in July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 UNITY IN DIVERSITY IS THE HALLMARK OF INDIAN NATION HOOD Arvind.M.Managuli Associate Professor, Department of History C.M.Managuli Arts College, Sindgi-586128, Dist : Bijapur (Karnataka) ABSTRACT India is the cradle of the human race, the birth place of human speech, the mother of history. The grandmother of legends and the great grandmother of traditions our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. This kaleidoscopic view of India portrayed by mark Twain. India is a vast country with an area of 3,287,263 sq km. and a population of over one billion often described as a Sub-continent. Key Words: human race , topography, diversities, civilization, Introduction The people of this vast sub-continent are as diverse as its topography. It has many diversities diverse terrain, weather, races, languages, religions, customs, art, dress, food habits etc. “It is a museum of diversities” All most all world religions Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Zoroastrian are found in India, Several different languages are spoken among them only 22 languages are constitutionally approved. Each part each region has a distinctive flavor of its own. Not only does the north differs from south and the east from west but so do regions adjacent to one another. Punjab and Sindh are each distinctive entities, Maharastra differs from neighbor Karnataka, Kerala from Tamilnadu, Bengal from Orissa. In the past it has received adapted and digested elements of many different cultures Indo-Aryan, Mesopotamian, Iranian, Greek, Roman, Scythian, Turkish, Persian, Arab etc. From Kashmir to Capecomorin, we see different customs, traditions, food habits etc. The question is now out of all these diversities people how do they co exist and interact? This gifted land attracted many foreigners and tempted many conquerors Alexander, Mahamud Ghazani, Gori, Khilji, Tagalaq, Timurlang, Babar several others to conquer and plunder the wealth of this nation. Trading companies of Portuguese, Dutch, French and English who come to India exclusively for trade found the situation to establish Research Explorer 37 political authority, resulting in considerable population of mixed Indo-European blood, derived from the union of Portuguese, Dutch, French British and other Europeans. In spite of the all diversities mentioned above there is a deep underlying fundamental unity in India from Himalayas to Cape Comorin. The concept of unity in India has persisted from the ages in the course of its entire history, overcoming all manners of Political and external charges. It is India that has given the ideal of tolerance and religions concord to humanity. It has a long past history with unique civilization in the world. Arnold Joseph Toynbee the world famous historian identified 23 civilizations out of the twenty three 18 civilizations are dead and buried, India is one among the surviving civilizations. The Indus civilization discovered at mohenjodaro, Harappa and other parts of western India depicts us earliest picture of India’s past with an high standard of urban based culture. During the vedic period though there were diametrically opposed sects even those who deny god find a place in it. Religious freedom is one of the cardinal principles and religion was practiced in most democratic form. The vedic Rishi declared “Ekam Sat Viprah Bahudha Vadanti” Truth is one the wise call it variously. This vedic ideal has been affirmed in the sutras and the smritis and repeatedly re-started in the Gita and other popular July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 treatises. In whatever way people approach me, I receive them in the self same manner” There is nothing besides me all are threaded in me as pearls on a string” says Sri Krishna in Gita. This attitude did not remain confined to books it was nobly practiced and intensely believed in. ISSN:2250 - 1940 The Sufis of Islam have been influenced by vedantic thought. There is considerable population of mixed Indo European blood. Conclusion The concept of harmony and unity in India has persisted from the ages as Jawaharlal Nehru Says. “That unity was not conceived as something imposed from outside, standardization of externals or even of beliefs. It was something deeper and within its fold Tolerance is India’s innate spirit and it is her contribution to the common weal of mankind”. Hence India is a museum of many diversities but unity among all these diversities is its fundamental strength. For Mahatma Gandhi religion was not a matter of orthodoxy it was a matter of faith. All religions for him were equally worthy of man’s respect, his interfaith prayer meetings were symbolic of his spiritual position. He placed morality higher than everything else in life and insisted that truth should from every individual section whether political or economic, nation he said can hardly survive without character. So in this gifted land religion brings unity and tolerance among all sections of the society, So it has first generation of Christians, Jews who had been persecuted in every other place on the globe found a safe and secure place in India not only that the prince of Cochin allowed them to build a synagogue close to the temple of royal family. The followers of Zoroaster who fled from their mother land were welcomed in India, All these communities were warmly received and they still form an integral part of India nation. Muslims once they settled down after conquering, they were influenced by the Indian culture and tradition of accord and amity. References 1) India A splendor in cultural Diversity - Sir, Paulias Matane. M.L. Ahuja. 2) Indian Nationalism a History – Jim masselos. 3) Humanism – English monthly International Journal. 4) In di a – Hi story , Re li gi on, Visio n, and Contribution to the World Vol-I - Alexander. P.Varghese. Special issue on CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MARKETING SELP Journal of social science invites articles from acadamicians, research scholars and students in the field of social science for special issue on CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MARKETING for puplication in December 2012. 2 Contributors may follow the guidelines in selp journal of social science and submit a soft copy to sjss.selp@ yahoo in. on or before 30.10.2012. 2 Rs 750/- per article will be charged as publication fee in the form of DD in favour of SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT OF LOCAL PEOPLE TRUST, payable at Tiruchi. (or) publication amount may be paid directly in the A/C. No. 15 6305 00037 1, RTGS / N EFT / I FSC Cod e- IC IC00 0156 3, I CICI Ban k , K .K .N aga r, T ir u ch ira ppal li - 620 021. Managing Editor Research Explorer 38 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TOURISM SERVICE QUALITY IN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DISTRICT Dr. P.A.Akbar Batcha Associate Professor of Commerce, M.S.S. Wakf Board College, Madurai D.S.A.Mehaboob, Assistant Professor of Commerce, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli ABSTRACT Tourism is recognized as a major global service industry governed by the laws of supply and demand. It has advanced as a concomitant to general development. It touches not only the economic fabrics of the society but also has deep-rooted effects on social norms and moral values. The tourism industry holds tremendous potential for nation’s economy. It provides thrust to other industries, create millions of new jobs and generate enough wealth to help economic development of the nation. That is why it has been included that amongst the core sectors of the nation economy. Key words: place , product , physical evidence , people , process , price , promotion Introduction a circle or Turner’s wheel. It is from this word the concept of round or package tour was evolved. It was as late as 1643 that this term was first used in the sense of traveling from place to place. In simple terms, tourism consists of all those trade terms, which together satisfy the varied needs of the travelers. The following are some of the definitions of tourism: Tourism is recognized as a major global service industry governed by the laws of supply and demand. It has advanced as a concomitant to general development. It touches not only the economic fabrics of the society but also has deeprooted effects on social norms and moral values. The ramification of tourism has reached out to many sectors of the economy. The explosion of global tourism has occurred not only because of its commercial expediency and economic profit, revolution in transport and communication, but al so due to th e transfo rmatio n of h uman community into an increasingly leisure-oriented society. That is why more and more companies involved themselves in the highly skilled business of transporting, accommodating and catering for tourists all over the world. Tourism is no longer a joy ride but a regular and reoriented promising industry having a flow of human contacts. Proposed Conceptualized Research Model There are nine dimensions were framed for this study. The dimensions are based on the Service marketing mix or the 7P’s approach. Those are: i) ii) Physical Evidence(Interior & Exteriors), iv) People (Staff), v) Process (Protection / Safety), vi) Price (Value for Money), vii) Promotion (Information & Communication), Over the years the definitions of both tourism as well as tourist has undergone significant changes in their approach and understanding. It was held that the world tourism originated from the Latin world “Tornos”, which means a tool for describing Research Explorer Product(Tangibles), iii) Definition of Tourism Place (Destination), viii) Destination Satisfaction and ix) Intention to Return. Here Demographic variable, Place, Product, People, Process, Price, Promotion, Destination 39 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Description of the Study Area Satisfaction are independent variable and Intention to return is the dependent variable. Tiruchirappalli Municipality was constituted on 08.07.1866. The Municipality was upgraded as City Municipal Corporation with effect from 01.06.1994 by adding the adjacent Municipalities, Town Panchayats and Village Panchayats. Places to visit in Tiruchirappalli District. Objectives of the Study 1. To analysis the macro-economic indicators of the Tourism in India, with special Reference to Service quality. 2. To find out the service quality and its di me nsio ns o f Tiruchi rappall i to urism, Tamilnadu. 3. To upgrade th e standard, quali ty and effectiveness of tourism marketing to reach the goal increased tourist arrival and receipts. Methodology The primary data has been collected with help of questionnaire from sample respondents among tourists. The researcher conducted three categories of sample survey covering 200 tourists, includes 100 tamilnadu tourists, 50 domestic tourists, 50 foreign tourists in various cultural & heritage desti nation o f Tiruchi rappalli district. The secondary data has been collected from journals, magazines, books, various libraries, reports and statistical records. The collected data have been classified, tabulated, and analyzed systematically and inferences are drawn from it. The simple statistical and mathematical tools like percentage, chi-square test were used for this analysis.   Samayapuram Mariamman Temple  Vekkaliamman Temple, Woriyur  Rock Fort and Uchipillaiyar Temple  Kallanai Templ e,Pu th ur- ME A S U R I N G S E R V IC E Q U A LIT Y IN TOURISM IN TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DISTRICT ON THE BASIS OF MARKETING MIX It has a great social contribution by way of bringing together people who belong to different cultural, social economic background. Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom in this case = (r-1) (c-1) = (41) ((3-1) = 6 ,Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) =25.26876 ,Table value = 12.592 It contributes to the foreign exchange earnings. Not only an assessment of the service quality in Tiruchirappalli district but also an analysis of the ways and means of promoting the service quality of tourism industry. As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 25.26876 is greater than the table value x2 that is 12.592. Hence the hypothesis is rejected. It can be inferred that there is significant relationship between place and their satisfaction of the tourist. Researcher would like to be innovative and productive. Research Explorer Kul uman di A mman Sholanganallur  Tourism has economically significant impact on local as well as global market. Vayalur Murugan Temple  Tourism incorporate many of the features of the information or the society like as globalization, mobility and information richness. Thiruvanai koil  This study recognizes the importance of service quality and the need of insightful research covering the area. Srirangam Temple  Statement of the Problem Mukkombu 40 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) = (5-1) ((3-1) = 8 , Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) = 7.810552 , Table value = 15.507 As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 7.810552 is less than the table value x2 that is 15.507. Hence the hypothesis is accepted. It can be inferred that there is no significant relationship between people and their satisfaction of the tourist. Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) ((3-1) = 6 , Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) = 5.70201, Table value = 12.592 As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 5.70201 is less than the table value x 2 that is 12.592. Hence the hypothesis is accepted. It can be inferred that there is no significant relationship between product and their satisfaction of the tourist. Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom (V) = (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) ((3-1) = 6 , Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) = 27.87943 , Table value = 12.592 As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 27.87943 is greater than the table value x2 that is 12.592. Hence the hypothesis is rejected. It can be inferred that there is significant relationship between process and their satisfaction of the tourist Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) ((3-1) = 6 , Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) = 9.539085 , Table value = 12.592 As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 9.53908 is less than the table value x 2 that is 12.592. Hence the hypothesis is accepted. It can be inferred that there is no significant relationship between physical evidence and their satisfaction of the tourist. Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) ((3-1) = 6 , Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) = 10.4178 , Table value = 12.592 As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 10.4178 is less than the table value x 2 that is 12.592. Hence the hypothesis is accepted. It can be inferred that there is no significant relationship between price and their satisfaction of the tourist. Research Explorer 41 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 association between Promotion (Information & Communication) and satisfaction of the tourist. Suggestions Tourism industry in India is emerging and it has immense potential for generating employment and earning huge amount of foreign exchange besides giving an impetus to the country’s overall economic and social development. Tourism in India should be developed so as to accommodate and entertain visitors in a way that is minimally intrusive or destructive to the environment and sustains and supports the native culture. Tourism industry is multi- dimensional and basically a service industry, it would be necessary that all wings of the central and state governments, private sector and voluntary organizations become active partners in the endeavor to attain sustainable growth. Chi – Square Analysis Degree of freedom (r-1) (c-1) = (4-1) ((3-1) = 6 , Chi – Square Value (Calculated Value) = 5.140838 , Table value = 12.592 As the calculated value of x2 at 5% level that is 5.140838 is less than the table value x2 that is 12.592. Hence the hypothesis is accepted. It can be inferred that there is no significant relationship between promotion and their satisfaction of the tourist. Conclusion The service provided by the destination then takes the form of a global experience shaped by multiple, frequent and varied interactions between all the factors of the system. Tourist destination will take account of economic development in the sense of social aspects, employment, etc.; the environment, culture and the heritage; the tourism market, in its universal sense; the professional as well as local communities concerned. A large number of elements have an impact on the tourist’s perception of a destination, on the level of his/her satisfaction and in consequence on the tourist’s willingness to make a repeat visit and to recommend the destination of potential visitors. Findings Place: The x2 value is greater than the table value. We reject the hypothesis. There is association between Place (Destination) and satisfaction of the tourist. Product: The x2 value is less then the table value. We accept the hypothesis. There is no association between Product (Tangible) and satisfaction of the tourist. Physical Evidence: The x2 value is less then the table value. We accept the hypothesis. There is no association between Physical Evidence (Interior & Exteriors, Hygiene, etc.,) and satisfaction of the tourist. References Burns & Graefe (2003). Alternate measurement approaches to recreational customer satisfaction, Satisfaction- only versus gaps scores, Leisure sciences (363-380). Chadee & Mattsson (1996). An empirical assessment of customer satisfaction in tourism journal (305-320). Iso-Ahola s. (1982). Towards a social psychology theory of tourism motivation. Annals of tourism research (256-262). Kozak M (2002) Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations Tourism management (221232) McGeheee, N.G (1996). The Australian International pleasure travel market, motivations from a gendered perspective. The journal of tourism studies (45-57) Arulraj. A & Prabaharan. B (2009), A study on mediating effects of service quality in Tourism, International conference procedding on marketing paradigms for emerging economics, Allied Publishers, India. Poon & low (200s5) are travelers satisfied with Malaysian hotel industries, international journal of contemporary Hospitality management. Tribe & Snaith (1998) Form service quality to HOLSAT, Holiday satisfaction in Varadero, cube, tourism management. People: The x2 value is less then the table value. We accept the hypothesis. There is no association between People (Staff) and satisfaction of the tourist. Process: The x2 value is greater then the table value. We reject the hypothesis. There is association be twee n Process (Pro te cti on / S afety) and satisfaction of the tourist. Price: The x2 value is less then the table value. We accept the hypothesis. There is no association between Price (Value for Money) and satisfaction of the tourist. Promotion: The x2 value is less then the table value. We accept the hypothesis. There is no Research Explorer 42 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 SOCIO – ECONOMIC PROFILE OF ELDERLY LIVING IN GOVERNMENT OLD AGE HOMES IN KERALA Bindhu P Subhash Research scholar in Social Work , KarpagamUniversity,Coimbatore,TN. Dr. I Goswami Research Supervisor in Social Work, KarpagamUniversity,Coimbatore,TN. ABSTRACT The socio- economic status of elderly is a major factor which determines their entry in to the government old age homes.Materials and Methods: An Exploratory and descriptive study carried out in selected old age homes from each district of Kerala State. A total of 176 elderly people were interviewed in the study. The overall socio – economic profile of the respondents, arrived from various socio – economic indicators, shows that majority of respondents (55percent) belong to lower economic class. Conclusion: Based on the results it may be concluded that the people living in government old age homes are mostly from the poorer section of the society. Key words : Socio – economic profile , Government old age homes , Elderly. Background: should be treated as an important component of the wellbeing of the elderly ( Bali, 1996).The comparatively stable joint family system in traditional Indian society has been a place for the protecti on o f th e age d.A co un try wi de survey(Arora,1995) reveales that there have been nearly 350 old age homes in India and of which many are located in Kerala.Every year adds about fi ve o ld age ho me s to th e ex isti ng strength(Irudaya,2000). Dave and John (2003), in their study reported that older persons used to depend on their children for survival which many ultimately turned their life miserable. People expressing dissatisfaction with their lives were those who financially dependent,did not enjoy good health and considered themselves a liability. It is imperative that the economic status will have a bearing on the social status of the older persons. The social status inturn, determines the familial interaction, participation in making important decisions and familial relationships. The global phenomenon of population ageing affects India too. As per U.N classification, the Indian society would progress from a ‘ mature society’ to an ‘ageing society’. In Kerala, people above 60 years constitute 13 percent of the state’s population of 3.34 crore compared to the national figure of 8.2 percent, according to the 2011 census (Radhakrishnan,2011.)As the people grow older their problems increasemanifold(Chandha et al ,2004) . Th is de mo graphic transitio n, accompanied by social and cultural transitions, gives rise to many psycho-social problems of the elderly. The social forces, such as modernization and urbanization have not only disrupted the traditional social life of the elderly but also led to the desertion of the elderly by their children migrating to urban centres or cosmopolitan cities (Che ri an , 2003) .A ccordin g to Ve rman ie t al(2001:89), the values of younger generation have be en chang in g an d con se qu en tl y mo re individualistic,utilitarian and indifferent attitudes towards elders have become prominent. Research in social epidemiology and medical sociology has consistently shown that people with lower socio- economic status experience poorer health and live shorter lives than those with moderatelyhigher status ( Bowling , 2004).About The socio – demographic transition gives ri se to pre sen tin g diffe ren t type s o f l ivi ng arrangement for the elderly. Living arrangement Research Explorer 43 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 65 percent of the aged have to depend on others for their livelyhood( situation analysis of the elderly in India 2011) Among the rural elderly persons, al mo st 50 perce nt h ave mon th ly percapitaexpendidture level between Rs. 420 – Rs. 775 and the similar groups, in urban areas have monthly percapita expenditure between Rs. 665 – Rs.1500 (situation analysis of the elderly in India 2011) Socio-cultural conditions coupled with age may exert pressure and give rise to variety of symptoms, increase the cost of medicare and affect the interpersonal relationship. After all, human beings do not live by food alone; they are social beings who need psychological contentment and emotional succor. Hence, a basic understanding of the socioeconomic profile of people living in old age homes seems to be very important prerequisite before we proceed with our research analysis in the domain. Definition of the terms– Elderly People at the age of 60 and above living in government old age homes of Kerala. Socio-economic Status It means education, occupation and income of the respondents covered under the study. This is measured by SES scale developed by Dr.Tiwary and Ku mar( 2010) . Majo r pro fi le s inclu de the ir accommodation facilities, material possessions, education , occupation , economic status, and social profile. Objective of the study To study the socio – economic status of elderly living in government old age homes in Kerala. Methodology The study was conducted by adopting an exploratory and descriptive research design. One government old age home was selected purposively from each of the fourteen districts of the Kerala. Based on the principle of simple random sampling twenty five per cent of the respondents from each old age homes were selected for the study. The total sample size for the study was 176. The data was collected using a well structured interview schedule. Socio-economic status was operationalized as ho use profil e, material pro ce ssio n profil e, educational profile, occupational profile, economic profile, processed land/ house cost profile and social profile. The scale developed by Tiwari and Kumar (2010) was used to measure the socioResearch Explorer 44 ISSN:2250 - 1940 economic status of the individuals. The individual variables were measured and the consolidated index was worked out. Findings and Discussion Fifty per cent of the respondents in old age homes belong to the lower class in house profile. This was followed by 29 per cent in lower middle class, 16 per cent in middle class, 3 per cent in upper middle class and 2 per cent in upper class respectively. Based on the result it can be assumed that the majority of the respondents have poor house type are also occupy house with less than 1000 square feet area. Ninety three per cent of the respondents belong to the lo we r class wi th re gard to mate ri al procession. This was followed by three per cent in lower middle class, two per cent in middle class, and one per cent in upper class respectively. Based on the result it can be assumed that the people in old age home own very few materials. The total cost of house hold gadgets and conveyance vehicle owned by most of the people are below Rs 15000. The result showed that 80 per cent of the respondents belong to the lower class with respect to the education profile. This was followed by 17 per cent in the lower middle class, three per cent in the middle class respectively. Based on the result it can be assumed that the general level of education of people living in old age home is very poor. And majority of the respondents are just literate or educated up to primary level. The results showed that 72 per cent of the respondents belong to lower class with regard to occupational profile. This was followed by 17 per cent in lower middle class, five per cent in middle class, 4 per cent in upper middle class and 2 per cent in upper class respectively. Based on the result it can be concluded that majority of the respondents have lower occupational profile. And either they may not have no gainful employment or engage in unskilled employment. The results showed that majority (85 per cent) of the respondents belong to lower class with respect to economic profile. This was followed by 10 per cent in the lower middle class, two per cent in the middle class, two per cent in the upper middle class and on e pe r cen t in the uppe r cl ass respectively. Based on the result, it can be assumed that majority of the respondents belong to the lower class with respect to economic profile and their July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 average per capita monthly income is less than Rs 10000. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Based on the result it can be assume that people living in old age homes run by government departments are mostly from the poor strata of the society. Th e data sho ws that 97 per cent of the respondents belong to the lower class with respect to processed land/ house cost profile. This was followed by one per cent each in lower middle class, middle class and upper middle class respectively. Based on the result it can be assumed that most of the respondents own a house and land worth less than 1.25 lakh rupees. References: 1. Arora,M.,&Chadha,N.K.(1995).Social support and life satisfaction of InstitutionalisedElderlies. Ind. J. Gerontol, (304); 74 – 82 2. Bali, A.P.(1996). Socio – economic status and its relationship to morbidity among elderly. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 106,349 – 360. The result shows that 60 per cent of the respondents belong to lower class with respect to social profile. This was followed by 32 per cent in the lower middle class, four per cent in the middle class, two per cent in the upper middle class and one per cent in the upper class respectively. Based on the results it can be assumed that majority are poor in understanding and participating in social issues. 3. Bowling, A.(2004).Journal of Epidemology Community Health 2004; 58: 438 – 440 doi: 10.1136/jech.2003.017582 4. Chandha,N.K., Bhatia, H., Chao, D., Rohatgi, M.,& Mir, U.A. (2004). “ predictors of the physical functional of the old”. Interim Report Submitted to the Indian Council of Medical Reserch (ICMR), New Delhi. The overall socio-economic profile of the respondents arrived from various socio-economic indicators showed that majority of the respondents (55 per cent) living in old age homes fall to the lower class with respect to socio-economic status. This was followed by 41 per cent in lower middle class, three per cent in middle class and one per cent in upper class respectively. Based on the result it can be assume that people living i the society. Socio Economic Status Upper Class Upper Middle Class Middle Class Lower Middle Class Lower Class Total No 0 2 6 72 96 176 5. Cherian, J. (2003).Adjustment of elderly in relation to living arrangements, Gender and Family life. Indian Journal of Gerontology 2003, Volume 17, Nos. 1 & 2, pp. 99 – 108 6. Radhakrishnan,M.G.(7 nov.2011).India today Nov 2011. % of total 0 1 3 41 55 100 7. RajanIrudaya, (2000). “Home away from Home”. A survey of old – age homes and inmates in Kerala. CDS WP – 306. 8. PaulDave.,&GinuJohn.(2003).A look in to the live s of o lder persons. Indian jo urnal of Gerontology. 2003,volume 17,nos 1&2,pp.109116. Conclusion 9. Situation analysis of the elderly in India 2011 Based on the result it can be assumed that the majority of the respondents have poor house type are also occupy house with less than 1000 square feet area. Further, the people in old age home own very few materials. Majority of the respondents are just literate or educated up to primary level. Either they may not have no gainful employment or engage in unskilled employment. The average per capita monthly income is less than Rs 10000. From the re su lt i t can be assu me that most of the respondents own a house and land worth less than 1.25 l akh ru pee s. M aj ority are poo r in understanding and participating in social issues. Research Explorer 10. Ti wari and Kumar (2010) S. E. S scal e. Veermani,Savitha,et.al.(2001).Ageing and human development in EswasModi).Ravatt Publications Jaipur. 45 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 SERVICE QUALITY OF THE COMMERCIAL BANKS IN THANJAVUR DISTRICT: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY Dr. C. Natarajan Assistant Professor of Commerce, T.Tamilmathi Assistant Professor of Commerce, Directorate of Distance Education, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002. ABSTRACT The importance of service quality in contributing to the development of banking relationships is well acknowledged within the relationship banking literature. Excellent customer service can improve the bank’s ability to lure affluent prospects, elevate the bank’s profitability, lower bank operation costs, and/or create greater customer loyalty. In this context, the authors made an attempt to study the perception of the customers towards service quality of the commercial banks in Thanjavur District. The findings of the study showed that there is no significant relationship among the acceptance levels of the respondents belonging to different genders, income groups, locations, type of banks and type of accounts towards perceived service quality. Keywords: Service quality, perceived service quality, banking services, service performance, service gap analysis. comprehensive and effective. Obviously, the bu si ne ss firms h ave to use adequate and appropriate tools for the service quality without more interruptions. As customers vary in age, income, educational level, mobility patterns, etc., it is necessary for the marketers to understand the behaviour of customer groups and develop products that can cater to their needs. Introduction Customers are the lifeblood of any business regardless of its nature, type and size. In the changing global economy, rapid technological growth has brought general awakening among customers. Their perceptions control market dynamics. For most organizations understanding custo mers is the key to succe ss while not understanding them is a recipe for failure. It is so important that the constant drive to satisfy cu stomers is not only a concern for tho se responsible for carrying out marketing tasks; satisfying customers is a concern of everyone in the entire organization. The competitive market position and the good reputation of a company can quickly translate into market share and profit, but that distinction is often earned only through a philosophical commitment to service backed by diligent attention to what customers want and need. Owing to change in the economic, business, cultural and political environment, the customers resort to change in their preferences. Accordingly, the firms have to make th ei r bu si ness pl an s mo re Research Explorer Service Quality in Banking Industry Banking sector is the backbone of any economy. Commercial banks play an important role in the development of economies by mobilization of resources and their better allocation. This social transformation process resulted in unprecedented expansion of banking system. A journey from private ownership and control of commercial banks to government ownership and control by way of nationalization has come in full circle in the wake of liberalization and introduction of new players in the shape of private sector banks and foreign banks. Fresh induction of public stake and corporate governance in government owned banks has brought the element of stiff competition in the 46 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 environment with greater adoption of the new technologies and ideas, renewed perception of se rvice quali ty alo ng wi th h igh deg re e of professional management in the Indian banking system. Statement of the Problem The financial reform process initiated in 1991 poses a lot of challenges before the Indian banking sector as never before. With the entry of new generation tech-savvy private banks and the expansion of operations of foreign banks, the banking sector has become too competitive. The ‘one for all’ and ‘all for one’ syndrome is being given a go-by. To deal with the emerging situations, bankers have to shed a lot of old ideas, change in practices, develop customer loyalty programmes, and adopt a distinct approach to meet the challenges ahead. Hence, it is desirable for banks to develop a customer-centric approach for future survival and growth. The challenge for banks is to lower costs, increase efficiency, while improving the quality of their service, and increase customer satisfaction. Moreover, banking has transformed into a ‘buyers’ market where customers are given the choice to select out of a large number of banks and th eir di ffere nti ate d pro ducts and se rvice s. Therefore, service quality is the great differentiator; it gets and keeps the customers’ attention. As a re su lt, to day the custo me rs re qu ire mo re information, comprehensive advice, honesty, integrity, consistency, responsiveness, commitment and value for money. Thus, many banks have introduced new customer friendly measures like 24-hour banking, 7-day and anywhere banking, internet banking, extended business hours, ATM network and so on. In today’s competition in Indian banking industry, customers have to make a choice among various service providers by making a trade-off between relationships and economies, trust and products, or service and efficiency. In this context, expectations rise and customers become more critical of the quality of service. Customers perceive services in terms of the quality of the service and how satisfied they are overall with their experiences. If customers perceive quality as unsatisfactory, they may be quick to take their businesses elsewhere. Thus, service quality offers a way of achieving success among competing services, particularly in Research Explorer ISSN:2250 - 1940 banks, where establishing service quality may be the only way of differentiating oneself. Excellent customer service can improve the bank’s ability to lure afflue nt prospects, elevate the bank’s profitability, lower bank operation costs, and/or create greater customer loyalty. In this context, the authors made an attempt to study the perception of the customers towards service quality of the commercial banks in Thanjavur District. Objectives of the Study The following are the objectives of the present study: 1. To study the importance of service quality in banking industry. 2. To analyze the perception of the customers towards service quality of the select commercial banks in Thanjavur district. 3. To offer suitable suggestions to improve the service quality of the select commercial banks based on the findings of the study. Hypotheses The study is based on the formulation of the following null hypotheses. H01: There is no significant association in the satisfaction level of the customers belonging to different socio-economic profiles towards the services of the select commercial banks. H02: There is no significant relationship among the acceptance levels of the respondents belonging to different demographic profiles towards the perceived level of service quality in the select commercial banks. Sampling Design The present study is empirical in character, based on survey method. The study is confined only to savings bank and current account holders who have account with select commercial banks in Thanjavur District. Moreover, the study is confined only to three public sector commercial banks namely, Indian Overseas Bank, Indian Bank and State Bank of India, and two private sector commercial banks namely, City Union Bank and Lakshmi Vilas Bank. Framework of Analysis The ultimate object of the study is to analyze the perception of the customers towards service quality of the commercial banks in Thanjavur July - December 2012 47
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 district. The data collected for the purpose of the study were quantified, categorized and tabulated. In order to study the perception of the customers, chi-square test, analysis of variance, student t test, paired comparison t-test, analysis of co-efficient of variation, discriminant function analysis, multiple discriminant function analysis, multiple regression analysis and percentage analysis have been employed. ISSN:2250 - 1940 tangibility, competence, communication, understanding of the customers, access, security and complaint handling system. Besides, there exists service performance gap i.e. low level of perceived service quality with respect to all the dimensions which are studied. 6. Sample customers state that delay in service, re du ci ng rate o f re li abil ity , abse nce of innovativeness, lack of understanding the customers, lack of staff involvement, absence of user friendly skills and lack of customer compliant monitoring cell are their problems with the select commercial banks in Thanjavur district. Findings 1. Out of 550 respondents, 11.10% , 16.36% , 30% , 12.80% and 30.36% of the respondents are highly satisfied, satisfied, partially satisfied, neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, dissatisfied and highly dissatisfied respectively towards services of the select commercial banks in Thanjavur district. Suggestions 1. The needs and expectations of the customers ch an ge fro m time to time and as su ch innovating of new services and refinement of existing services is imperative. Since the customers look for banks with convenience, flexibility having innovative ideas, changing their offerings according to the needs of the customers, the commercial banks must know and prepare offers according to the changing environment. Customers of today have high expectations and are demanding more from their bankers. In order to maintain the same le ve l of servi ce mo me ntum, th e se le ct commercial banks must keep innovating and serve their customers with better quality services. 2. A significant association is found among the satisfaction levels of the respondents belonging to different genders, age groups, educational qualifications, occupations, income groups, locations, type of accounts, type of banks and the bank they belong to towards services of the select commercial banks in Thanjavur district. 3. There is no significant relationship among the acceptance levels of the respondents belonging to different genders, income groups, locations, type of banks and type of accounts towards perceived service quality. However, a significant relationship is found among the acceptance level of the respondents belonging to different ag e groups, e ducatio nal qu alification s, occupations and the bank they belong to towards perceived service quality. 2. The customers state that the select commercial banks have not been able to provide quick service. A long delay in making available the services to the customers may erode the credibility and goodwill as well as customers’ confidence. Therefore, the select banks should offer quick and prompt services to their customers. 4. There has been a low correlation between the perceived service quality and the selected personal variables. The R square indicates that 0.20 per cent of variation in the perceived service quality is explained by all personal variables taken together. The gender, age, education, monthly income, and type of account of the respondents have no significant effect on the perceived service quality. 3. Every one working in the commercial banks must have a clear goal in mind. The employees of the commercial banks should never turn their back on the customers. They should suggest alternative banking services to the customers’ benefit. This can be one way of ensuring “customers delight”. Since the service quality is identified as the most important factor in customer’s choice, the select commercial banks should focus on hiring competent and friendly 5. A significant difference is found in the acceptance level of the customers between expected and perceived levels towards various service quality dimensions such as assurance, empath y, rel iabi lity, respo nsiven ess, Research Explorer 48 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 personnel, and train them in order to increase th ei r effi ci ency of comple ti ng ban ki ng transactions and developing interpersonal communication skills. ISSN:2250 - 1940 actions are to be reviewed in the subsequent meeting. 7. The select commercial banks should continually assess and reassess how customers perceive bank services so as to know whether the banks meets or exceeds or is below the expectations of their customers. Frequent customer surveys, therefore, throw light on ratification and refinement, which will go a long way to improve service quality in banks. Some customer surveys should also be conducted through external agencies so that public reposes confidence on the results of the surveys. Opinion polls should be carried out from time to time to understand the perceptions of customers about the bank. 4. The select commercial banks should establish a separate ‘Customer Compliant Monitoring Cell’ in each branch. The function of the cell must be to receive, register and classify customers’ complaints and forward them to the respective sections to initiate action, and follow up until the compliant is attended to the satisfaction of the customers concerned. Moreover, regular “customers satisfaction audit” is to be carried out in each branch of commercial banks to find areas of discrepancies and try to improve the customer’ perception level. Conclusion 5. From custo mers’ perspective, con tact programme greatly enhances the ability of the banks to meet expectations by delivering appropriate, coherent sales and relationship building messages across all channels. An effective customer contact strategy in the banks will align marketing communications with customers and will deliver the right range of communications to the right customers at the right time, and will drive responses through the right response channels. Therefore, the select commercial banks shall undertake customer contact programmes in order to understand the expectations as well the problems of customers. For this purpose, customers meet, special events, direct mails, greeting cards, etc. can be used to have a regular contact with the customers. Though, most banks in India claim to serve the best interest of their customers with the increased use of information technology and RBI’s guidelines regarding capital adequacy ratios, provisioning requirements, risk management, etc., the finding of this study leads us to an adverse conclusion. The study brings to light that there exists a significant gap between the expectations and perceptions in relation to quality of services offered by both public and private sector banks in India. The results of the study also makes it clear that service quality of private sector banks is better than that of public sector banks on all dimensions. In the increasing competition in banking industry, banks want to differentiate themselves from the competitors and stay ahead in the race. Commercial banks are facing increased competition on one front and a decline in the market share on the other hand. Commercial banks have always been in the forefront of utilizing its recourses effectively. 6. Although customers are satisfied with the service quality provided by their banks, it is not guaranteed that their customers do not switch to other banks. Therefore, the select co mmerci al banks ne ed to i mpro ve the relationship with customers. Every branch of the commercial banks shall constitute a “Customer Relationship Committee” consist of staff and customers of various segments. The customers can lodge their complaints and offer their suggestions on various matters pertaining to banking services. These complaints shall be discussed at the Customer Relationship Committee meeting every month. A report of the committee is to be prepared and follow up Research Explorer References 1. 2. Biswa N. Bhattacharya and Ghose, B.K (1989). Marketing of Banking Services in the 90’s: Problems and Perspectives, Economic and Political Weekly, February, pp.27-32. 3. 49 Akroush Mamoun, N, Khatib Fahed, S (2009). The Im pact of Se r vic e Qu ali ty Dime nsi ons on Performance: An Empirical Investigation of Jordan’s Commercial Banks, Journal of Accounting, Business & Management, April, Vol.16, No.1, pp.22-44. Cho udhury Koushiki (2 007). Se rvic e Qual ity Dimensionality: A Study of Indian Banking Sector, Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, Vol.8, No.4, pp.2138. July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 4. Dutta Kirti and Dutta Anil (2009). Custome r Expectations and Perceptions across the Indian Banking Industry and the Resultant Financial Implications, Journal of Services Research, April, Vol.9, No.1, pp.31-49. 5. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Ennew Christine, T and Binks Martin, R (1996). The Impact of Service Quality and Service Characteristics on Customer Retention: Small Business and their Banks in the UK, British Journal of Management, Vol.7, No.3, September. 6. 7. 8. John B. Holland (1992). Relationship Banking: Choice and Control by the Multinational Firms, The International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol.10, No.2, p.12. 9. Gronroos, C (1990). Relationship Approach to Marketing in Service Contexts: The Marketing and Organizational Behaviour Interface, Journal of Business Research, Vol.20, pp.3-11. Hassan Al-Tamimi, Hussein, A and Jabnoun Naceur (2006). Service Quality & Bank Performance: A Comparison of the UAE National Foreign Banks, Finance India, March, Vol.20, No.1, pp.181-197. Jothi, V.N (2012). An Evaluation of Service Quality in Commercial Banks, International Journal of Research in Computer Application & Management, Vol.2, No.2, February, pp.109-112. BEST TEACHER AWARD 2012 to DR KASTOORI SRINIVAS Dr. Kastoori born in Aloor, a small village in Nizamabad District of Andhra Pradesh. He obtained Double PG (M.Com and MA Lit) from Osmania University with First Division and Ph.D in Banking Finance (Commerce) from Bahuguna Central University, INDIA. He has 18 years of outstanding Teaching, Research and Academic Administrative Experience including Two years of International Experience, worked as a Assistant Professor at King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and University of Malaya, MALAYSIA.  Dr Kastoori is a Recognized Research Supervisor . He has published Two Text Books on ”Auditing and Banking Finance” . He is a Project Director and Principal Investigator for ICSSR & UGC funded Research Projects, and he has developed four projects in Banking Finance including an International Research Funded Project, Government of Saudi Arabia. Dr Kastoori Contributions towards National and International Seminars are more than 20 and guided nearly 50 projects and also Reviewer for the International Books and Journals in various fields. He is also an Editorial Board Member from Andhra Pradesh state for the International Bi-annual Research Journal (Research Explorer) Chennai.  Present position of Dr Kastoori is a Senior Lecturer in Department of Commerce and holding a position of Project Director for ICSSR & UGC funded research project. He is teaching subjects for UG & P G level (Regular & Distance Mode) for the commerce and management courses for IGNOU (New Delhi) and  Annamalai University (Chennai). He was Received a “BEST TEACHER AWARD 2012” on the occasion of Teachers Day i.e 05-09-2012 at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Research Explorer 50 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 EFFECTIVENESS OF CONCEPT MAPPING ON ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS Dr. K. Vijayakumari Associate Professor Farook Training College , Farook College (P.O) , Calicut Sreeja.T.P H.S.S .T. Junior (Guest Faculty) G.G.V.H.S.S.Vengara , Malappuram, Kerala. ABSTRACT Mathematics is a systematized, organized and exact branch of science. For a better mathematical background, a better understanding of the subject is needed. Applying new and interesting methods and techniques suitable for the subject can help the teacher to achieve the different objectives or goals. Concept mapping is such a different technique in the teaching learning process. Concept maps are spatial representations of concepts and their interrelationships that are intended to represent the knowledge structures that human beings store in their mind. key words : Mathematics , Concept mapping , teaching learning process , curriculum development , Introduction Mathematics is a systematized, organized and exact branch of science. It is the science of logical reasoning and numerical problems. In the present age of rate, taxes, insurance, savings, interests etc., only a person with good mathematical background can be reasonably sure that he is getting his due. For a better mathematical background, a better understanding of the subject is needed. But it can be seen that Mathematics is the most fearing and difficult subject for a large group. This attitude towards the subject must be changed for making mathematics education more effective. Teachers can help to remove this misunderstanding and make the subject more interesting. Applying new and interesting methods and techniques suitable for the subject can help the teacher to achieve the different objectives or goals. Concept mapping is such a different technique in the teaching learning process. Concept maps are spatial representations; they play an important role in teaching, learning, curriculum development and governance. Novak (1962) suggests Concept mapping method as a better way to achieve Research Explorer 51 meaningful learning. Furthermore when students construct Concept map from verbal material, they can encode that material in long term memory visually as well as verbally (Novak & Gowin, 1984). For the teacher, concept maps can be used to determine pathways for organizing meanings and for negotiations, managing with students as well as to point out student’s misconceptions. For the learners they help to make evident the key concepts and propositions to be learned and also suggest linkages between the new knowledge and what the students already know. Concept Mapping- Meaning Concept mapping is a technique for externalizing concepts and propositions. A concept is a mental image about objects, events or phenomena. It represents a class of stimuli, which have common characteristics. When pupil develops concepts, he or she learns to process information. One way to develop conce pts i s to g ive e xperi ences in categorization. Concept maps constructed by groups help to develop a conceptual framework, which can guide evaluation or planning. They July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 consist of network of concepts, with nodes and links. Nodes represent concepts and links represent the relation between concepts. Concepts and sometimes links are labeled. These links need not be always unidirectional, they can be bi directional also. ISSN:2250 - 1940 1. Position the topic at the head of the map. 2. Arrange the other concepts beneath it on several levels- more inclusive, general, abstract concepts at higher level and the more specific, concrete concepts at lower level. In 1981, Novak, with the ideas from Ausubel, improved the concept mapping procedure for students to organize concepts in a meaningful structure. He established concept-mapping technique as a meta cognitive learning strategy in which special emphasis is given to the influence of student’s prior knowledge and the importance of fostering meaningful learning. Concept maps attempt to render a concrete representation of the structural knowledge of an individual and the ways in which the concepts are perceived to be connected to one another and to existing structures. 3. Arrange the concepts so that ideas go directly under ideas that they are related to. 4. Beneath the last row, examples to the concepts are given sometimes. 5. Draw lines from upper concepts to lower concepts, which they are related to. 6. Do the same for any related concepts that are on the same level. A sample concept map as given by Novak (1990) is given as figure 1. The methods of solving a pair of simultaneous linear equations and the peculiarity of solutions along with examples are described in the concept map. The topic “Pair of simultaneous linear equations” is given at the top. At the next level two methods- algebraic solving method and the graphical method are given. Then the number of solutions and at last example for each type is given. These concepts are arranged in the hierarchical order from top to bottom and prepositions are used to link them. Concepts are linked with straight lines. Functions of Concept Maps Concept maps can be used as means of representing pattern of relationships in an instructional display. They are arranged in a diagrammatic text. For the students, the concept map represents a way of introducing structure in to the process of knowledge acquisition. According to Novak and Gowin (1984) concept maps produced by students could be used as good evaluation tools. Analyzing the concept map prepared by a student, a teacher can identify the concepts that are incorrectly included or omitted and valid relationships that are not justified in the light of current understanding or that are missing. They identified, in many cases, concept maps have greater sensitivity as measuring devices and in their opinion concept maps are more valuable than the common evaluation devices such as objective tests and essays. Objectives of the Study 1. To find out whether concept mapping is effective in increasing achievement in Mathematics of secondary school students. 2. To find out whether there is significant gender difference in achievement in Mathematics in the experimental group. Design of the Study Starr and Krajcik (1990) have suggested that concept maps can be used as a means of developing curriculum plans and sequences, and teachers would value the structure that the use of the procedure introduces in to planning of lesson sequences. The structure of hierarchies based around the major concepts in a given area and identification of related, subordinated concepts are involved in the process of planning the lesson. The present study was conducted by adopting the Quasi experimental design (Pre test post-test non equivalent group design). The experimental group was taught through Concept mapping strategy and the control group was taught through the conventional method of teaching. Sample for the Study Two intact classes of ninth standard students each from two schools of Malappuram district in Kerala were selected and assigned as the experimental and control groups randomly. Both the schools follow Kerala state syllabus and are from Construction of Concept maps Th ere is a syste matic pro ce du re for constructing concept maps. The steps in general are the following. Research Explorer 52 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 rural area with same academic status. Both schools followed Kerala state syllabus. The sample for the study thus consists of 100 ninth standard students, 50 in the control group and 50 in the experimental group. ISSN:2250 - 1940 significant (t=-1.71, pe” .05). 3. When the extent of effectiveness of concept mapping over the conventional method was calculated using Cohen’s ‘d’, it is found that the effect of concept mapping on Achievement in Mathematics is moderate (d = 0.87). Procedure After seeking permission from the school principals, a test on pre- requisites for learning the selected topic ‘Circles’ was administered to both the classes in order to test whether the two groups are si mi lar in th ei r previ ou s know le dg e. An achievement test on the selected topic was administered as pre- test. Then the two groups were taught the same topic by the same teacher. The control group was taught with the conventional method followed in the schools of Kerala where as the experimental group was taught with the same method followed by a short session on preparation of concept map after each lesson. After completing the unit the same achievement test used as pretest was administered for both groups. Conclusion Statistical Techniques Used Experimental group is found to have higher mean gain scores than the control group and hence the experimental group has benefited more than the control group in learning Mathematics. Thus the concept mapping has improved the performance of students in Mathematics. The experimental and control groups can be considered as similar in the previous knowledge required for learning the topic and they are of almost same achievement level. Thus the two groups can be taken as equivalent in their entry behaviour. But the difference of mean gain scores of the experimental and control groups were found to be significant at 0.01 level. The equal entry status of the two groups ensures that the change in the gain scores (difference between post test score and pre-test score) is purely due to the treatment received by the groups. The statistical techniques like test of significance of means for two independent groups, test of significance of means for two dependent samples and Cohen’s ‘d’ to know the effect size were used. Major Findings of the Study Boys and girls in experimental group are found to be not significantly deviating in their mean gain scores in Mathematics Achievement, indicating that the concept mapping is equally influencing both boys and girls in their performance in Mathematics. 1. When the significance of difference of mean scores in pre-test of experimental and control groups were compared, the following results were obtained. i. The experimental and control groups do not differ significantly in their mean pre-requisite scores (t=0,pe”0.05). The effect size of concept mapping on Achievement in Mathematics is found to be moderate. So the concept mapping influences moderately the performance in Mathematics of standard IX students. ii. Difference between the mean pre-test scores of th e tw o grou ps is n ot sig ni fi cant (t=0.02,pe”0.05). These made the investigator to conclude that concept mapping is an effective tool for the teaching and learning of Mathematics at secondary level. 2. The mean gain scores of experimental and control groups and the mean gain scores of boys and girls in the experimental group were compared and the results obtained are, i. Educational Implications The present study reveals that the use of concept mapping as an instructional strategy is effective for the proper understanding and meaningful learning of the students. Even though the investigation is carried out on a small sample, the findings throw light on the current educational The experimental group is significantly higher than the control group in mean gain scores of Achievement in Mathematics (t=3.77, p< .01). ii. The difference between the mean gain scores of boys and girls in the experimental group is not Research Explorer 53 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 practice at secondary level, especially in the teaching learning process of Mathematics. Krajcik, J. S., & Starr, R. S. (1990). Scaffolding technology tools to promote teaching and learning in science. Educational Research and Evaluation. 11(6), 545 560. The existing Mathematics curriculum may be modified to suit concept mapping. Teachers may be trained to practice this method. For teachers they help to organize the content as well as to point out student’s misconceptions, for learners they help to connect the new knowledge with the existing one. Concept maps can hold a large amount of data and are also useful in curriculum planning and organization. Kishore, L. (2000). Teaching Science through Concept maps at Upper primary level. University News Journal of Teacher Education, 37, 60 63. Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J. D. (1990). Concept mapping: A useful tool for science education. Journal of Research in Science teaching. 27: 937 949. References Ausubel, D. P. (1986). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Ozdemir, A. S. (2005). Analyzing Concept maps as an assessment (evaluation) Tool in Teaching Mathematics. Journal of Social Sciences. 1(3), 141 149. Beissner, J., & Yacci, C. (1993). Moving learners towards independence: The power of scaffolded instruction. The reading Teacher. 44(9), 648-655. Willerman, D. A., & Hary, M. U. (1991). Effects of knowledge map characteristics in information processing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17:136 155. Bris, K. E., & S arah, D . T. ( 1991). A Comprehensive use of Concept Mapping in design, instruction and assessment. Journal of Educational research. 9(4), 36 40. SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE (A Refereed Quartely Journal with ISSN : 0975-9999) Indexed with RePEc, Thomson Reuters, CSA Data base & Collection, Open J.Gate Articles are invited from the academician, research scholars and subject experts for the next issue of the Selp Journal of Social Science (October –December 2012) which will be published in the month of November 2012. Selp Journal of Social Science is an official publication of the SELP Trust. It features the original research in all branches of Commerce, Business Management and other cognate branches of sufficient relevance. The manuscripts should be submitted through mail to the Managing Editor to sjss.selp@yahoo.in . To facilitate an editorial decision on the acceptability, or otherwise, of their manuscript, and to speed-up subsequent publication, authors are strongly advised to consult the format of papers in a recent issue of Research Explorer. Review/Strategy/Case study etc should be comprehensive, up-to-date and critical on a recent topic of importance. The maximum page limit is of 10 double spaced typed pages including tables and figures. At the bottom of first page, Postal address of the corresponding author and coauthor(s), and also Departmental address with designation, Tel. No. Fax No. and E-mail ID etc. must be specified. Research Explorer 54 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 THE PROBLEM OF PERSONAL INTEGRATION IN THE POETRY OF NISSIM EZEKIEL M. Natarajan Ph.D Research Scholar Dr. S. Subbiah Professor and Head, Dept. of English and Foreign Languages, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-3. Palraj says, “He is in the Indian scene but not of it; in it, yet out of it.”(25) A ‘presiding angel in the poetry circle in Bombay,’ Nissim Ezekiel is the most well-known of the Indian poets in English to-day. Ezekiel is a Bene- Israel Jew. Several years ago, his ancestors left Israel and settled in India. Bombay is Ezekiel’s chosen home. The Jew in him seems to rebel against his declining himself an Indian and accepting India as his home and country. An attempt is made in the paper presented here to study the problem of personal integration with reference to Ezekiel’s poetry. This urban- based modern Indian writer feels alienated from the cultural milieu. There is a split personality in Ezekiel. He cannot identify himself with India. To quote Ezekiel: I am a Hindu and my background makes me a natural outsider; circumstances and decisions relate me to India…. Not being a Hindu I cannot identify myself with India’s past as a comprehensive heritage or reject it….I can identify myself with modern India. (Qtd. in Parthsarathy 28) Ezeki el’s ali enation is aesth etically very productive. “The alienation theme is central to Ezekiel works and it colors his entire poetic universe,” says M. K. Naik with reference to the poetry o f Ezekiel. Eze kiel himself h as said elsewhere: “If you are genuinely alienated… this can produce great literature.” As Parthsarathy says, “Ezekiel’s poetry is both the instrument and the outcome of his attempt as a man to come to terms with himself.”(32) As stated by M. K. Naik: In an interview given some years ago, Ezekiel discussed phenomenon of alienation at some length. In answer to the question, “How would you react to the charge that mo st I n di an w ri te rs i n En g l i s h a re alienated?” Ezekiel said, “Actually, I would like to see some alienation among IndoEnglish writers. However undesirable from moral, social and other points of view, it has been aesthetically very productive provided it is genuine. You can’t pretend, you can’t play the game of alienation. If you are genuinely alienated … and feel you are hostile towards others and they are hostile to you, you hate their guts and they h a te y o u r s; th i s ca n p ro d u ce g re at literature. This genuine alienation is really absent.” Asked to define alienation, Ezekiel replied, “For an Indo- English writer to be alienated, he must have contempt for his audience and a similar failure on his pa rt, a p o i n tl e ssn e ss i n try i n g to communicate. I know no such Indian writer, The ‘He’ of his poems represents, in the words of David Mc Cutchion, ‘a projected self’ with which the poet is in dialogue. If so, there is an acute self-analysis in almost all his poems. Ezekiel seems to have gone through an identity crisis and struggled under an oppressive sense of being ‘an expatriate’ before accepting India as his country and home. Ezekiel is ambivalent in his attitude towards India. There is a double impulse operating in him. One ‘keeps him at a distance’ and another ‘reconciles him to his environment.’ As Vedamani Research Explorer 55 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 isolated like a Camus or Dostovsky character. What they really mean is that th e se w ri te rs u se an al i e n language.”(“Nissim Ezekiel and Alienation” 94) ISSN:2250 - 1940 In equating the movement of the escaped scorpion and that of the poison in blood stream, the peasants betray their superstition: With every movement that the scorpion made his poison moved in Mothers blood, they said.(130) The incantatory utterances made by the peasants’ smack of their blind beliefs: be burned away tonight, they said May your suffering decrease the misfortunes of your next birth, they said. May the sum of evil balanced in this unreal world against the sum of good become diminished by your pain(130) In the poem entitled “Island”, Ezekiel says “the island flowers into slums/ and sky scrapers…. / unsuitable for song as well as sense.” But in the concluding lines of the poem he gives himself, “I cannot leave the island/ I was born here and belong.” K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar calls it the “testimonial of being a good native.” In “The Egoist’s Prayer’s Ezekiel, is in the role of an egoist and prays to god to confiscate his passport: Confiscate my passport, Lord, I don’t want to go abroad Let me find my song The poet has a dig at the Hindu Law of Karma (Previous birth), the Hindu doctrine of rebirth (next birth) and the Hindu conception of the world as one of ‘Maya’ (unreal world) Indeed, as K.R. Srinivasa Iyengar says, “Ezekiel invests the poem with deep significance by trying to understand the Indian ethos and its view of evil and suffering, though he makes no claim to sharing it.(628) where I belong(213). If there is no desire to go abroad, where is the need for the confiscation of passport? asks Vedamani Palraj. It is very clear that Ezekiel’s is a self torn within itself because of its alienation from the traditional, social, religious and cultural mores of the masses. Ezekiel admits his attitude to India to be ‘critical’ and ‘sceptical’: “I am incurably critical and sceptical. That is what I am in relation to India also.” He keeps himself aloof from everything that makes the Indian scene unpleasant and ugly. He co ntradi cts his stand w he n h e asse rts in “Background, Casually”: “My backward place is where I am.”(181). “In the poem “In India”, he exposes the poverty, squalor, heat and ugliness of an Indian city. To him, India is a land of beggars and hawkers, pavement sleepers and hutment dwellers, burnt-out mothers and frightened virgins, wasted children and tortured animals. As Bruce King says, “That ‘squalid, crude city’ is the subject and context of many poems for over a decade as Ezekiel becomes poet of the discontent of Bombay, of the ‘Island’.”(Three Indian Poets 51) In “Good-bye party for Miss Pushpa T.S” Ezekiel seems to mock at the half-educated Indians who flaunt their little learning in English unabashedly and at the tendency inherent in Indian psyche to communicate in English, however bad it may be. This poem is in the form of a farewell speech. Ezekiel has a dig at the national trait of calling every one ‘Sister’: “Friends,/our dear sister/is departing of foreign/ in two three days”(190). The use of the term ‘sister’ signifies relationship that is fraternal. But when the speaker says, she is most popular lady/ with men also and ladies also”(190) the lines smack of her flirting with men. She is a flirt who smiles at all and never says ‘no’ to anyone. The poet has his laugh at the Indian practice of using the continuous tense in the place of simple present tense: “We are meeting today”, “you are all knowing, “Miss Pushpa is smiling and smiling … because she is feeling, “Miss Pushpa is coming/ How a very high family, “I am not remembering …,” “That is sharing /good sprit.” “ I am always/ appreciating the good spirit, “Pushpa miss is never saying no” / whatever I anybody is asking /she is always saying yes.”(190-91) Ezekiel strikes us as a detached observer of the Indian scene. In “Night of the Scorpion” Ezekiel has a dig at the traditional Indian society steeped in ignorance and superstition. The mother is stung by a scorpion. The peasants sit around on the floor with the mother in the centre. While the mother twists through and through, they try to console her with words of philosophy. Research Explorer The poet parodies the use of superfluous words , for example, ‘time’ in “that was long time 56 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ago” and also in “with men also and ladies also’ He also makes fun of Indian’s craze for anything foreign and for dignified words like ‘lady’ in preference to women. ISSN:2250 - 1940 The ironic situation of being placed among Christians, Muslims and Hindus alienated Ezekiel from his own minority religious ethos. He confesses his isolation from his milieu: At home on Friday nights, the prayers were said. My morals had declined I heard of Yoga and of Zen. Could I, perhaps, be rabbi-saint? (179) The poet has a dig at the woeful missing of logical connectives. The digression that follows is utterly unconnected with the central concern of the poem and is characteristic of the Indian way of thinking and speaking: I am not remembering mow which place Surat? Ah, yes once only I stayed at surat with family members of my uncles very old friend – his wife is cooking nicely that was long time ago (190) Everyone at home wanted him to become a rabbisaint (a Jewish priest) but he felt he was unworthy of the noble profession. On Friday nights there were prayers at home. He heard of the preaching’s of Hindu Yogis and Jewish priests but nothing could make him nobler. He was lacking in morals and religious zeal. The boy- poet’s isolation is an outcome of his inability to discover himself. He himself admits: “The more I searched, the less I found.” Ezekiel encounters these failures at home and school. To quote Chetan Karnani: “Ezekiel’s poetry derives all its sustenance from his immediate environment though it is written within the broader framework of the tradition of English poetry” (45). The poet “reflects not what many Indian think but the way they think”. There is the lack of sympathy in Ezekiel representation of India. It only shows the poets self stand ill adjusted to the country of its choice. “Background Casually” is Ezekiel’s study in his initial alienation and final commitment to India. Ezekie l backgrou nd wh ich is n arrate d in “Background Casually” relates, in the first part of the poem, how Ezekiel as a boy felt himself alienated at school and on the playfield because of his Jewish background. He never learnt to fly a kite or spin a top. Perhaps, other boys did not accept him. He was a Jew. He went to Roman Catholic school but he was harassed by the Christian boys, because it was the Jew, his people, who had betrayed Christ. Ironically it was he , a Jew and not a Christian who won the scripture prize I went to Roman catholic school A mugging Jew among the wolves They told me I had killed the Christ That year I won the scripture prize.(179) In the second part of the poem Ezekiel narrates the circumstances leading to a career of quick changes and experiments. With the financial assistance by a family friend he went to London at the age of twenty two. He lived in London for two years. A joyless life he led all alone. “Philosophy, Poverty and Poetry” were the three companions who shared his basement room. Not morally strong, he fell a victim to the seductive charms of a woman. He realized he was a failure and he returned to India as a total failure: The London seasons passed me by I lay in bed two years alone, And then a woman came to tell My willing years I was the son Of Man. I knew that I had failed. ………………………………… In everything, a bitter thought.(180) A Jew that he was, Ezekiel found himself in an alien situation. At school he was placed among the Christians, the Muslims and the Hindus. The Christian boys baited him because he was a Jew. A Muslim sportsman boxed his ear. Ezekiel “grew in terror of the strong but undernourished Hindu lads. One day during a noisy quarrel, he had to use his knife to defend himself. A lone Jew, Ezekiel was ill-treated by the Christians, the Muslims and the Hindus. He felt himself “a natural outsider.” Research Explorer Ezekiel’s self- estrangement stems from his selfawareness that he had failed in everything. Back in India he was faced with the problem of how to feel at home—how to acclimatize himself to an environment dominated by the Hindus. Even his study of philosophy to resign himself to his hot was of no use to him. His father’s words “All Hindus are like that” had the effect of making him feel farther from ‘home’. After his return from London, he committed the folly of getting married. Since then 57 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 he tried his hands at many — jou rnali sm, publishing and advertising, including his work as a factory manager for a short spell, before he settled down to teaching. ISSN:2250 - 1940 In an interview to John B. Beston, University of Hawai, Nissim Ezekiel affirms his identification with India: “I regard myself essentially as an Indian poet writing in English. I have a strong sense of belonging not only to India, but to this city. I would never leave Bombay.” The third part of the poem relates Ezekiel’s total commitment to India, the country of his choice. Ezekiel did not take to crushing oil seeds as his ancestors’ or to bearing arms as one of his forefathers but he settled down to writing poetry. To other worldly wise people, he may be a fool to have taken to poetry and to have missed the worldly prize but he feels it wise to be true to his chosen calling and his chosen country. He takes a look at the environment and cultivates “a plainer view.” Ezekiel’s later dreams are all of words. He cashes in and on “the inner and outer storms.” To quote his own words: “To start with, my own inspiration in and always was my ‘inner life.’ And writing is, for me, a way of coping with tension between my inner life and the outer life.”(Qtd. in. Parthsarathy 28) In the course of a interview given to The Hindu, Ezekiel vouchsafes the commitment he has made: If I hadn’t made myself part of the culture of the city where I live I think no Indian poet would’ve come within a hundred yards of me. I’ve seen this happen to people who are enormously gifted yet do not become a part of the culture around them. A lot of people I know have ruined their lives by going abroad and settling somewhere they no relation to the culture.(“Literary Review” 2) Works Cited Ezekiel, Nissim. Collected Poems. New Delhi: OUP, 2001.Print. —. “Nissim Ezekiel and Alienation.” Nissim Ezekiel A Critical Companion. G. S. Balarama Gupta. Ed. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2010. Print. —. “Literary Review.” Hindu 13 July 2002:2. Print. Dwivedi, R. C. “Spring Never Starts Outside: Ezekiel’s Capable Contemporaries.” Perspectives on Nissim Ezekiel. Ed Dwivedi. 1st ed. New Delhi: Kitab Mahal, 1989. Print. Ezekiel, Nissim. “An Interview with Nissim Ezekiel”, by john B. Beston . World Literature Written in English. Apr 1977. Iyengar, K. R. Srinivasa. Indian Writing in English. Sterling Publishers, 2011. Print. Karnani, Chetan. Nissim Ezekiel. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann Publishers, 1974. Print. King, Bruce. Three Indian Poets: Nissin Ezekiel, Dom Moraes and A. K. Ramanujan. New Delhi: OUP, 2009. Print. Mc Cutchion, David. Critical Essays on Indian Writing in English. Calcultta: Writers Worshop,1969. Print. Naik, M. K. History of Indian Writing in English. New Delhi: Sahithya Akademi,1982. Print. Parthasarathy, R. Ten Twentieth- Century Indian Poets. New Delhi: OUP, 1986. Print. Ezekie l cl ai ms to h ave made h is commitment to the country of his adoption and to the city of Bombay, the home of his choice. The climate sears his eyes but he has become part of it. His foreign friends feel surprised to see him managing to survive in the heat and squalor of India. He dismisses it as an exaggeration: The Indian landscape sears my eyes I have become a part of it To be observed by foreigners Their letters overstate the case.(181) Ezekiel is proud of his environment. He has made his commitment, India is his home and he will continue to live in his chosen home: I have made my commitment now This is one: to stay where I am As others choose to give themselves In some remote and backward place My backward place is where I am(181) To quote Suresh Chandra Dwivedi: Bombay is the best place for Ezekiel and it is here that his temperament as a human being and as a poetic genius can find a rich soil to grow and blossom. Ezekiel’s Bombay is not inferior to Paris or for that matter any place of the world. His temperament requires somewhere to belong to. He does not want to be considered as a world poet. He detests the very idea of it. He is an Indian poet and would like to be known as an Indian poet (177) Research Explorer 58 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 HRD PRACTICES OF PUBLIC SECTOR INDUSTRIES IN CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Dr.A.Mahadevan, Professor & Director, Excel Business School Dr.S.Sundararajan, Assot.Professor Mis.G.K.Kavuitha, Assot.Professor School of Management, Sri Krishna College of Engg.&Tech., Coimbatore, TN ABSTRACT st Change is the essence of life. In the 21 century, an environment has been created that almost compels Indian Industries to rethink their vision and mission about HRD processes, practices and perspectives. Changes are inevitable everywhere i.e. in our personal life, social life, work life, in nature, in society, in universe etc. We cannot avoid changes, but we can adjust and adapt to such changes for betterment. HRD has to play a crucial role in today’s business scenario. Today’s age is age of globalization, which is characterized by intense competition, technological innovations consumer satisfaction, competitive advantages etc. Key Words: technological innovations, consumer satisfaction, competitive advantages Introduction (TVRao 1999). The most fundamental post of HRD is HRD philosophy. It represents those basic beliefs, ideas, principles and views which are held by the management with respect to the development and growth of its employees. It plays two important functions i.e. (1) A management style of manager develops his practices on the basis of his philosophy (ii) Make organizational goal more explicit. In the present scenario, an environment has been created that almost compels Indian Industries to rethink their vision and mission about HRD processes, practices and perspectives. HRD is the process of increasing the capacity of human resources through development. The HRD practices that are utilized for sharpening the capabilities of the employees are many. Earlier, the only practice that was synonymous with HRD was training. But today organisations have realized that there are various tools available to them to tap the human potential. Various HRD thinkers and professionals have designed the practices of HRD in different ways. The Present Study The foregoing discussion amply supports the view that the existence of efficient trained and developed workforce to survival of public sector organisations. How effectively and efficiently these organisations have been performing naturally depend upon how best the management in these organisations have taken care of HRD practices in the changing business environment. Concept of HRD HRD is the process of increasing the capacity of human resources through development. In other words, HRD is a process of adding value to individuals, team, and organization as human system. HRD includes development of people, organization and provides a frame work for self development, training programmes and progression to meet the organization’s future skill requirement, Research Explorer Statement of the problem The success of the organization depends upon the rapport maintained by the supervisors with subordinates. Happy employees are able to maximise productivity only when they feel that the working environment is conducive with smooth 59 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 relationship. But it was observed that the select industries’ present HRD environment and human relationship are not upto the standards and prescribed HRD. But in practice, Human Resource Development faces various constraints in the organisational context. The awareness of HRD practice among employees is in absence. The employees’ satisfaction on HRD practices is differed from employee to employee. The employees’ expectations also differed from industry to industry. The employees’ development in industrial sector is still in developing stage. The top management is followed traditional methods of management. The HRD policies are created by the top management. It is implemented by middle and lower level management and it crosses many hurdles in the implementation process. It should get employees’ co-operation and supports. From many practical obstacles of HRD practices, this study evaluates the effectiveness of HRD practices in public sector industries. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Results and Discussion Some of the trends observed in the HRD practices analysis were:The overall HRD practices in the public sector organisation showed to be fine, The managers perceived that the existing HRD practices is favorable one than the staff and operational level employees in the organisation because the operational employees expects innovative and highly specialized HRD system. Employees’ recognition, rewards, personnel polices (HR policies) and team spirits of the organisation are reasonable manner. Staff members stand on the neutral position the existing HRD practices and climate. The top officials of the organisations should concentrate the employees’ development activities. i.e. make sure the employees enjoy their work, believes about HR is important and humane treatment, development of subordinates, ensure the development of employees. The top level HR officials should give attention to personnel policies, promotion decision, employees feel free discussion, special care to appre ci atio n, su pe ri ors or supervisors help to rectify mistake, feedback on employees weakness The main objectives of this present study  To find out the nature of HRD climate in public organisation  To i de ntify the man ag erial perso nn el ’s Some of the items which HRD practices and climate was perceived unfavourably perception towards HRD climate  To determine the significant difference exist Managerial personnel’s belief towards employees’ behaviour change and development, free discussion of problems within the department and organisation, the top management believes that HR is extremely important and to be treated more humanely, Job rotation in this organisation facilitates employee development, Personnel policy and top management willingness to ensure the development of the employees, Special care to appreciate the employees performance, promotion’s decision, Senior officers interest to help their junior to learn higher responsibility, Welfare facilities to employees, Delegation of authority to encourage the juniors to develop higher position, Free mindset of employees in the organisation, feel free discussion and expression of their feeling and thoughts with their superiors. among the managers on HRD practices  To find out the relationship of executives and employees mind set about the HRD climate and practices  To offer suitable suggestions based on the finding for improvement of HRD functions in the public sector organisations. Method This study was carried out by us in a few public sector organisations located in the region of TA MI LNAD U. Th ese o rg an isatio ns are TAMILNADU’S largest manufacturing industries. This present study was under taken in various manufacturing and services units of the selected organisations. A group of 120 employees belonging to senior, middle and lower levels constitutes the sample of the study, more specifically 40 managers are senior levels, 40 staff and 40 operational employees were drawn randomly from various departments of the organisations. Research Explorer Few items of HRD practices and climate were perceived favourably i.e. To p manage me nt pe rcepti on abo ut employees’ enjoyment in their work, Need based training programme, top management efforts to identify and utilize the potentialities of the 60 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 employees. During the informal interviews with the managers of the public sector organizations, there was a clearly stated HR policy in the organisations to pro mote th e devel opme nt of e mpl oyee s’ capabilities. ISSN:2250 - 1940 employee’s skills and knowledge. Psychological climate in the organisation should be improved and efforts should be initiated to make it conducive to the development of employees. The management should take care of existing HRD mechanisms and explore the possibilities of introducing new ones. This study was conducted in the region of TAMILNADU public sector organisations. The finding of this study is only applicable for public sectors, not other types of organisation. Further the sample consists of managerial personnel’s; the finding may /may not be generalized to supervisors and workers. The result of the‘t’ test indicates that there is significant differences between the senior level managers response and middle level managers response and also middle level managers responses and junior level managers. The result of ‘Ø2’ test indicates that there is no relationship between the senior level and middle level manager’s perception about present HRD system and also there is no relationship between the middle level and senior level manager’s perception about present HRD system. Conclusion Overall conclusion of this study is that the development of human is a specialized operative function of personnel administration. In this changing trend, the employees’ expectations are al ways shi fted in n ature. H en ce the top management concentrates the new innovative and initiative development methods to their workforce. Then only they develop the existing work force and compete with other public and private competitor organizations. The top management should take effort to motivate, train and build their high potential (workforce) employees upgrading of selection, standards, formulation of suitable re wards and care er deve lopment scheme s, objectives and development oriented appraisal systems will be the basis of these efforts. “We cannot create the future (time) for the next generation, but we can create the next generation (human resources) for the future”. Hence, in our observation, the senior level mangers understand with the top management and HRD policies through their experience and maturity. All these items of HRD might have led to a better outlook in senior managers’ point of view. But in middle level HRD factors are good outlook then the junior management level because junior managers state that average level of satisfaction about present HRD factors (items). Thus, on the whole, we find the existence of reaso nabl e HRD cli mate i n th e pu bl ic organisation sectors covered under this study. In general, the managers showed favourable attitude towards, HRD policies and practices but the staff and operational employees stand on the neutral position. They expect more innovative HRD practices. They will be given complete freedom through Human Resource – development policies formation under the supervisions of the top management based on the competitiveness of business environment. However, the observation of this study the managers should ensure the development and utilization of available Human Resources. Especially in staff and operational level employees should be motivated to learn and develop th eir kn owl edge and capabili ty by th e top management. Reference HRD Practices in Indian Industries by V.K.Jain, published by Anmol publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi. Training & Development in HRD by S.K.Bhatia Indian Journal Industrial Relations Vol.41, No:2 Oct. 2005 HRD Audit by T.V.Rao published by TaTa Mc Graw Hill New Delhi 2007 Dr Ajit Srivastan “HRD in Changing business trends” HRD News letter Vol.19. issue 10: Jan. 2004 The management should make favorable friendly informal relationship among the superior and subordinates. It should be geared up trust, loyalty, and team spirit among the employees. The systems (HRD) of the organisation should be geared to design innovative and highly specialized prog rammes as a measu re to i mpro ve the Research Explorer HRD Times, Feb. 2006 Management Trends, Vol:2, No:2, Apr. 2005 Sept. 2005 Mr. Arun Yadav “HRD in Organizational Development” ICFAI Journal of organizational behaviour: Oct. 2005 Dimensions of Human Resource Development in Corporate sector VIKALPA Vol: 30, No:2 Apr- Jun. 2005 61 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Re se arch Methodology by C.R.Kothari Pearson Samyuleta Koda, “the art of managing people” Focus Publishing Company New Delhi 2006 column, The Hindu, Wednesday, December 2002, open L.Nadler (1980), “Defining the field –Is it HRD or OD page. or…?” Training and Development Journal, 34 (12):66 Curtis, B., William E. H., & Sally, M. (1995). Overview L.Nadler and Z Nadler (1989) Developing HR: concepts of the People Capability Maturity Model . Software and model, (CA: Jossey Bass), P.328. Engineering Institute: Carnegie Mellon University. S.J.Carroll, J.P.Frank and J.J.Ivancevich (1972), “The Friedman, B., James, H., & David, M. W. (1998). Relative Effectiveness of training method expert opinion Delivering on the Promise: How to Attract, Manage and research”, personnel psychology, Autumn. Retain Human Capital. Arthur Anderson, New York: Free Press. J.W.Gilley and S.A.Eggland (1989) principles of HRD, (NY: Addison Wesley), P.5. Pareek, U. & Rao, T V (1977). HR Function in Larsen & Toubro, Ahmedabad: Indian Institute of management T.V.Rao and D.F.Pereira (1986), Recent Experiences in HRD, (NewDelhi: Oxford & IBH), PP.3-4. Pareek, U. & Rao, T. V. (1982). Designing and Managing Human Resource Systems. New Delhi: Oxford N.T Garvan, Heraty Noreen and Morley Michael & IBH. (1998), “Actors in the HRD process: An exploratory study, “International Studies of Management and Organization”, Pareek, U & Rao, T. V. (1975). HRD System in Larsen& March. Toubro. Ahmedabad: Indian Institute of Management, Unpublished Consultancy Report. U.Pareek, (1975), “The concept and the process of O.D”, Indian Journal of social work, 36(2);109-125. Pareek. U. & Rao, T. V. (1998). Pioneering Human Resources development: The L&T System; Ahmedabad: T.V.Rao and D.F.Pereira (1986), Recent Experiences Academy of Human Resources Development, (Publication in HRD, (New Delhi: Oxford& IBM), PP3-4 of the original consultancy reports, 1975 and 1977) Murthy, M.G.K “Global knowledge organization: Rao, T. V. (1999). HRD Audit. New Delhi: Response Human Development perspective: The Indian Journal of Books (A Division of Sage Publications), commerce, Vol.54, No.4, Oct-Dec 2001, Page 164-169. ww w.s hrm .or g. Ramanuracharya.S “Hr for whom?” The Hindu, (David A. De c e nzo , Ste phe n P.Robbins.2007) opportunities page, sage speak column, Wednesday, August 20, 2003 open page.3. HR D- Chal le ng e s and Opp ortu nit ie s by NelluRohmetra & Anmol publication Pvt Ltd 2005. The fag column, The Hindu, Wednesday, September 25.2002, open page.5. NEWS AND EVENTS  You may send information which you want to share with all.  If your institution is going to organize or had organized a Conference, Workshop or Symposia related to Social Sciences (Commerce, Economics, Management, also)  If you have written a book and want it to be reviewed, Please send a copy to us. It will be reviewed in SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE / RESEARCH EXPLORER.  This journal is a platform for the Social Scientist and explore the knowledge in thne field of Social Science, through research, innovative concept frame work, new idiology and the current trends.  Frame News of the event and send us in E-mail : iara.selp@yahoo.in Research Explorer 62 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 CUSTOMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS IMPACT OF ORGANIZED RETAILERS IN TAMILNADU A.Elavarasan Assistant Professor of Commerce, Directorate of Distance Education, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu – 608 002. ABSTRACT Despite being one of the largest employing industries in India and contributing a significant portion to GDP, it still lacks a clear policy which would allow Indian retail players to firmly establish themselves and enable them to face competition on an equal footing. India is the most attractive retail destination among emerging markets globally, ahead of China despite the ban on foreign direct investment in the sector. But, with heightened activity in the retail scenario, the debate is going on whether FDI in the sector should be allowed or not. The government of India prohibits foreign direct investment in retail except for single-brand joint ventures with up to 51 per cent equity share. Key Words : Organized retailing , hypermarket, supermarket, convenience stores, exclusive outlets, departmental stores, and cash-n-carry Introduction Retailing is one of the largest sectors in India and is still largely dominated by the unorganized retailing. Indian retail market is very large as well as swelling, the huge scope and vast potential for the prosperity of organized retailing are increasing day by day. Liberalization of the economy in the nineties and the entry of large players in the retail business have brought the retail industry into spotlight. The organized retail sector has been witnessing winds of changes in the last couple of years. Despite the current slowdown of the economy, organized retail sector is feeling the warmth of expansion by the participation of Indian business houses and foreign players. Indian retail sector has not been affected much as their overseas counterpart and has been sailing smooth and gaining strength with the help of the ambiance of a strong financial system. Retailers like Pantaloons and RPG have started hypermarket operations and they are having plans to expand aggressively to all the religions of India. Organized Retailing Organi zed retaili ng refe rs to tradi ng activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, Research Explorer 63 those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. The se i nclu de th e co rporate-backed hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the private owned large retail businesses. The term “organized retail” means to have a formal organization to coordinate and carry out activities. The organized retail formats are generally owned by corporate. Organized retail refers to a form of retailing whereby customers can buy goods in a similar purchase environment across more than one physical location for verticals from food, grocery, apparel, consumer durables, jewellery, footwear, beauty care, home décor, and books to music. They mainly include: hypermarket, supermarket, convenience stores, exclusive outlets, departmental stores, and cashn-carry. Statement of the Problem The Indian retail industry has witnessed rampant growth over the last decade. Despite the recent boom in the retail sector in India, organized retail forms only around 4 per cent of the entire industry. During the economic recession since the latter half of the financial year 1999, the retailers in the organized segment suffered a set-back in the July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 form of declining revenues and halt in their capex plans. Despite the rosy hopes, some facts have to be considered to positively initiate the retail momentum and ensure its sustained growth. The major constraint of the organized retail market in India is the competition from the unorganized sector. India still predominantly houses the traditional formats of retailing, that is, the local kirana shop, weekly haats, convenience stores, and bazaars, which together form the bulk. Most significantly, Indian retail is highly fragmented, with about 15 million outlets operating in the country and only 4% of them being larger than 500 square feet in size. Traditional retailing has been deep rooted in India for the past few centuries and enjoys the benefits of low cost structure, mostly owneroperated, therein resulting in less labour costs and little or no taxes to pay. On the contrary, organized sectors have big expenses like higher labour costs, social security to employees, bigger premises, and taxes to meet. Therefore the new organized retail outlets initially experienced slow success due to a number of contributing factors. The retailers were quick to learn and then with little alterations they could change the customer perceptions; the changed shopping outlets are seeing success due to fair pricing, large assortments, supported by large moving spaces, self-services, free packing and the idea of getting everything under one roof has conquered customers. Moreover, organized retailing is considered to be efficient and apt to cater to the diversified and changing nature of the customer demands in growing economies like India. The general benefits of organized retail also include improved supply-chain, improved marketability of products and it is also expected that it will contribute to heightened economic activity. Thus, the organized retailing has a promising future with many avenues and prospects. In this context, the researcher has made an attempt to analyse the attitude of the customers towards the impact of organized retailers in Tamil Nadu. Objectives of the Study 1. To study the growth drivers for the organized retailing in general. 2. To analyze the impact of organized retailers in Tamil Nadu based on customers’ attitude. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Nadu based on the findings of the study. Testing of Hypothesis The present study is based on the formulation of the following null hypothesis: H 01: There is no significant difference between the average amount spent during pre-and-post-purchase periods in the select organized retail outlets. Sampling Design This study is confined to three major organized retail segments namely, food and grocery, fashion and accessories and pharma. These three retail segments cover nearly 60 per cent of retail business in recent years. The present study is restricted to three organized retailers, namely Reliance Fresh, Koutons, and Apollo Pharmacy. In order to collect primary data for the purpose of the study, multistage sampling technique is adopted. At the first stage 3 cities i.e. one mega-metro city (Chennai) and two municipal corporations (Coimbatore and Erode) were selected randomly. Tools for Data Collection The present study is empirical in character, based on survey method. The first-hand information for this study was collected from the select organized retail outlets. As an essential part of the study, the primary data were collected from 675 customers with the help of exit interview. The secondary data have been collected mainly from journals, magazines, government reports, books and unpublished dissertations. In order to study the perception of the customers, multiple regression analysis, paired comparison t-test and percentage analysis have been employed. Multiple regression analysis is used to measure the impact of the organized retailers. The paired comparison t-test is employed to compare the average amount spent by the customers during pre-and-post-purchase periods in organized retail outlets. Findings 1. Price, freedom in choosing products, customer relationship, quality of the products, service quality, more variants, one stop shopping and availability of more brands are the factors influencing the respondents to prefer organized retailers at 32.88% , 34.96% , 36.74% , 44.14% , 46.07% , 47.70% , 49.92% an d 50.66% respectively. 3. To offer suitable suggestions for the effective 2. There is a significant difference in the average functioning of organized retail outlets in Tamil Research Explorer July - December 2012 64
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 monthly amount spent between the pre-andpost-purchase periods in Reliance Fresh retail outlets. The respondents save on an average Rs.49.23 in the average monthly amount spent while purchasing at Reliance Fresh retail outlets. ISSN:2250 - 1940 have higher acceptance (2.34) towards the role of organized retail outlets in increasing social status of the customers, followed by its role in throwing away middlemen (2.27). In case of time saving, the respondents have lower acceptance level towards organized retail outlets (2.07). 3. A significant difference is found in the average monthly amount spent between the pre-andpost-purchase periods in Koutons retail outlets. The customers spent on an average of Rs.88.49 as extra while purchasing at Koutons retail outlets. 9. Inconvenient location, absence of private label brand, inadequate visual merchandising, poor reply on enquiry, inadequate advertisement, poor co-operation of the staff, higher price, incompetent sales personnel, undue delay in billing, absence of customer database and inadequate sales promotion are the problems of the customers with the organized retailers in Tamil Nadu. 4. There is a significant difference in the average monthly amount spent between the pre-andpost-purchase periods in Apollo Pharmacy outlets. The respondents save on average Rs.6.51 in the average monthly amount spent while purchasing at Apollo Pharmacy. Suggestions 1. People are highly oriented towards organized retail. As people expect, good quality products at reasonable price, the organized retailers shall offer products at reasonable price with good quality. 5. The age, educational status, household size and family pattern of the respondents have no significant effect on their acceptance towards impact of Reliance Fresh retail outlets. On the other hand, gender of the respondents at 1% level and respondents’ monthly household income at 5% level has significant effect on their acceptance towards impact of Reliance Fresh retail outlets in Tamil Nadu. 2. Organized retailers can reduce the perception of waiting, without necessarily reducing the actual wait. They can make outlets by displaying merchandise to change customers’ perceptions of waiting. Besides, they can enhance the store atmospherics through visual communications, li gh ti ng , co lo urs and o do rs. Th e vi su al communication strategy might be planned and also be brand positioned. 6. The gender, age, educational status and monthly household income of the respondents at 1 per cent significance level and household size of the customers at 5 per cent level of significance have significant effect on their acceptance towards impact of Apollo Pharmacy outlets in Tamil Nadu. Respondents’ family pattern has no significant effect on their acceptance towards impact of Apollo Pharmacy. 3. The select organized retailers should train their employees to be cooperative with the customers as this is found to be the major problem faced by the customers in the select organized retail outlets. 7. The gender, age, educational status, household size and family pattern of the respondents have no significant effect on their acceptance towards impact of Koutons retail outlets. On the other hand, respondents’ monthly household income at 5% level of significance has significant effect on their acceptance towards impact of Koutons retail outlets in Tamil Nadu. 4. The modern retail is essentially looking out for more space for expansion. The availability of the main space would definitely enable the select organized retailers to deliver better quality services to the customers, resulting in increase in operational efficiencies and reduction in supply chain costs. It will overcome the problem of inconvenient location of stores. 8. Out of 675 respondents, 39.85% , 38.81% and 21.33% of the respondents agree, partially agree, and disagree respectively towards the impact of organized retail outlets. The average acceptance score reveals that the respondents 5. The organized retailers may adopt cross merchandising by offering complementary goods and services to encourage customers to buy more. They can also aim at infusing newer product lines frequently to increase the volume Research Explorer 65 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 of the sales by targeting the impulsive buying behaviour of customers. ISSN:2250 - 1940 the basics of business. Indian’s vast middle class and its almost untapped retail industry are key attractions for global retail giants wanting to enter the newer market. The present study reveals that inconvenient location, absence of entertainment facility, absence of home delivery, absence of private label brand, inadequate visual merchandising, poor reply on enquiry, inadequate advertisement, poor co-operation of the staff, higher price, incompetent sales personnel, undue delay in billing, inadequate parking facility, absence of customer database and inadequate sales promotion are the problems of the customers with the select organized retailers. 6. The select organized retailers must ensure that sales personnel have sufficient knowledge of the products offered, and also must be capable of handling complaints. They must also exhibit willingness to handle returns, and should be available for advice or clarification. Overall, organized retailers must ensure courteous behaviour of sales personnel. Well mannered and helpful staff can always lead to store patronage decisions. 7. In an age of quick services, technology is a necessary ingredient for success of any retail outlet. Customers would prefer to visit such outlets that would provide prompt and errorfree billing services. Retailers may adopt different technologies to manage faster billing. They should also work on having multiple payment options like cash, credit cards, debit cards, and so on to facilitate customers. References 1. 2. Doug Lincoln (1985). Marketing Decision-making Problems Faced by Small Business Retailers, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.13, No.3, June, pp.183-197. 5. Harpreet Singh and Narinder Kaur (2008). Retailing in India: Recent Trends & Challenges, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol.XXXVIII, No.4, April, pp.49-55. 6. Nathan, N.V.R (2001). Requiem for Store based Retailing, Indian Management, Vol.40, No.3, pp.3539. 7. The emergence of organized retailing in the retail market scene is very significant in the recent past. Organized retailing is witness a wave of players entering the industry. The entry of foreign players will not only affect the ownership, but also change Coyle, W (2006). Revolution in Food Re tailing Underway in the Asia-Pacific Region, Amber Waves, Vol.4, No.3, pp.22-29. 4. Conclusion Praveenkumar, S and Mahalakshmi, V (2008). Retail Management, Chennai, Rudhra Books, pp.1-10. 3. 8. Apollo Pharmacy offers discount card (All Time Medicine) to their customers to make them frequently visit their pharmacy outlets and purchase the medicines at discount. It is therefore suggested that the other organized retailers namely Reliance Fresh and Koutons can follow similar strategies to promote their business. Amatul Base e r and Laxmi Prabha, G (2007). Prospects and Problems of Indian Retailing, Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol.XXXVII, No.10, October, pp.29-33. Pashigian B.Peter and Eric, D (1998). The Pricing of Space in Malls, Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.41, April, pp.42-115. ATTENTION TO THE SEMINAR ORGANIZER SELP Publication is one of the fast growing academic friendly publisher in Tamilnadu specialized in publication of seminar proceedings /Edited volume with ISBN. We invite the articles of the participants in the national or international seminar organized by the academic institutions published as edited volume with ISBN / special issue of SELP journal of social science with ISSN -0975-9999 / Research Explorer with ISSN -2250 - 1940 Seminar organizer/director may conduct us for the publication of Edited volume or special issue by mail at iara.selp@yahoo.in Research Explorer 66 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 A STUDY ON URBAN POVERTY ERADICATION THROUGH MICRO-FINANCE IN NASIK DISTRICT Deore Sanjay Parasharam M. S. G. College Malegaon Camp , Dist. Nashik, Maharashtra state, India. ABSTRACT The main objective of Micro finance is to alleviate poverty and to make poor women self dependent. Micro finance may be defined as provision of thirst, credit & other financial services to poor in rural, semi-urban or urban areas to enabling them to raise their income levels and improve their standard of living. It is achieved to large groups facilitated, as an intermediately to get credit and its effective utilization. The Government launched Swarna Jayanthi Shahri Rojgar Yojana ( SJSRY) on Dec 1st 1997. Self Help Groups have been founded under this SJSRY scheme for alleviation of poverty in urban areas which rest on foundation of women empowerment. This study focuses on urban women SHGs micro finance belonging to Malegaon city in Nasik District of Maharashtra with the main focus the study has under taken to see whether the micro financial activities have helped them to come out of poverty or not. Key words: Micro finance , Urban poor, micro finance, Self Help Group , poverty eradication Introduction According to Adam Smith “ Man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessities, the conveniences and the amusement of the human life.” It indicates the condition in which a person is not able to access basic needs of minimum living standards adequate for his physical and mental development. Urban poor are apparently visible by their peculiar way of living, a distinct sub standard of life in extremely deprived conditions with-in adequate means of livelihood and insufficient basic amenities. Even though the infrastructure and the economic growth factors influence the extent, depth and nature of the poverty, income-earning activities of the poor depend on institutional factors that determine access to production resources and employment opportunities in the urban areas. Micro credit was first started in Bangladesh by Dr. Mohammad Yunus through Grameen Bank which was established in 1976. In India NABARD launched a pilot phase of Self Help Group (SHGs) Bank linkage programme in 1992. The Government launched Swarna Jayanthi Shahri Rojgar Yojana ( SJSRY) on Dec 1st 1997. SJSRY is the only most effective programme launched by GOI for alleviation Research Explorer of poverty in urban areas which rest on a foundation of women empowerment. All the SHGs ( under SJSRY) are women groups for the study, the study focuses on urban women SHGs belonging to Malegaon city in nasik district of maharashtra. This study makes an attempt to know what extent SHGs are able to attempt to reduce poverty through micro finance. Objectives 1) To assess the financial activities of Self Help Group members . 2) To find out Whether micro finance can reduce poverty . 3) To pro vi de recommen dati on s fo r po li cy implications to poverty eradication . Methodology A sample of 100 members has been selected ( one member of each group ) from 10 CDS (Ten member of each CDS ). The selected members who belong to the SHGs which are covered under the SHG Bank linkage programme which are also known as DWCUA groups. 100 women were interviewed through questionnaire with the focus to know the effectiveness of the groups as well as th ei r individual e co nomic acti vi ti es of the July - December 2012 67
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 beneficiaries of SHGs. The study has been conducted during the period from 1st November to 30 November 2009. ISSN:2250 - 1940 Higher Education Total 5 Characteristics of the study area  Malegaon is the third largest population density city (86123 per sq. km.) after Mumbai and Pune. Family size 19 5 – 8 Members 61 8 Eighty Two percent populat ion of Muslim community in the total population.  100 1 – 4 Members According to the 2001 census, female population is 200539 (48.98.1) out of 409403.  06 20 + Members Total 6 100 Maritial status Unmarried 05  In 17422 families, 150000 (36.63 %) people live under BPL in 34 slums. Married 86 From 1947 to 2007, ten times communal riots and twice bomb blast took place. Widwo 09  Total  Due to poverty, violence and mafiaraj situated in the Malegaon city, fear hovers all the time over the lives of the people.  Besides, due to religious influence women’s condition is very miserable.  In such circumstances how much is it possible for SHGs to make the poor allivate. On the basis of such circumstances Self Help Groups Demographic profiles is as follow.  Table – 1 Demographic Profiles of SHGs Members No. Characteristics Total 1 Group Age 01-05 years 53 6-10 years 46 10 + 01 years Total 2 100 Member Age 18 – 40 years 69 41 – 60 years 30 60 + years 01 Total 3 100 Group Size Up to 10 Members 27 11 – 20 Members 71 20 02 + Members Total 4 100 Education Illitrate 29 Primary Education 32 Highschool Education 33 Research Explorer 7 100 Family Type Nuclear 62 Joint 38 Total 100 Source –questionnaire. It is observed from table no.1, fifty three percent of the groups belong to1 to 5 years in age, and fourty six percent groups belong 6-10. Majority sixty nine percent of the members were in the age group of 18 to 40 years .Thirty percent belong to 41 to 60 years. Seventy one percent groups belong to 11 to 20 members group size. Twenty nine percent are illiterate and Seventy one percent are literate. Sixty one percent of the members have family of 5 to 8 members and eighty six percent of the women were married and sixty two percent of the families are of nuclear type. Findings 1. Sixty Nine Percent of women have been poverty free due to micro-finance through SHGs 2. Fifty four percent of increase has been noticed in saving done by women 3. Women have been the owners of different enterprises who do not have 1% ownership in general social . 4. Employment generation is created from 16 type Self Business. 5. Sixty nine percent of women’s economic requirements (need) have been fulfilled through micro-finance. 6. Micro-finance has increased women’s credit in banks, therefore every member have utilized at July - December 2012 68
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 an average the loan around 57660/-. ISSN:2250 - 1940 purchase and sale the production. 3. SHGs shall be offered the works like sailing of stamps, feed, milk and preparing telephone, Electricity bills and ration cards. Alongside, the work like survey for government data shall be offered to SHGs. 7. This study also shows that seventy three percent of the loan taken is used for house-hold purposes, existing business and education. 8. It is also observed that women in SHGs are become more aware of the education of their children. 4. There shall be an yearly audit of the Group’s economic transactions. 9. Women are being brought in to the mainstream of economic development through microfinance. 5. To encourage the Suvarna Jayanti Department & SHGs they should be awarded . 6. All BPL families should be included in SHGs movement. 10. Illiteracy has made women loose their power to act, however they have regained this power through micro-finance. References 11. Micro-finance enables women to fulfill economic needs of their families which results in peaceful atmosphere in the family. 1. Gane shmur thy V. S., 20 07, Ind ia: Eco nom ic 12. Women belonging to Hindu and Muslim community work together in SHGs, therefore communial harmony has been noticed as increasing. 2. Sahay, Sushama, 1998 Women and Empowerment- Development and Empowerment. New Delhi, New Century publication. Approaches and Strategy, New Delhi, Discovery publication. 3. Bhatia, J. K., 2001 “ Census of India”, Nasik District censes, Handbook. Recommendations 4. Dr. Lazar and Deo, 2009, “ Micro finance-performance 1. Loan taken from bank shall be invested in enterprises like mobile and Evaluation……..” Puducherry, Allied publication Pvt. Ltd. inverter repairing, processing of cashew nut, mobile floor mill, etc. which usually offer maximum production. 5. Mulani, M. V., 2007 “ The Role of the SHG in the 2. The Municipality shall make the provision to 6. Progress of SJSRY, Bank Linkages in Maharashtra. socio-economic Empowerment of women”. Pune. 7. NABARD Progress of SHGs, Bank Linkage in India. BOOK REVIEW Research Methodology for Commerce and Management By Dr.C.PARAMASIVAN, Ph.D., Publisher : Regal Publications, New Delhi Price : 250 Research Methodology for Commerce and Management is the text book which is purely based on the University Syllabus. The Presentatio n o f t he Language and Explanation of the Concept is based on the level of Student Capacity. Contact Included : Introduction to Research Methodology, Research Problem and Ethics, Research design, Sampling, Data Collection and analysis, Hypotheses, Research Report Research Explorer 69 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PRACTICES OF THE CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILLS IN TAMIL NADU V.Kannan Assistant Professor, Commerce Wing, DDE, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002. ABSTRACT Human resource is the most important resource that every organization has in the form of its employees. No organization can think of viability and effectiveness without the efficient utilization of human resources. The study reveals that employees have few problems with regard to human resource management policies and practices such as lack of new recruitment, unsatisfactory organizational climate, existence of two different pay structures, lack of career development opportunities, lack of promotion, lack of participation in decision making, bias of superiors, dissatisfaction with grievance handling, no reward for better performance, lack of freedom to individual units, withdrawal of customary benefits, low salary, inadequate welfare measures and absence of separate department for human resource function are the problems of the employees with regard to human resource management in the select co-operative sugar mills. Keywords: Human resource management, personnel management, HRM in co-operatives, HRM in sugar mills, etc. Introduction The success of any organization depends to a large extent upon the capability, competence, efficiency, and level of development of human resources, who are the active agents, accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, and build social, economic and political organizations. Therefore, human resource is the most important resource that every organization has in the form of its employees. No organization can think of viability and effectiveness without the efficient utilization of human resources. The optimal utilization of natural resources and the factor inputs of capital and technology depend on the extent of use of human resources. The management of human resources represents a significant measure of util izin g hu man re sou rces to acco mpli sh organizational goals that include making profits, survival and growth. Importance of HRM in Sugar Co-operatives Since people are becoming such a critical factor, the only winning organizations will be those that respond quickly to change and are able to manage Research Explorer 70 their human resources effectively. The management of human resource will play a crucial role in the performance of organizations in the 1990s. Organizations increasingly rely on human resource manage me nt techn iques to in crease the ir effectiveness and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Taking into consideration the size and expansion, the effective and innovative human resource management is equally important for all types of co-operative enterprises. Introduction of a proper human resource management system in the sugar co-operatives has now become necessary, as the conditions of the economy had changed considerably requiring introduction of new technology. Human resource management is both the foundation and fountain source for developing professio nalized managemen t i n su gar cooperatives. Survival of sugar co-operatives requires competent people and coordination of their efforts towards one or more goals. Therefore, there is no questioning the importance of innovative rethinking of human resource management practices. The en vi ro nmen tal ch ang es h ave proved the ineffectiveness of human resource strategies based July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 on direction and control, and their failure to elicit commitment of employees to co-operative objectives that is so crucial in today’s technologically oriented environment. Thus, it is evident from the above argu me nts th at e ffective hu man re so urce management is necessary to review, revamp and rejuvenate the existing people management systems in sugar co-operatives. Statement of the Problem Co-operatives have significant quantum of human resources, which are qualitatively different. Co-operatives in several Asian countries have made remarkable progress in their respective economic fields, but very little has been done in streamlining their human resource management. During the last 30 years, there has been a considerable change in the core concept of management of people in all organizations to which co-operative organizations are no exception. Even though the co-operative movement has made a significant progress and has spread its tentacles to every corner of the country and conceivable economic activity, especially with social content, the co-operative sugar mills in India are still moving with traditional outlook on human resources due to ideological gap, developmental gap and scientific thinking gap. The reasons lie in the lack of awareness of problems of human resources. Most of the co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu have been in the red for the last 15 years and whenever certain demands arose in the past, the management pleaded its helplessness in meeting such demands because of financial stringency and steadily declining profitability. It leads to poor morale of employees, lack of complete integration between employees and mills, demoralization and lack of job security. Besides, the main factor, which can be attributed to un-economical working of cooperative sugar mills, is over-staffing. The cooperative sugar mills are seen as labour intensive organizations where they employ more workers than the required strength resulting heavy expenditure on wages and allowances and create labour problems and duplicity of work, etc. Hence, the co-operative sugar mills require professionally competent as well co-operatively oriented human resources. For bringing out management excellence in co-operative sugar mills, there is an urgent need to review the existing human resource management practices and evolve suitable parameters relating to human resource management practices. This is likely to create a congenial work environment in Research Explorer 71 ISSN:2250 - 1940 co-operative sugar mills. In this context, the researcher has made an attempt to study the human resource management policies and practices of the co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the present study are as follows: 1. To study the need and importance of human resource management in the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu 2. To review the human resource management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. 3. To study the perception of the employees towards human resource management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. 4. To suggest appropriate measures to improve the effectiveness of the human resource function of the select co-operative sugar mills based on the findings of the study. Testing of Hypothesis The study is based on the formulation of the following null hypothesis. H 0: There is no significant relationship among the satisfaction levels of the employees belonging to different demographic profiles towards human resource management policies and practices of the co-operative sugar mills. Sampling Design There are 42 sugar mills in Tamil Nadu, of which 37 mills are in operation, which include 15 cooperative sugar mills, 2 public sector mills, and 20 private sugar mills. Since the study is restricted to co-operative sugar mills only, the researcher has selected 4 mills. For this purpose, the co-operative sugar mills are categorized into 3 groups based on crushing capacity per day. Tools for Data Collection The present study is empirical in nature based on survey method. The first-hand information was collected from the establishment sections of the cooperative sugar mills. As an essential part of the study, the primary data were collected from 513 employees with the help of questionnaire. Pretesting of questionnaire was done during December 2011, involving 25 respondents to know the July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 policies and practices. relevance of the questions. In the light of pretesting, few changes were incorporated in the questions and their sequences. The secondary data were collected mainly from the journals, magazines, government reports, books and unpublished dissertations. As an essential part of the study, the primary data were collected for a period of 6 months from January 2012 to June 2012. 4. The MDA technique applied has resulted in two discriminant functions, of which the factors relating to labour welfare measures and industrial relationship contributed more to the fi rst fu ncti on ( Emplo ye e-manage me nt Relationship) and the variables recruitment and selection and employee motivation contribute to the secon d di scrimin an t fu ncti on (Recruitment and Training). The efficiency of these functions was tested using classification matrix which predicted 88.50% of the cases correctly, The results of the MDA show that the officers and supervisors differ more from workmen in both the dimensions namely ‘Employee-management Relationship’ and ‘Recruitment and Training’. Framework of Analysis The ultimate object of the study is to examine the perception of the employees towards human resource management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. In order to study this aspect, analysis of variance, student t test, co-efficient of variation, discriminate function analysis, multiple discriminant function an alysis, mu ltiple regression analysis and percentage analysis are employed. 5. “Safety and labour welfare measures” is the maxi mu m di scri min atin g vari able 2 (R % =79.74% ) be tw ee n pe rman en t an d seasonal employees, followed by ‘industrial relations’ (48.72% )’, ‘workers’ participation in manage me nt’ ( 46.24% ) and ‘empl oy ee motivation’ (43.30% ) in that order. The variable ‘recruitment and selection’ discriminating between permanent and seasonal employees is only 1.85% . Findings 1. No significant relationship is found in the satisfaction level of the respondents belonging to different gender, age groups and length of ex pe ri en ce tow ards hu man re so urce management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. There is a significant relationship in the satisfaction level of the respondents belonging to different educational status groups, salary groups, cadre, nature of employment and mill they be lo ng to to wards hu man re so urce management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills. 6. Gender, age and length of experience of the respondents have no significant effect on the human resource management policies and practices in the co-operative sugar mills. On the other hand, educational status and monthly salary of the respondents have significant effect on the human resource management policies and practices at 1 per cent level of significance. 2. Male respondents, respondents in the age group above 55 years, respondents having PG and above qualifications, respondents belonging to monthly salary of above Rs.35000, officers, respondents belonging to length of experience above 30 years, permanent employees and employees of the Salem Co-operative Sugar Mills are more satisfied towards human resource management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills. 7. Lack of new recruitment, unsatisfactory organizational climate, existence of two different pay structures, lack of career development opportunities, lack of promotion, lack of participation in decision making and bias of superiors are the problems of the employees ranging from 23.97 per cent to 47.75 per cent with regard to human resource management in the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. About 52.04% , 55.94% , 56.33% and 57.89% o f th e re spo nden ts state the dissatisfaction with grievance handling, no reward for better performance, lack of freedom to individual units and withdrawal of customary benefits as the problems in human resource management in the select co-operative sugar mills respectively. More than 60 per cent of the 3. There exists consistency in the satisfaction level of female employees, employees belonging to above 55 years, employees having SSLC qualification, employees drawing salary upto Rs.15000, wo rkme n, empl oy ee s havi ng experience upto 10 years, seasonal employees, and employees of N.P.K.R.R. Co-operative Sugar Mills towards human resource management Research Explorer 72 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 respondents state the low salary, inadequate welfare measures and absence of separate department for human resource function as their problems in human resource management in the select co-operative sugar mills. ISSN:2250 - 1940 3. Training forms part of an integrated approach to human resource management. It becomes a wasteful effort if it is not harmonized with career development of employees. The organization should classify the various categories of jobs and assess developmental needs in order to provide need-based training to the employees so as to increase their efficiency. Co-operative sugar mills do not have any formal training programme either for workmen or officers. Therefore, it is suggested that the employees who fulfill the requisite qualifications and have aptitude for training should be deputed and a well-designed roster system should also be fo rmul ated fo r ne ed base d trai ni ng programmes. In-service trained employees in the co-operative sugar mills should be given incentives by way of merit certificate, cash award or advance increments. 8. Respondents ranging from 23 per cent to 40.54 per cent suggest that new re cruitment, satisfactory organizational climate, existence common pay structure, avenues for career development and retaining customary benefits will improve the effectiveness of human resource function of the co-operative sugar mills. About 42.69% , 45.61% , 46.97% and 50.29% of the respondents suggest promotion of employees, participation in decision making, fairness of superiors and effective grievance handling to improve human resource function in the co-operative sugar mills. More than 52% of the respondents state reward for better performance, freedom to individual units, provision of reasonable salary, provision of adequate welfare measures, provision of dependant benefits and separate department for human resource function to improve effectiveness of human resource function in the co-operative sugar mills. 4. The salary structure should be such that it would help retain qualified and competent people. Existence of two different pay structures may adve rsel y affect th e moral e of the employees and it may create disparities among the employees. It is therefore suggested that the Commissioner of Sugar in consultation with state government may streamline the common pay structure. However, within the structure pay scale may vary depending on the skill, nature and designation of employees. Suggestions 1. Since the co-operative sugar mills are becoming increasingly more diversified with growing business transactions, there is an urgent need to establish a full-fledged human resource department to look after the human resource functions. A human resource manager not below the rank of chief of other functional areas of a sugar co-operative should head the human resource department. However, the internal structure of the department, its functions and scope may vary de pen ding on the size, production capacity and number of employees of the co-operative sugar mills. 5. The employees of the co-operative sugar mills were enjoying the customary benefits such as more leave facilities, more number of uniforms, leave travel allowance, double pay for overtime work, concessional rate of electricity in quarters, etc. Now these benefits have been reduced. They have to be content with the original rates, which will demoralize the employees. Conclusion 2. Recruitment and selection of employees’ in the co-operative sugar mills should be made through establishment of a Co-operative Service Commission. In the state of Uttar Pradesh, Cooperative Institutional Service Board has been established for recruitment of personnel for cooperatives. Therefore, similar recruitment board can be constituted by the Government of Tamil Nadu to recruit employees to the co-operative sugar mills. Research Explorer Bu si ne ss o rg an izati on s in compe ti ti ve environment are facing major challenges like fast pace of changing technology, acute shortage of skilled manpower, and obsolescence of products and services which are compelling for reorienting of existing employees in order to survive and compete. Indian sugar industry, second largest agro-based processing industry after the cotton textiles industry in country, has a lion’s share in 73 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 4. Math ur, B.C (1996). H uman Resource Development the New Horizons, New Delhi: Uppal Publishing House. accelerating industrialization process and bringing socio-economic changes in under developed rural areas. In the era of globalization, sugar industry needs more competitive edge which can be given by way of modernization, enhancing productivity, employing competent people, and manufacturing excellent quality sugar at competitive prices. A highly dedicated and committed workforce is essential for achieving organizational goals. In this context, the present study was undertaken to study the perception of the employees towards human resource management policies and practices of the select co-operative sugar mills in Tamil Nadu. 5. Moorthy, K.N (1994). “Human Resources Management, Organizational Strategy, Ethical Concerns and Future Developments”, Personnel Today, July-September. 6. Paulk, A.K and Anantharaman, R.N (2000). “Impact of HRM Practices on Competence of Software Professionals in India: An Analytical Study”, Management and Change, Vol.6, No.1. 7. Ramachandra Gowda, M and Parameswara Gupta, E.A (2006). “HRD: Requiring Today Innovative Techniques”, Southern Economist, Vol.45, No.13, November. References 1. Drucker and Peter, F (1986). “Goodbye to the Old Personnel Department”, Wall Street Journal, No.22, May. 8. Sabhanayakam, S (1987). “Human Resources Development in Co-operatives”, The Tamil Nadu Journal of Co-operation, Vol.79, No.1, July. 2. Dw ivedi , R.S (1997). Manag ing Human Resources: Personnel Management in Indian Enterprises, New Delhi: Galgotia Publishing Company. 9. Sharma, P.S (1996). “Policies and Perceptions on Co-operative Sugar Sector”, The Co-operator, June. 3. Gulab Singh Azad (1998). “Human Resource Development in Co-operatives: Strategic Issues”, Labour Co-operatives, No.12, AprilJune. 10. Subha Rao, P (2004). Essentials of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations, Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House. >twVF¡ß ĺïD (Ã[ªVâ| >tµ ØVa u®D ÖéÂþB gF¡ Ö>µ) TAMILAIVU SANGAMAM (An International Research Journal on Tamil language and Lilterature ) >tµ ¶¤Qìï^, ¼Ã«VEöBìï^, gFkVáìï^ u®D ¨¿Ý>Váìï¹[ ¼kõ|¼ïVçá¥D, ¼>çkïçá¥D ¯ìÝ]ß ØÄF¥D ¼åVÂïݼ>V| SELP PUBLICATION - [ åV[ïVkm Ö>wVï “ >twVF¡ß ĺïD ” ¨[Å A]B Ã[ªVâ| gF¡ Ö>µ Øk¹k« ÖòÂþÅm. ÖËs>a_ gF¡Âïâ|ç« Ä쩸Âï sòDAþ[Åkìï^ 2012 ½ÄDÃì V>D 31 D ¼>]Âz^ >ºïám gF¡ ïâ|ç«ïçá t[ ¶ÞÄ_ kVléVï (¨|Ýmòçk¥D ¼ÄìÝm) tamilselp@yahoo.in ¨[Å xïköÂz ¶Ð©ÃéVD. >twVF¡ß ĺïD - Ã[ªVâ| gFs>a[ Øïá«k gEöBìï^ u®D gEöBìz¿ c®©¸ªìï^ Ã>sïÓÂz sõð©¸Âï sòDAþ[Å >tµ ¶¤Qìï^ u®D ¼Ã«VEöBìï^, >ºï¹[ ¼kõ|>_ ï½>Ým¦[ Îò ÃÂï ·Bz¤©¸çª ¨ºïÓÂz ¶Ð©ÃéVD. ¼KD sëºïÓÂz www.selptrust.org ¨[Å kçé >áÝç> ÃVìÂï¡D. - WìkVï gEöBì. Research Explorer 74 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 DEVELOPING AND VALIDATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JAVA APPLETS IN TEACHING LOCUS OF A POINT IN MATHEMATICS AT THE HIGHER SECONDARY LEVEL P.Rengarajan Research Scholar, Department of Educational Technology, Bharthidasan University, Tiruchirappalli. V.Shanthoshini Deviha Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Trichy Engineering College, Konalai, Tiruchirappalli. Dr.K.Jayaraman Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Technology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli. ABSTRACT The educationists envisage the progress of Information and Communication Technology and its global impact as the development process for learning mathematics. Mathematics is an important subject containing a number of basic concepts and is abstract and complex in nature. Therefore, students consider Mathematics as a difficult subject. There is a great need to reshape the educational system and take an initiative in bringing the computers into the classroom for regular teaching. This paper endows with the data that supports in validating the effectiveness of Java Applets in learning Mathematics. The investigator educates the students through Java Applets which is an effective way of teaching than lecture method. In this paper the analysis is based upon the usage of tools and the statistical significant difference has been found to prove that the developed software is effective. Key words: ICT, Java Applets, Locus of a Point, Achievement test Introduction Information and Communication Technology is the best hope for developing countries to accelerate their development process. It is the most powerful engine of growth. It forms the backbone of several industries. Hence, gaining a better understanding of the trends, developments, issues and impact of Information and Communication Technology on education has been identified as a key research priority, giving rise to a multi attitude of research streams. Today the globe has shrunk into a tiny village and the entire globe scenario has been brought on to a tiny screen under the click of a mouse button. Literacy in the 21st century has been understood as computer literacy. It exhibits knowledge as the power where as the information technology provides the means of knowledge. The world of education is changing fast due to Research Explorer technological developments. An application of technologies is screen pervasively. The wider changes taking place in the society are providing content for instructional development. Over years, there is a shift from oral to written, formal to nonformal, teacher centered to student centered and rigid to flexible forms of instruction. Java Applets and their advantages Java applets are an interesting alternative to enrich Web pages. Applets are Java programs, which are downloaded and run in the clients’ browser. It may seem dangerous to run foreign programs on client’s devices. However Java Applets insist on security and protection and are not allowed in performing dangerous operations. Applets are for example permitted to record sound, redirect to arbitrary WWW pages or call public methods of another applets situated on the July - December 2012 75
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 same WWW pages. On the other hand applets are forbidden to connect to another server, write files on the clients’ devices and run programs on the home server. Yet restricted, Java applets have full graphi cal capabil itie s an d all ow real-ti me interaction with users. Thanks to these features applets are able to visualize processes in a more understandable way, which makes them ideal for education of mathematics. ISSN:2250 - 1940 for teaching Mathematics to the Higher Secondary Level students. Hence the present study has been attempted to make use of the Java Applets, which are readily available on the net and suitable for the purpose of teaching Mathematics to the Higher Secondary Level with the view to finding out this effectiveness. Java Applets are self-contained programs that can be embedded in a web page or standalone. Java Applets can have any or all of the following advantages: Though there have been a number of attempts in mathematics education to integrate ICT and web tools into the teaching and learning of Mathematics, the technology of Java Applets has not been effectively applied for teaching – learning Mathematics. Hence, a software program has been constructed using Java Applets for teaching the section ‘Locus of a Point’ with a view to assessing the effectiveness of Java Applets. Hence the problem of the study is state as, ‘Developing and Validating the Effectiveness of Java Applets in Teaching Locus of a Point in Mathematics at the Higher Secondary level.’ Statement of the problem  It is simple to make it work on Windows, Mac OS and Linux  It is supported by most web browsers  It can have full access to the Java virtual machine while it is running on if the user agrees  It can run at a comparable speed to other compiled languages such as C++ Objectives of the study  It can be a real time application The objectives of the study are as follows:  It can move the work from the server to the  To develop suitable Java Applets package in client, making a web solution more scalable with the number of users/clients. Locus of a Point at the Higher Secondary level.  To find out whether there is any significant Need and Significance of the study difference between pre – test and post – test scores of control group and experimental group students. Effective teaching in any subject depends largely upon the learning outcomes of teaching. Studen ts n ee d un ique ex pe ri en ce s in the presentation of the content. It is therefore, the urgent need for trying out new methods of teaching and establishing their effectiveness is teaching and learning.  To find out whether there is any significant difference between pre – test and post – test scores of control group and experimental group studen ts i n attai nmen t of kn ow le dg e, understanding, application and skill objectives. Teaching by computer Java Applets program provides unique experience to students. Animation and sound effects help to stimulate interest in learning, student tend to remember the facts in a better manner.  To find out whether there is any significant difference between control and experimental group students in their gain scores. Hypotheses Systematic researches are necessary to develop a Java Applets program, particularly, the concepts like trigonometry to the XI standard Mathematics students so as to see its effectiveness over the lecture method. As per the knowledge of researcher so far no such systematic effort has been undertaken to develop Java Applets, for teaching of Mathematics to the student of Higher Secondary courses or to effectively make use of the readily available Java Applets on the net which are suitable Research Explorer The specific hypothesis formulated in tune with the objectives and tested by the experiment are:  There is no significant difference between pre – test and post – test scores of control group and experimental group students.  There is no significant difference between pre – test and post – test scores of control group and experimental group students in attainment of 76 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 knowledge, understanding, application and skill objectives.  There is no significant difference between control and experimental group students in their gain scores. Construction of the tool Java Applet program has been constructed by the experts in the computer field. To evaluate the effe ctiveness of the expert in teaching Mathematics in terms of the achievement of the students taught by Java Applets method an achievement test was constructed. The test was based on the contents of a section of study namely ‘Locus of a Point’ in Mathematics. The test consists of fifteen objective type questions and five fill-in the blank type questions suitable to the level of XI standard Mathematics students. The duration of the test was around 20 minutes. This serves for Pre – test as well as Post - test. The maximum score that can be achieved is 20 and a score of 1 for the right answer and 0 for the wrong answer has been fixed. ISSN:2250 - 1940 the treatment an achievement test was conducted as a Pre - test and the marks are recorded, after the treatment an achievement test was given as a Post - test, the difference in the mean achievement scores were analyzed to find out the effectiveness of teaching Mathematics at Higher Secondary Level. The analysis of the Pre - test and Post - test scores was done through the test of significance. Data Analysis As the main objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of the Java Applets Method of Teaching Locus of a Point in Mathematics at the Higher Secondary level, it is proposed to compare the Pre – test and Post-test scores of the students in Mathematics when they are taught using Java Applets. Null Hypothesis is formulated as the base for analysis and test of significance of difference between means was attempted. The null hypothesis are rejected or not rejected on the basis of the ‘t’ value. Analysis and Interpretation of Data The validity of the tool has been established by doing item analysis, for each item the difficulty index and discrimination value has been calculated. In this analysis the item having difficulty index between 40 - 60% and items having discrimination value above 0.40 has been selected. The content of the validity tool has been established by giving it to a panel of Mathematics teachers. As the main objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of the Java Applets Method of Teaching Locus of a Point in Mathematics at the Higher Secondary level, it is proposed to compare the Pre-Test and Post-Test scores of the students in Mathematics when they are taught using Java Applets. Null Hypothesis is formulated as the base for analysis and test of significance of difference between means was attempted. The null hypothesis are rejected or not rejected on the basis of the ‘t’ test value. Sample Null Hypothesis 1 The experiment was conducted on the total sample size of 100 students consisting of 50 for control group students and 50 for experimental group students of the XI standard students studying in K.A.P.V Higher Secondary School, Tiruchirappalli. The research of the study is mainly focused upon the students of the Mathematics group with Computer Science, using random sampling method.  There is no significant difference between pre – Methodology (At 5% level of significant of the table value of ‘t’ is 1.98 ) Validity of the tool Pre-test, Post-test Parallel Group Design is adopted for the study. A representative and manageable sample of 50 students were chosen through simple Random sampling technique, the group was given the treatment of instruction using Java Applets on the topic Locus of a Point. Before Research Explorer 77 test and post – test scores of control group and experimental group students. It is evident from the above table-1 that the t-value is no significant difference between pre-test scores of control group students, but there is a significant difference between post-test scores of control group students and experimental group July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 There is significant difference in post – test scores of control and experimental group students. According to the t-test result the experimental group is better than the control group. This may be due to the factor that the experimental group students are given exposure on through the developed package. The developed Java Applets has the picture and special effects. So it is better. students, but there is significant difference between post-test scores of experimental group students at 0.05 level. Null Hypothesis 2  There is no significant difference between pre – test and post – test scores of control group and experimental group students in attainment of knowledge, understanding, application and skill objectives. There is no significant difference between the pre-test scores of control and experimental students in attainment of knowledge, understanding, application and skill objectives. There is significant difference between the posttest scores of control and experimental students in attain me nt o f kn ow ledge , un de rstandin g, application and skill objectives. There is significant difference between control and experimental group students in their group students in their gain scores. That is, the experimental group students are better than control group students in their gain scores. According to the t-test result experimental group students are better than the control group students. This may be due to the factor that the experimental group students are given exposure on through the developed Java Applets. The developed Java Applets package has the special effects. (At 5% level of significant of the table value of ‘t’ is 1.98 ) It is evident from the above table-2 that the tvalue is no significant difference between the pretest scores of control and experimental group studen ts i n attai nmen t of kn ow le dg e, understanding, application and skill objectives and there is a significant difference between the posttest scores of control and experimental group studen ts i n attai nmen t of kn ow le dg e, understanding, application and skill objectives at 0.05 level. Conclusion In our proposed investigation an experiment on the effectiveness of Java Applets in teaching Mathematics to the XI standard students has been analysed and this technology also provides suggestion for empowering the learners which has potential in promoting learner autonomy. Null Hypothesis: 3  There is no significance difference between control and experimental group students in their gain scores. References 1. 2. (At 5% level of significant of the table value of ‘t’ is 1.98 ) 3. It is evident from the above table-3 that the tvalue is a significant difference between control and experimental group students in their gain scores. That is, the experimental group students are better than the control group students in their gain scores. Hence, the developed Java Applets package is effective for the XI standard students. 4. 5. 6. 7. Findings of the study 8. There is no significant difference in pre – test scores of control and experimental group students. Research Explorer 78 Aggarwal Y.P. (1988), Statistical Methods-Concepts, Applications and Computations. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Best J.W. (1989), Research in Education, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi. Collon Terry. (1983), Using Micro Computers in Schools. London: Helm Pvt. Ltd. Harrychand. (1990), Techniques of Teaching. New Delhi: Ashish Publication House. Jane Sharp. John Potter. Jonathan Allen. Avril loveless.(2004), Primary ICT – Knowledge, Understanding and Practice. Glasgow: Learning Matter Ltd. Jebamalai Mary. I. (1996), The Effectiveness of Video Assisted Instruction Programme in Teaching Physics at Higher Secondary Level, Unpublished M.Phil Thesis. Madurai Kamaraj University. Madurai. Kothari C.R. (1994), Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, Willey Eastern Limited New Delhi. O’neill Gerald. (1987), Interactive Video in Training, Training Technology Programme. Lancashire: Parthenon Publishing. Pvt. Ltd. July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 A STUDY ON INCIDENCE OF POVERTY Dr. C. Siva Murugan Assistant Professor, Department of Economics,Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur, Tamil Nadu R. Nalini Bai, Research Scholar, C.Narayanan, Research Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli-12. ABSTRACT Poverty is a problem – a world-wide problem. Poverty was the curse of God-it deprived you of everything: food, clothing, shelter, your self-respect, your humanity, even your soul. Poverty is a great curse on humanity. Rural poverty, without doubt, is primary cause of rural indebtedness. The rural poor have a negative propensity to save and are thus forced to borrow in order to meet their bare consumption needs. key words : Poverty , unemployment, income generation, wealth , inflation whether a nation or a people, and its unequal distribution in both. Indian rural poverty is very much historical. Introduction India today is one of the poorest countries in the world. Stark poverty exists throughout the country. Obviously while unemployment is a definite source of poverty, the most common cause is underemployment or employment which yields less than a bare pittance. There has also been an increase in the magnitude of rural poverty in almost all states of the Indian union. It must be clearly realized that the only objective of economic development is the elimination of poverty and the national economic policy must be imbued with a passionate dedication towards attaining this end. Statement of the Problem Poverty is interrelated to the problem of unemployment, income generation, inequality of income and wealth and inflation. There is no viable sign to show that any improvement has been made on these fronts. The primary cause of rural poverty is indebtedness so that problem is faced in the survey village. The main focus of the study is to find the factor responsible for poverty in the survey village. However, the present study is concerned with non-farm collies, agricultural labourers and others. Poverty is a concept of infinite dimensions. A country is poor because it is poor. Poverty is an essentially organizational phenomenon. It is not simply the lack of money. Rural poverty is vastly exaggerated. Poverty is not a state of being; it is the effect of dynamic process. Poverty is not only widespread but also intense. Poverty is hampering the human development. Objectives The main objectives of this present study are as follows. 1. To study the extent of poverty in the survey village. 2. To analyse the reasons for poverty in the study area. 3. To measure the poverty and inequality in the survey village. The present study is concerned with problem of rural poverty in a village of our country. Poverty is a problem of low income related with productivity, Research Explorer 79 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 facilities are well and good. This village has only one Nutritional Meal Centre. Most of the children are benefited by it. Besides, only one fair price shop. 4. To suggest measures to alleviating poverty in the village. Nature and Sources of Date The value of any research is closely related to the methods used in the study. Primary data are collected by direct personnel interview with the help of an interview schedule. The secondary data are collected from the village administrative officer, panchayat office and published books. For our convenience 30 households have been taken for our analysis (2012 -2013). Methodology The following methodology is adopted in this study. This study is a case study of incidence of poverty. Gini concentration ratio was computed. The Gini concentration ratio is 0.23. This confirms that the income inequality among the four groups of households is very less. On the whole, the data suggest that the income distribution among the four groups of households does not show wider variations. For assessing the expenditure, saving we have used percentage, Gini Ratio and Head Count Ratio. Importance of the Study This study helps us to understand the incidence of poverty among Shanmugapuram village, Tiruchendur taluk, Thoothukudi district. Moreover this study explains the sources of income and pattern of expenditure of these poor people. Also this study helps us indentify their overall economic status and financial position. Finally this study helps us identify the government measures already taken up for their betterment. Profile of the study area Shanmugapuram is my study area which belongs to Tiruchendur Taluk of Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu. The total geographical area of thi s vi ll ag e is 3 square kil o me tre. Sh an mu gapu ram vil lage is a part of Vi rapandianpatn am rural Panchayat. Shanmugapuram is a small village. The total number of population is 740. Out of them 430 are males and 310 are females. The total number of households is 280. Here the average size of the household is about 3 person which is very small. This village is electrified sufficiency. This village has seven long streets. In this village there are 29 tube lights and only one sodium light in the street. This village has two television rooms provided by the panchayat. This village has only one primary school. In this village there are 67 students out of them 33 are boys and 34 are girls. This village has two wells of drinking water, seven hand pumps and two water tanks. Here transport Research Explorer The table – 4 clearly explains that 60 per cent of the household living above poverty line. Remaining 40 per cent of the household living under below poverty line. The person below poverty line is measured using Head count Ratio. 80 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Some households save LIC and few are saving with Post Office and Bank. H= q/n where, H= Head count Ratio, q= number of people below poverty line, n = the size of population. Regarding debts whenever they need money to meet the expenditure for the marriage of the female children, they borrow mainly from money lender and banks. No one has debt with their friends and relatives. H= 12/30 =0.4 (So, 40 percent of the people living under below poverty line). Summary of Findings and Suggestion From the survey it is understood that the following are the important factor responsible for poverty among the households. The low level of living, illiteracy, low level of asset holding, seasonal employment, low per capita expenditure these are the factors are affected in this survey village. The findings and suggestions are presented the following paragraph. Household articles consist of items such as radio, television, cycle, two wheelers and others. Majority of the households possess cycle, television and radio. The level of poverty assessed that 40 per cent of the households are live in below poverty line. Most of the people are benefited by the poverty alleviation programmes such as Indra Awaz Yojana (IAY) Andhyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and 80 per cent of the households are benefited by the Self Help Groups (SHG). Majority of the household comes under back ward community (96 per cent). All the households in the study area are Hindus. Most of the households are having more than two ch il dren . Th e g overnmen t famil y pl an ni ng programme has not reached them. In the group fifteen to thirty there are sixty seven people which is more than 38 percentage of total population. The average of family size is 5.83. References 1. Awashi S.K., “Focus on Poverty”, Khadi Gramadyog, Vol.XXVI, No:4, January 1980. 2. Bhupat F.N. M.Desai and Namboodiri N.V., “Policy Strategy and Instruments for Poverty” Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXIII, No: 41, 10-16 October PP.2669. The most of the household comes under nuclear family (77 per cent). It is being observed that the joint family system is a way irrespective of poor economic conditions and low literacy level. 3. Joshi V.H., “Rural Poverty in Third World: A Realistic Perception”, Southern Economist, Vol.23, No: 1, May 1984, PP. 33-35. The survey has included housing pattern. The majority of the houses are thatched (93 per cent).This indicates that most of the families are having little better housing condition. 4. Sudip Kumar Mohapatra, “Poverty Alleviation: Anathema of the Indian Experience”, RBI Occasional Paper, Vol. 18, No. 2&3, JuneSeptember, 1997, PP.506. All the households are electrified. 80% per cent of the people have own houses. Majority 60 percent of the people have primary level education only. 20 per cent of the respondents are illiterate. The survey reveals that the average per capita consumption expenditure is low. However, the proportion of food expenditure (74 percent) to the total consumption expenditure and the marginal propensity to consume are very high among the households. Non consumption expenditure includes wedding, loan repayment, white washing, donation and others. 76.86 per cent of the expenditure is spent on loan repayment, 3.44 per cent on wedding, 16.26 per cent on white washing and 3.44 per cent on donation / gift. Research Explorer 81 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 ACTIVITY PARAMETERS OF THE SELECT PAPER MILLS IN TAMIL NADU P.Senthilkumar Assistant Professor, Commerce Wing, DDE, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002. ABSTRACT Paper is one of the significant discoveries that turned the history of the world around. Paper pervades all sectors of human activity from books to bullets and from morning newspaper to nuclear technology. From time immemorial, paper has played a key role in the evolution of civilization, and the importance of paper and paper products in modern life is so obvious that no other product possesses such diversity of use. The government of India regards the paper industry as one of the 35 high priority industries of the country. Under capacity utilization, higher costs of production and financial mismanagement are some of the reasons for inefficiency of the paper mills. In this context, the researcher has made an attempt to have an insight into the profitability of the paper mills in Tamil Nadu. The researcher has suggested suitable measures to improve the profitability position of the select paper mills. Key words: Activity ratios, paper industry, operational efficiency, etc. Introduction the paper industry is at the crossroads. A corporate firm must maintain sufficient cash flow to meet its current liabilities. If it fails to maintain adequate cash, it becomes a very serious financial condition even i f it g ene rate s go od profits. Witho ut maintaining sufficient cash, the firm cannot take an independent decision. In this situation, the fate of the firm will be decided by unpaid creditors or financial institution whose loan is in default. Hence the management loses its power; it leads to ban kruptcy o r fo rced reco nstructio n or an involuntary takeover. Finally, the owners have to lose their investment. Funds of owners and creditors are invested in various assets to generate sales and profits. The better the management of assets are, the larger the amount of sales. Evaluating the operating efficiency with which the firm manages and utilizes its assets indicates the speed with which assets are being converted or turned over into sales. A proper balance between sales and assets generally reflects that assets are managed well. Funds are invested in various assets in business to earn profits. Better the management of assets, the larger will be the sales and the profits. Financial ratios are useful indicators of a firm’s financial performance. Financial ratios can be used to analyze trends and compare the firm’s financials to those of similar firms. Activity ratios indicate how efficiently the firm utilizes its assets. They sometimes are referred to as efficiency ratios, asset utilization ratios, or asset management ratios. These ratios are also called ‘turnover ratios’, because they indicate the speed with which the assets are turned over into sales. Statement of the Problem India has been constrained due to high cost of production caused by inadequate availability and high cost of raw materials, power cost, etc. The sharp rise of prices created a paper crisis in the country. Since then, the paper industry has been engulfed in a crisis due to variety of reasons, led a sub-optimal use of installed capacity. The financial performance of the paper mills has been highly unsatisfactory despite numerous facilities and fiscal concessions being provided to them. As on today, Research Explorer Under capacity utilization, higher costs of production and financial mismanagement are some of the reasons for inefficiency. In particular, paper manufacturing plants have been hit hard by the 82 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Findings sharp increase of fuel prices. The steep increase in fuel oil cost has greatly affected the operation cost of the paper mills. The following questions are probed by the researcher to take up this study: Does the corporate firm have adequate cash to pay its short term liabilities and also adequate capital to meet its long term liabilities? Does the corporate firm have appropriate use of its total assets to increase sales? And does the corporate firm have earned sufficient profit to provide dividend to their shareholders? In this context, the researcher has made an attempt to have an insight into the activity parameters of the paper mills in Tamil Nadu. 1. A significant difference is found in the stock turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The stock turnover ratio of SPB is satisfactory when co mpared w ith TNPL. There ex ists a consistency in the stock turnover ratio in TNPL. SPB has the highest annual growth rate (1.82) followed by TNPL (1.15) over the study period. The linear annual and compound annual growth rates of TNPL are 1.31 and 1.32 respectively. The SPB has registered negative linear annual and compound annual growth rates. Objectives of the Study 2. A significant difference is found in the debtors turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The debtors turnover ratio of SPB is satisfactory wh en compare d wi th TNPL. Th ere is a steadiness in the debtors turnover ratio in SPB over the study period. TNPL has registered the highest annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates at 3.54, 3.33 and 3.31 respectively. The annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates of SPB are 2.05, 2.73 and 2.64 respectively. The following are the broad objectives of the study: 1. To study the origin and growth of the paper industry in India in general and Tamil Nadu in particular 2. To examine the activity parameters of the paper mills in Tamil Nadu 3. To suggest suitable measures to improve the efficiency of the paper mills in Tamil Nadu 3. There is a significant difference in the creditors turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The creditors turnover ratio of TNPL shows its efficiency in payable management. There exists a consistency in the creditors turnover ratio of SPB. It has also registered the highest annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates at 19.11, 2.57 and 4.62 respectively. Whereas TNPL has registered negative linear annual and compound annual growth rates during the study period. Testing of Hypothesis The study is based on the formulation of the following null hypothesis. Ho: There is no significant difference in the activity ratios between the select paper mills in Tamil Nadu. Methodology The study is analytical in nature with a focus on assessing the activity parameters of the paper mills. As on 31.03.2011, there are 8 paper mills in operation in Tamil Nadu, of which there are only two large-scale paper mills, namely, the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited, and Seshasayee Paper and Boards Limited. The two large-scale paper mills only were selected for the present study. The study is mainly based on secondary data. The secondary data were extracted from the published annual reports of the select paper mills for a period of ten years. These reports are the financial statements, books of accounts, minutes, audit reports, annual reports, and circulars. The data have been analyzed with the help of different accounting and statistical techniques such as ratios, student t test, co-efficient of variation and growth rates. Research Explorer 4. No significant difference is found in the working capital turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The working capital turnover ratio of the SPB is satisfactory during the study period. There is stability in the working capital turnover ratio of the SPB. TNPL has registered highest annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates at 11.86, 3.00 and 2.25 respectively. On the other hand, SPB has registered negative annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates during the study period. 5. There is a significant difference in the cash turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The average cash tu rno ve r rati o of TNPL is 83 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 satisfactory and it shows its efficiency in cash management. There exists a consistency in the cash turno ve r ratio o f TNPL. TNPL h as registered the highest annual, liner average and compound annual growth rates at 33.56, 13.29 and 15.61 respectively. The annual, liner annual and compound annual growth rates of SPB are 23.82, 2.81 and 0.70 respectively. 10. No significant difference is found in the capital turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The average capital turnover ratio of SPB is found to be satisfactory when compared with TNPL. There is a consistency in the capital turnover ratio of SPB during the study period. Both TNPL and SPB have registered negative annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates. 6. A significant difference is found in the average collection period between TNPL and SPB. The average collection period of SPB reveals its efficiency in receivable management. The variation in the average collection period is found to be high in TNPL (20.63% ) followed by SPB (14.18% ). There exists a consistency in the average collection period of SPB. The annual growth rate of TNPL is high (1.38) followed by SPB (0.33). In case of linear annual and compound annual growth rates both TNPL and SPB register negative growth rates. 11. Debtors turnover ratio at 1% level and working capital turno ver ratio at 5% l eve l have significant correlation coefficients with stock turnover ratio in TNPL. Debtors turnover ratio with working capital turnover ratio, and total assets turnover ratio with fixed assets turnover ratio have significant correlation at 1% level. Cash turnover ratio of TNPL has significant negative correlation with fixed assets turnover ratio at 5% level. Working capital turnover ratio and fixed assets turnover ratio have significant correlation coefficient with creditors turnover ratio at 5% level. There is a significant correlation between the creditors turnover ratio and total assets turnover ratio of TNPL at 1% significance. 7. There is no significant difference in the average payment period between TNPL and SPB. There is no vast difference found in the average payment period of the select paper mills. There exists steadiness in the average payment period of SPB. TNPL has registered the highest annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates at 98.85, 27.94 and 21.53 respectively. On the other hand, SPB has registered negative annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates at 5.66, 7.46 and 4.42 respectively. 12. The stock turnover ratio of SPB has significant correlation with cash turnover ratio at 5% level of significance. Debtors turnover ratio has significant correlation coefficients with working capital turnover ratio, cash turnover ratio and total assets turnover ratio at 5% level of significance. There is a significant correlation co-efficient between working capital turnover ratio and capital turnover ratio at 5% level of significance. Total assets turnover ratio has significant correlation coefficients with fixed assets turnover ratio and capital turnover ratio at 1% level of significance. A significant correlation co-efficient is found between the fixed assets turnover ratio and capital turnover ratio of SPB at 1% level of significance. 8. A significant difference is found in the total assets turnover ratio between TNPL and SPB. The average total assets turnover ratio is found to be unsatisfactory in the select paper mills and it reveals idle capacity of the total assets. There is consistency in the total assets turnover ratio in TNPL. Both TNPL and SPB have registered negative annual, linear annual and compound annual growth rates of total assets turnover ratio. Suggestions 9. There is a significant difference in the fixed assets turnover ratios between TNPL and SPB. The mean fixed assets turnover ratio of SPB is satisfactory when compared with TNPL. There is consistency in the fixed assets turnover ratio in TNPL. Both TNPL and SPB have registered th e hi gh est an nu al, l in ear an nu al and compound annual growth rates during the study period. Research Explorer 1. Management of accounts payable is as much impo rtan t as man age me nt o f acco un ts receivable. The underlying objective in case of accou nts rece ivable is to maxi mize the acceleration of the collection process, the objective in case of accounts payable is to slow down the payment process. It is surprising to note that the mean of the average collection 84 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 period of SPB is 39.05days whereas it takes 117.99 days for payment to the creditors. It implies that SPB is delaying payment to creditors. It will affect the reputation of SPB. It is to suggest that SPB may take necessary efforts to pay the creditors in-time. ISSN:2250 - 1940 4. The inadequacy of working capital may bring the entire business operation to a grinding halt, since it is the inability of enterprises to pay the operatio nal expen di tu re . Reali zi ng the importance of efficient management of working capital, the select paper mills, particularly TNPL, can employ various control techniques of working capital, namely, budgetary control, establ ishi ng no rms fo r worki ng capital components and use of operating cycle. When the budgetary control technique is adopted, sales or production shall be the key factor. The budgetary standard is to be revised on a quarterly basis based on past performance and cu rren t marke t price. The te chni que of operatin g cy cl e can also be g iven due importance. Effective use of operating cycle eliminates to a largest extent, unnecessary blocking of funds in various current assets in the select paper mills. 2. The main objective of inventory management is to identify and achieve efficient production and avoi dance of production stoppages. The investment in inventory is influenced mainly by the production policies and the inventory costs. Since the stock turnover ratio of TNPL is not satisfactory, norms both for the consumption and stocking of raw materials should be framed and the limits should never be exceeded. Re ductio n of overstockin g o f in ven tory, especially bagassee, requires organizational, procedural and structural improvements. Organizationally, TNPL has to maintain an integrated and distinctive department for management of inventory and it can work in liaison with the finance department. As regards th e procedural i mpro ve me nts, the administrative delays and procurement lead time in purchasing materials have to be necessarily curtailed. To this end, a committee consisting of production manager, stores manager and financial manager has to be formed to purchase required raw materials. Conclusion An attempt has been made in this study to measure the activity position of the select paper mills. A significant difference is found in the stock turnover ratio, debtors turnover ratio, creditors turnover ratio, cash turnover ratio, average collection period and total assets turnover ratio between the select paper mills in Tamil Nadu. On the other hand, no significant relationship is found in the working capital turnover ratio, average payment period, fixed assets turnover ratio and capital turnover ratio between TNPL and SPB. There exists a consistency in the stock turnover ratio, cash turnover ratio, total assets turnover ratio and fixed assets turnover ratio of the TNPL over the years. Consistency is found to be high in the debtors turnover ratio, creditors turnover ratio, working capital turnover ratio, average collection period, average payment period and capital turnover ratio of the SPB during the study period. 3. The major goal of the cash management is to identify the shortages and surpluses of cash balances. Since the cash turnover ratio of SPB is not satisfactory, the widely used methods of controlling cash, such as periodical review and re po rtin g of cash avail abl e an d cash requirements, efforts for collection of receivables and staggering payments, daily review of cash balances, comparing the actual expenditure with budgets, and maintaining cash balances. By virtue of cash credit arrangements with commercial banks, SPB can rule out the possibility of surplus and deficit situations. Further, SPB can prepare the cash flow statemen ts separately for “capi tal” and “revenue” operations. Capital expenditure budgets can be prepared with reference to the delivery dates/installments due against purchase of fixed assets. Revenue expenditure budgets should be prepared with reference to the annual plan of operations. Research Explorer References   Alka Subramanian (1987). “Small is not Beautiful: A Study of Paper Industry”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.XXII, No.35, August.  85 Agarwal, J.D (1991). Goal Programming Model for Working Capital Management (Analysis & Cases), Jaipur: Research Development Association. Banerjee Bhabathosh (1979). “Working Capital and Turnover Rat ios and C ash Ma nagement”, The Management Accountant, January. July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2   Khetan, V.N (1979). “Shortage of Raw Material”, Commerce, Vol.139, No.3569, November.  Ma dhu Sehgal (1997). “ Paper Industry”, PNB Monthly Review, June 1.   Khan, A. Q and Mohammed Tufail Khan (1990). “Paper Industry: An Appraisal”, Yojana, Vol.34, No.11, June.    ISSN:2250 - 1940 Rao, K.V and Chinta Rao, N (1991). “Evaluating Efficiency of Working Capital Management: Are the Conventional Techniques Adequate”, Decision, Vol.18, No.2, April-June.  Parasuram (2004). “Working Capital Practices in Leading Pharmaceutical Companies: A View of the Credit Policy and Profitability”, The Management Accountant, Vol.39, No.12. Sankar, T.L and Sai, S.S.T (1990). “Private and Public Sector: A Comparative Study of their Financial Efficiency during 1986-87 and 198889”, Journal of Institute of Public Enterprises, Vol.13, No.4.  Paul Welter (1970). “How to Calculate Savings Possible through Reduction of Working Capital”, Finance Executive, October. Santanu Ghosh and Santi Gopal Maji (2004). “Working Capital Management Efficiency: A Study on the Indian Cement Industry”, The Management Accountant, Vol.37, No.5.  Sivaram Reddy, C and Mohan Reddy, P (1989). “I ndian Paper I ndustry: Proble ms and Prospects”, Indian Journal Marketing, Vol.XIX, Nos. 6 &7, February-March. Pesendorfer Martin (2003). “Horizontal Mergers in the Paper Industry”, Journal of Economics, Vol.34, No.3. Sukamal Datta (1995). “Working Capital Management through Financial Statements: Analysis of Paper Industry in West Bengal”, The Management Accountant, November. Pushpalatha, M.M (1986). “Performance of Paper Industry: A Micro Level Study of Bhadrachalam Paper Board”, SEDME, Vol.XII, No.3. VIDYAA VIKAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHENGODE – 637 214. DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES & INDIAN ACADEMIC RESEARCHERS ASSOCIATION (Unit of SELP TRUST) Sponsored A NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIAN ARENA on 29.09.2012 The main objective of the conference is to instill the ideas of the participants about the opportunities and challenges of Contemporary management practices in Indian arena by focusing on the key areas like Marketing, Finance, Human Resource Management and Information Technology, etc. Academicians, Research Scholars, Students and interested corporate persons may sent the paper to the conference convener. Papers should be 5-8 pages in 1.5 line space in 12pt Times New Romen with 150-200 words abstract and 4-6 key words. Selected papers may be published in the special volume of SELP JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE (ISSN : 0975-9999) and International Journal on RESERACH EXPLORER (ISSN : 2250-1940). Research Explorer Important Date Last Date for Abstract : 27.08.2012 Last Date for Full Paper : 08.09.2012 Registration Fee Author : Rs. 750/Co-Author : Rs.500/(Only one Co-Author is permitted per paper) Conference Convener Dr. T. Subramanian Professor, Department of Management Studies Vi dy aa Vikas Col leg e of Eng in ee ri ng & Technology, Tiruchengode – 637 214. Namakkal (DT), Tamilnadu. Mob. No. 9789700391, 8012433601 Email id: occm2k12@gmail.com 86 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 CUSTOMER ACQUISITION FOR ONLINE SHOPS Rev.Fr.Dr.D.Maria Antony Raj SDB Vice-Principal & Controller of Examinations Sacred Heart College (Autonomous) Tirupattur – 635601 ABSTRACT Online shops are grooming day by day with the help of fast paced technology. This has led to innovations in acquiring the customers too. This study aims at perceptions of the consumers on online shopping and their behavior towards it. The study was conducted with the customers of online stores. The customers were tested for their significance level based on various opinions. The study found that there is no significance between the friends’ motivation and recommending the shops. The study used chi-square and correlation to explain the findings. Keywords: online shops, prospects, service, e-shop, internet, website, web store. Introduction on Consumer Mobile Buying Behaviour. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, An influential factor in consumer attitude towards non-store shopping is exposure to technology, since it has been demonstrated that increased exposure to technology increases the probability of developing favorable attitudes towards new shopping channels. Online shopping is the process where by consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller in real-time, without an intermediary service, over the  Internet. It is a form of electronic commerce. An online shop, e-shop, e-store, internet shop, web shop, web store, online store, or virtual store evokes th e ph ysical an al og y of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or in a shopping center. The process is calle d Busi ness-to-Consume r ( B2C) o nli ne shopping. When a business buys from another business it is called Business-to-Business (B2B) online shopping (E Shops, 2012). Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly, or do a search across many different vendors using a shopping search engine. Once a particular product has been found on the web site of the seller, most online retailers use shopping cart software to allow the consumer to accumulate multiple items and to adjust quantities, by analogy with filling a physical shopping cart or basket in a conventional store. A checkout process follows in which payment and delivery information is collected, if necessary. In recent years, online shopping has become popular; however, it still caters to the middle and upper class. In order to shop online, one must be able to have access to a computer, a bank account and a debit card. Shopping has evolved with the growth of technology. According to research found in the Journal of Electronic Commerce, if one focuses on the demographic characteristics of the in-home shopper, in general, the higher the level of education, income, and occupation of the head of the household, the more favorable the perception of non-store shopping (Patel). The Impact of Internet User Shopping Patterns and Demographics Research Explorer Online shoppers commonly use credit card to make payments, however some systems enable users to create accounts and pay by alternative means, such as: Billing to mobile phones and landlines, Cash on delivery (C.O.D., offered by very few online stores), Cheque, Debit card, Direct debit in some countries, Electronic money of various types, Gift cards, Postal money order & Wire transfer/delivery on payment. 87 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Chi – Square Test Value Some sites will not accept international credit cards, some require both the purchaser’s billing address and shipping address to be in the same country in which site does its business, and still other sites allow customers from anywhere to send gifts anywhere. The financial part of a transaction might be processed in real time. Level of Significance Table Value Calculated Value 5% 16 26.3 18.695 Hence the null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant relationship between the quality of online shopping and recommend our service to friends. Once a payment has been accepted the goods or services can be delivered in the following ways: Downloading, Drop shipping, In-store pickup, Printing out, Shipping, Will call, COBO (in Care Of Box Office), or “at the door” pickup H02: There is no significant relationship between the utility of online shopping and buy products through online shopping. H12: There is significant relationship between the utility of online shopping and buy products through online shopping. Objectives of The Study  To identify the online shopping problem and prospects. Level of Table Calculated Freedom Value Value 5%  To assess the level of satisfaction of consumers in using the online shopping. Degrees Significance  To assess the level of consumer preference towards online shopping. 9 16.9 14.32 Hence the null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant relationship between the utility of the online shopping and buy products through online shopping.  To know about the problems faced by consumers through online shopping. Research Methodology Correlation Analysis The primary data is collected from the various Respondents using Questionnaire, Direct Interview methods, Telephonic Interview and Through E-mail. The secondary data was Web sources, Journals and magazines. The sample size was 75 consumers those who purchased online. The analysis part included percentage analysis, chi square and correlation. To compare the relationship between the Utility of the online shopping and Buy products through online average Utility of the online shopping (x) The data was analysed by using the collected data from 57 male and 18 female respondents. The respondents were then classified as below 30 years, 31 to 40 years, 41-60 years and above 61 years. Majority of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years. 61% of the respondent had qualified under graduation and interestingly 3% of them were illiterate. 29 13 16 17 Buy products through online average(y) Data Analysis & Interpretation 21 13 18 23 r = 0.55 Hence the positive correlation between utility of the online shopping and buy products through online an average. Findings 76% of the respondents are male. 42% of the respondents belonged to 31-40 age category. 39% of the respondents’ educational qualification is only U.G. 48% of the respondents are business man. 41% of the respondents monthly income are Rs10, 001-20,000/- . 37% of the respondents’ residence in urban area. 39% of the respondents are using online shopping for save the time. 31% of the re spon de nts are to kn ow abo ut throu gh Hypothesis: H01 : There is no significant relationship between the quality of online shopping and recommend our service to friends. H11: There is significant relationship between the quality of online shopping and recommend their service to friends. Research Explorer Degrees Freedom 88 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 advertisement. 36% of the respondents are frequently access to the internet through home. 43% of the respondents are spending on online from 11 to 15 hours. 36% of the respondents are using internet since 6 to 10 years. 40% of the respondents are said access shopping websites is fairly important. 72% of the respondents are purchase or using online banking. The respondents are buy products through online once in two months. Majority of the respondents are using Debit card to settle the payment for online Shopping. 37% of respondents are agree about all time shopping accessibility the factors influencing online shopping decision. 33% of the respondents are agreeing about promotion and advertisement the factors influencing online shopping decision. 28% of the respondents are agreeing about variety of globally products the factors influencing online shopping decision. 43% of the respondents are disagree about website provide sufficient product in fo rmatio n an d ex planati on . 40% of the respondents are very likely about to recommend ISSN:2250 - 1940 Conclusion It can be noted that most of the consumers are dissatisfied by the service. Like; the company should maintain exact details of their company on website, to attract more consumers by showing more advertisements, to maintain more good relationship with the consumers, the company should resolve the problems of consumers to retain them in future as well, the company should understand about their competitors and their strategy, Finally; as soon as possible to solve the problem and prospects on on-line shopping in every field. The study concluded that the providing adequate services and various offers to attract more consumers to buy products through online shopping. Bibliography ND Vohra (2008)’Quantitative Technique in Management-Third Edition, TATA McGraw – Hill publishing company Ltd. New Delhi-PP-605-630 Richard L. Levin & David S. Rubin(2008)’ Statistics for management’(Seventh Edition 2008), NEW DELHI Panchsheel park ch.14, PP-110-017 service to friend. Recommendations S.C.Gupta and V.K Kapoor (2001)’Elements of Mathematical Statistics-Third Edition, NEW DELHI; Sultan Chand Publication, ch.13, PP.334350. The online sellers should focus on advertisement as wel l as maintain good relation be tween consumers. In the website, the company should show the exact details of the products instead of showing the attractive picture. Company has to focus on all levels of consumers. The company should try to achieve the market leadership by providing quality service to the consumers. The company should provide right service to right consumer at right time. The company should convince the consumers to serve the service from them without any doubt. From the research study, it has been found that the Consumers are very particular about the Service. tapan ku mar panda(2008) ’M arke ti ng Management-Seventh Edition, NEW DELHI-pp684-554 E Shops. (n.d.). Retrieved August 24, 2012, from Polaris Systems: http://www.polarisystems.com/ ?lang=en&p=eShops Patel, M. (n.d.). Better Understanding Of Online Sales. Retrieved 2012, from articlecity: http:// www.articlecity.com/articles/online_business/ article_6745.shtml SELP PUBLICATION SELP Trust established the publication division in the name of SELP Publication devoted to education and research with the ISBN and published 20 educational books and propose to publish 50 books in a calendar year 2012.So, if you have a proposal or manuscript (Including edited volume) in your area of specialization, please contact or write to us. we are happy to publish your books with ISBN. Research Explorer 89 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 A STUDY OF THE IMPACT ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF SERVICE QUALITY OF INDIAN OVERSEAS BANK IN TIRUCHIRAPALLI Dr.E.Mubarak Ali Associate Professor Dept. of Commerce, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchi -21 Ms.K.Rajab Fathima Research Scholar, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore ABSTRACT Customer satisfaction has emerged as an important goal to be pursued by all the business units throughout the World. This has become an imperative need because of acute competition among the business firms. Each firm wants to make their customers to believe that the products or services offered by them to its customers are unique and different from ones of its competitors. Making the customers totally satisfied has thus become essential for business units including the commercial banks for their survival and growth. As the banks are providers of services, a study of their service quality of the latter in the promotion of customer satisfaction has become important to the banks to retain to its fold the existing customers and entice the newer ones. Key words: Customer satisfaction, banking services, information technology 2. To rank the levels of satisfaction obtained from three service quality dimensions employed in the study. Introduction Banking is the lifeline of the nation and its people. Banking has helped in developing the vital sectors of the economy and ushered in a new dawn of progress on the Indian horizon. In the initial stages, it was simply conventional functions which were in vogue: accepting of deposits, lending and offering other allied services like remittances, safe custody, travelers’ cheques, issue of guarantees and letters of credit for business purposes. In this era of mature and intense competitive pressures, it is imperative that banks maintain a loyal customer base. In order to achieve this and improve their market and profit positions, many banks are directing their strategies towards increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty through improved service quality. 3. To find out whether the bank employees have sufficient knowledge to help customers seeking information. Service Quality The dimensions of service quality propounded by Parasuraman and his colleagues relate generally to all types of service industries including banking, researchers on this subject in the banking industry have spelt out certain dimensions applicable specifically to banking industry. Manoj K.Trivedi and Shirish Mishra classified the types of services into two groups: high – tech, low-touch and lowtech, high touch. A no th er classificatio n speaks of the quality of banking services having two dimensions: Technical and Functional. Yet another set of functional dimension propounded in the context of banking industry is quantitative and non-quantitative quality of services. Whatever may be the jargon used by the writers on the measurement of service quality, the fact remains that the survey research instrument called Research objectives The objectives of the present study are to find out the relationship between service quality attributes and customer satisfaction in Indian Overseas Bank in Tiruchirapalli district. 1. To study the attitudinal behavior of employees towards their customers. Research Explorer 90 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 SERVQUAL developed by Parasuraman, Valerie, Zeithmal and Berry remains the source of various developments and ramifications in the literature of the measurement of service quality. An important advantage of the SERVQUAL instrument is that it has been proved valid and reliable across a large number of service contexts. It has been suggested that for some services the SERVQUAL instrument needs considerable adaptation and that items used to measure service quality should reflect the specific service setting under investigation, and that it is necessary in this regard to modify some of the items and add or delete items as required. 2.2 Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Industry Satisfaction with banking services is an area of growing interest to researchers and managers. The commercial banking industry like many other financial service industries is facing a rapidly changing market, new technologies, economic uncertainties and fierce competition along with an unprecedented set of challenges. This study investigates relationship dimensions and studies the perception of customers with respect to services provided by th e In dian Overse as Ban k in Tiruchirapalli. The service industries are mostly customer driven and their survival in competitive environment largely depends on quality of the service provided by them. In this context, quality of service furnished by banking sector is very important and profitability of their business is closely connected to the quality of service they render .Businesses seeking to improve profitability are, thus, advised to monitor and make improvements to their service quality on an ongoing basis. Technology plays a vital role in improving the quality of services provided by the business units. Without any doubt, service quality is gaining more importance in banking industry. Both the marketing and service management literatures suggest that there is strong theoretical underpinning among customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability. Hence, customer satisfaction is composed of a wide variety of dimensions. Thus, consumer satisfaction thus reveals the general evaluation of the actions carried out by a given business in relation to expectations accumulated after various contact between the consumer and business. If customers perceive that they are obtaining additional benefits from their relationship with establishment employees, their Research Explorer 91 ISSN:2250 - 1940 satisfaction level with the service provider will increase. Quality Instruments used for the Study The present work depends mostly on SERVQUAL instruments to assess the effect on the customer satisfaction of service quality at the Indian Overseas Bank at Tiruchirapalli District. As such the questionnaire has all the major items that come under each one of SERVQUAL dimensions. The number of questions administered on the respondents, besides the ones on their personal profile, accordingly, comes to 16 Hypotheses development The hypotheses designed for this paper is based on the following assumptions: H1: There is a positive association between Convenience and customer satisfaction. H2: There is a positive association between Competence and customer satisfaction H3 : There is a positive association between Responsiveness and customer satisfaction Methodology An IOB branch at the metropolitan area of Tiruchy has been chosen for the purpose of study. A questionnaire was designed on the basis of the study of researchers such as who identified five dimensions of service quality: tangible, reliability, re spon si ve ne ss, assuran ce an d empath y. Parasuraman et al., indicates that service quality co nsists o f el even dime nsio ns: re li abil ity, competence, responsiveness, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, competence, tangibles, and u nderstandi ng of customer. Reliability is considered as essential dimension of service quality. Stafford (1996), focused on customer services on seven dimensions, such as relationships, bank atmosphere, rates and charges, ATM, available and convenient services, facilities of bank counter (tellers), and honesty/reliability of bank personnel. Descriptive statistics for each study constructs It is seen from the Table Competence ranges from 1 to 5 with the Mean of 2.02, and the Standard Deviation of 0.34. Convenience ranges from 1 to 5 and the Mean and Standard Deviation is 4.59 and 1.09, respectively. For Responsiveness, Mean and standard Deviation is 3.12 and 0.32 respectively July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 null hypothesis is accepted and concluded that the re is large po sitive co rrelation betw een convenience and customer satisfaction. with the minimum and maximum value ranges from 1 to 4. It has been observed in the Table that almost all the Mean are similar. High standard deviation indicates that the data is wide spread, which means that customer give a variety of opinion, whereas, low standard deviation means that they express close opinion. Hypothesis 3: Responsiveness According to the Table 3, the strongest predictor of customer satisfaction is responsiveness. The re su lt i ndicates th at the correl atio n (r) of responsiveness is 0. 765 and p-value is 0.000, which is less than 0.01. Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted and concluded that there is strong positive correlation between responsiveness and customer. Table 1. Background of respondents Profile Gender Respondents Percentage Male 50% Female 50% Age Between 30-45 46% Below 30 32% Between 45-60 19% Above 60 years 03% Occupation Employee in Private sector 43% Self employed 23% Employee in Quasi. Govt. enterprise 13% Others 13% Government employee 08% Qualification Collegiate Education 61% School Education 32% Professional/ Technical degree 06% Others 01% Hypotheses test Summary of the null hypotheses test H1 There is a positive association between convenience and customer satisfaction H2 There is a positive association between Competence and customer satisfaction. H3 There is a positive association between responsiveness and customer satisfaction Accepted Accepted Conclusion The above discussion indicates that customer satisfaction vary according to the nature of service. In this case, the highest customer satisfaction is demonstrated in the responsiveness area such as willingness to help customer, friendly attitude of staff, followed by the reliability area such as customer guidance, customer support. On the other hand, the moderate satisfactions are in the convenience factor such as banks business timing and return on investment. Due to the wide variation of the responses the banks need to consider the weak areas in order to meet customer requirements. A correlation coefficient is a statistical tool used to summaries the relationship between two variables with a single number that falls between 1.00 and +1.00 (Welkowitz et al., 2006). Morgan et al. (2004) stated that: -1.0 indicates perfect negative correlation, 0.0 indicate no correlation, and + 1.00 shows perfect positive correlation. The Pearson correlation analysis obtained from the five intervals scaled variables in the Table 3. The sample size (N) is 276 and the significant level is 0.01 (pd”0.01). References 1. Apte Govind , Service Marketing : Oxford University Press 2. Avkiran, N.K.(1999), “Quality customer service demands human contact”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 17,2,61-71. Hypothesis 1: Competence In the Table 3, it can be seen that the correlation (r) of competence is 0.245 and the significant level is 0.01. It can be seen from Table 3 that the pvalue is 0.000, which is less than 0.01. Therefore, we accept the null hypothesis, and concluded that th ere is moderate but positive ( r = 0.245) relationship between competence and customer satisfaction. 3. Berry, L.L (1981) ‘The employees as a customer’, Journal of Retail Banking, Vol-3 No-1, pp-33-40 4. Bolton, R.N.and Drew, J.H.(1991),”A longitudinal analysis of the impact of service changes on customer attitudes”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.55, pp.1-9. 5. Clement Sudhahar .J and M.Selvam, “Service Quality Scale Development in Indian Retail Banking Sector: An Empirical Investigation”, 2007 , Journal of Applied Sciences. 6. Kasper, H Van Helsdingen P and de Vries Jr W (1999) ‘ Service Marketing Management’ Wiley, Chichester Hypothesis 2: Convenience 7. Khader, S A (1997), “Total Quality Management and Beyond, Management and Productivity Enhancement-New Approaches”, Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo, pp. 30-72. The Table 3 shows that the correlation (r) is 0.343 for reliability and the p-value is 0.000, which is less than the significant level 0.01. Hence, the Research Explorer Accepted 92 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 EFFICIENCY OF WORKING CAPITAL AND CORPORATE PROFITABILITY Dr.C.Rajendran Assistant Professor, PG & Research Department of Commence Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem-7, Tamil Nadu ABSTRACT Efficient management of working capital is, thus, an important indicator of sound health of an organization which requires reduction of unnecessary blocking of capital in order to bring down the cost of financing. It is therefore felt that there is a need to study the role of working capital in profit generating process. If a company desires to take a greater risk for bigger profits, it reduces the size of its working capital in relation to its sales. key words : working capital, liquidity , profitability, profitable venture Introduction Methodology Firms are expected to maintain a balance between liquidity and profitability while conducting its day to day operations. Liquidity is a qualification to ensure that firms are able to meet its short-term commitment and its continued flow can be gu arantee d fro m a pro fitable ve ntu re . Th e importance of working capital as an indicator of continuing financial health should not be surprising in view of its crucial role within the business. This requires that business must be run both efficiently and profitably. On the other hand, too much focus on liquidity will be at the expense of profitability .Thus, the manager of a business entity is in a dilemma of achieving desired trade off between liquidity and profitability in order to maximize the value of a firm. In this perspective this article is devoted to analyse the impact of working capital on profitability of the two leading private sector cement companies in Tamil Nadu viz., India Cements Ltd.,(ICL) and Madras Cements Ltd.,(MCL) during the period from 1996/97 to 2010/11. As such, the objective of this study is to identify the relationship between working capital variables and profitability by using regression. The working capital variables explaining the variations in profitability are selected on the basis of the existing theories and relevant empirical works. Research Explorer The methodology adopted in the present study regarding selection of sample, period of study, data sources, analysis and interpretation of data has been presented below. Selection of samples There are 33 major cement companies in India. Of these 22 cement companies have their plants in South India and among them two leading cement companies have their origin in Tamil Nadu. They are India Cements Ltd. and Madras Cements Ltd. The data related to these two companies have been collected for the study on the impact of working capital on Profitability. Period of study The present study covers a period of 15 years from 1996/97 to 2010/11 in order to analyse the impact of working capital on profitability of the two selected companies. There is no significant reason in selecting period except the availability of data consistently. Data source The study is mainly based on secondary data. The data related to the working capital and profitability of the selected cement companies have been obtained from CMIE (Centre for Monitoring 93 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 Indian Economy), Mumbai, India for the period from 1996/97 to 2010/11. ISSN:2250 - 1940 capital turnover ratio. ii) Profitability is a decreasing function of liquidity ratios such as current ratio and liquid ratio. Data analysis The impact of working capital on profitability of the selected cement companies have been analyzed by using regression. In order to estimate the degree and extent of inter - relationship between a dependent variable and the number of independent variables, the multiple linear regression equation has been used as under iii) Profitability increases with increase in inventory turnover ratio and debtors’ turnover ratio. Profitability functions: Regarding the questions cited earlier, an attempt is made to answer by using the multiple regression frameworks. The profitability function is estimated on the basis of the ordinary least square method as shown below y= a+b1 x1+b2 x2+b3+bnxn Where y = dependent variable x = independent variable P= f (GWCTR/NWCTR, CR, LR, ITR, DTR) a = regression constant Where P = profitability measures in terms of ROCE and ROTA b = regression co efficient value ROCE = Return on capital employed The regression co efficient and the overall variances are tested respectively by computing values and F-ratios. The goodness of the fit of the estimated equation is worked out with the help of R square. The regression functi ons for the determinants of working capital are estimated for both ICL and MCL individually. The regression coefficient has been tested for their significance at 1 per cent, 5 per cent and 10 per cent levels respectively. ROTA = Return on total assets GWCTR= Gross working capital turnover ratio NWCTR=Net working capital turnover ratio CR = Current ratio LR = Liquid ratio ITR = Inventory turnover ratio DTR = Debtors turnover ratio Specification of variables The higher the ratio, the greater the efficiency of funds employed in Debtors and consequently less investment in debtors is needed. The higher the ratio, is the higher the WCTR and vice versa. a) The co-efficient of WCTR is expected to be positive. It implies that the Increase in WCTR would tend to increase the profitability. Empirical Analysis b) As per the accepted theory as well as the previous studies, the co-efficient of liquidity measured in terms of current ratio and liquid ratio should be negatively related to profitability. It indicates that the increase in liquidity ratio would tend to decrease the profitability. To analyse the impact of working capital on profitability of the two leading cement companies in Tamil Nadu, the linear regression technique is used. Hypothesis c) The coefficient of inventory turnover ratio and debtors’ turnover ratio should be positively related to profitability. It means that the increase in inventory turnover ratio and debtors’ tu rn over ratio w oul d le ad to in crease profitability. The following research questions are raised to frame the hypothesis. i) How does working capital turnover ratio affect profitability? ii) How do the liquidity ratios influence profitability? Results and discussion: iii) How do the inventory turnover ratio and debtors’ turnover ratio affect Profitability? The regression functions for profitability in each selected cement company are now estimated to determine the variables explaining variations in profitability in terms of ROCE and ROTA. Corresponding to the questions, the following hypotheses are formulated : i) Profitability is an increasing function of working Research Explorer 94 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 ROCE measure of profitability. Besides, it obtains neg ative coefficie nt wi th RO TA me asure of profitability in MCL, whereas it has a positive sign in ICL. Neither the positive coefficient, nor the negative coefficient of CR is statistically significant with profitability in both the firms. It implies that the current ratio does not influence the profitability of the firms under study. It does not confirm our hypothesis that current ratio and profitability has inverse relationship. The liquid ratio, a measure of liquidity, has insignificant negative relationship with profitability (ROCE and ROTA) in ICL, whereas it has insignificant positive relationship with profitability in MCL. It implies that the liquid ratio does not influence the profitability of the firms under study. It does not confirm our hypothesis that liquid ratio and profitability has inverse relationship. Profitability model-1 The profitability Model 1 has been constructed by using the variable viz., NWCTR, CR, LR, ITR and DTR as under: P = a + b1 NWCTR + b2 CR + b3LR + b4 ITR +b5 DTR – Model 1 P denotes profitability in terms of ROCE and ROTA The estimated regression results of the profitability Model 1 for the selected two cement companies during the period 1996/97 – 2010/11 are summarised in Table 1. Tabl e 1 Regr ession Function for Profitability-Model 1 (1996 / 97 to 2010 / 11 ) P = f (a+b1 NCWTR +b2 CR+b3 LR +b4 ITR +b5 DTR ) The co-efficient of DTR is positive and is statistically significant with ROTA in ICL only. It indicates that the increase in DTR increases the profitability (ROTA) in the case of ICL during the period of study. However, the positive co-efficient of DTR with ROCE in ICL and the negative coefficient of DTR with ROCE in MCL are not statistically significant. Besides, the positive coefficient of DTR with ROTA in MCL is not significant. It indicates that the DTR does not influence the ROCE in both cement companies during the period of study. Note: Figures in parenthesis are computed ‘t’ value. Significant level: * 1 percent * * 5 percent * * * 10 percent level. Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy(CMIE), Mumbai, India. To sum up, out of the five independent variables under the profitability Model 1, only one variable, i.e. ITR significantly increases the profitability (ROCE and ROTA) in the case of ICL and MCL during the period of study. Most of other variables, such as NWCTR, CR, LR do not influence the profitability of both the firms under study. The DTR increases the ROTA in ICL, whereas it does not influence the ROTA in MCL as well as the ROCE in both the firms under study. It is clear from this Table that the estimated regression function is found statistically good fit since the explanatory power of the equation measured by R2 and F value appears to be good. The value of R2 stood at 0.84 in ICL and 0.81 in MCL under ROCE, whereas it stood at 0.84 in ICL an d 0.86 i n MCL under ROTA me asure of profitability. Thus about 86 percent to 81 percent of variation in profitability is explained by the dependent variable in that equation. Profitability model 2 Table 1 shows that the co efficient of NWCTR is found to be of positive sign in ICL and MCL. But the co efficient of this variable is insignificant in both the companies. It shows that any change in NWCTR does not affect the profitability of the companies. It does not confirm our hypothesis that profitability increases with WCTR. The current ratio, a traditional measure of liquidity, has an unexpected positive coefficient in ICL and MCL with Research Explorer The Profitability Model 2 has been turned by using five variables namely viz., Gross working capital turnover ratio (GWCTR), current ratio(CR), liquidity ratio (LR), inventory turnover ratio (ITR) and debtors turnover ratio (DTR) as under: P = a + b1 GWCTR + b2 CR + b3 LR + b4 ITR + b5 DTR àModel 2 Th e esti mate d re gressio n re su lts of the profitability model 2 for the selected current 95 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 companies during the period 1996/97 –2010/11 are presented in Table 2 Tabl e 2 Regr ession Function For Profitability-Model 2 (1996 / 97 to 2010 / 11 ) P = f (a+b1 GWTR +b2 CR+b3 LR +b4 ITR +b5 DTR) Note: Figures in parenthesis are computed ‘t’ value. Significant level: * 1 percent * * 5 percent * * * 10 percent level. Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy(CMIE), Mumbai, India. It is clear from Table 2 that the estimated regression function is found statistically good fit since the explanatory power of the equation measured by R2 and F value appears to be good. The value of R2 stood at 0.84 in ICL and 0.83 in MCL under ROCE, whereas it stood at 0.83 in ICL an d 0.87 i n MCL under ROTA me asure of profitability. Thus about 87 percent to 83 percent of variation in profitability is explained by the independent variables in that equation. It is evident from Table 2 that the regression co-efficient of GWCTR is positive but insignificant with ROCE as well as with ROTA in ICL. It is negative but insignificant with ROCE as well as with ROTA in the case of MCL. It implies that the GWCTR did not influence the profitability (ROCE and ROTA) in both the cement companies under the study. Hence, the hypothesis that the profitability is an increasing function of GWCTR has not been proved. The co-efficient of CR is positive (contrary to the theoretical expectation) with profitability (ROCE and ROTA) in the case of ICL, whereas in MCL, it is positive with ROCE and negative with ROTA. The negative co-efficient of GWCTR with ROTA in MCL and the positive coefficient of GWCTR with ROCE in M CL as we ll as i n ICL are stati stical ly insignificant. It means that the CR did not influence the profitability in those cases. However, the significant positive relationship with ROTA in ICL implies that the increase in CR, increases the ROTA Research Explorer 96 ISSN:2250 - 1940 which is against the theoretical expectation. Hence, the hypothesis that profitability is a decreasing function of CR is not proved. The co-efficient of LR is negative (expected) with ROCE as well as with ROTA in the case of ICL. On the other hand, the coefficient of LR is positive (unexpected) with ROCE as well as with ROTA in the case of MCL. Neither the negative coefficient nor the positive coefficient of LR with profitability is sig ni fi cant. H en ce , th e hypothe si s th at profitability is a decreasing function of LR is not proved. The coefficient of ITR is positive (expected) as well as significant with profitability (ROCE and ROTA) in both the cement companies under the study. It indicates that the increase or decrease in ITR will significantly affect th profitabili of the firms. Hence, the hypothesis that the profitability is an increasing function of ITR has been tested and proved. The coefficient of DTR is positive (expected) with profitability (ROCE and ROTA) in both the firms (ICL and MCL) but significant only in ICL with ROCE measure of profitability. It means that the DTR influenced only the ROCE in ICL, whereas it does not influence the profitability in all other cases under the study. To sum up, the variables such as GWCTR, LR and CR do not influence the profitability at all. Though the DTR influences the ROCE in the case of ICL it does not influence the profitability in other cases under the study. The only variable that influenced the profitability of both firms under the study is ITR. Conclusion: In this chapter, an attempt has been made to examine the impact of working capital ratios and liquidity ratios (NWCTR, CR, LR, ITR and DTR) on the profitability of (ROCE and ROTA) of the selected cement companies using the regression technique. ITR is found to be statistically significant in determining the profitability under ROTA and ROCE measure in both the firms under study. Besides Debtors Turnover Ratio is found to be the significant of profitability in ICL (ROCE and ROTA). Reference: 1. Bierman H et. al., (1975) “Ruin Considerations of Optimal working Capital Management” in management of working capital. PP 409 – 422. July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Bums, R and Walker, J. 199 1. “A Survey of Wo rking Capital Policy Amo ng Small Manufacturing Firms”, The Journal of Small Business Finance, 1 (1), pp.61-74 “Emerging Manufacturing Industry: A Financial Perspective”, Management Review, June, pp. 105-112 3. Carpenter M.D and K.H Johnson (1983), “The Association between working capital policy and operating Risk” The Financial Review 18 (3), PP 106 – 116. 11. Peel, M.J. Wilson, N. 1996. “Working capital and financial management practices in the small firm sector”, International Small Business journal 14(2), 52-68 2. 4. 5. 12. Peel, M. J. Wilson, N. and Howorth, C. A. 2000. “Late payment and Credit management in the small firm sector: Some Empirical Evidence”, International Small Business journal 18(2), 5268 Chittenden, F., Poutziouris, P., Michaelas, N. 1998. “Financial Management and Working Capital Practices in UK SMEs”, Manchester, Manchester Business School Deloof, D. 2003. “Does Working Capital Management affect Profitability of Belgian Firms”? Journal of Business Finance and Accounting” Vol 30 No 3 & 4 pp. 573 - 587 13. Saravanan. P.(2001) “ A Study of working Capital Manage me nt in Non Banking Finance Companies”, Finance India, Vol. XVNO.3 September, 2001 PP 987 – 994. 6. Ghosh SK and Maji SG (2003) “Working Capital Management Efficiency – A study to the Indian Cement Industry”, The Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India. 14. Shin, H.H and Soenen, L. 1998. “Efficiency of working capital and corporate profitability”, Financial Practice and Education, Vol 8 No 2, pp. 37-45 7. Grablowsky, B. J. 1984. “Financial Management of Inv entory”, Jou rn al of Smal l BusinessManagement,July, pp59-65 15. Smith, K. V. 1973. “State of the art of Working Capital Management” Financial Management, Autumn, pp. SO-55 8. Howorth, C. and Westhead, P. 2003. “The focus of working capital management in UK small firms”, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 14 No.2, pp. 94-111 9. 16. Teruel PJG and PM Solana (2007 ) “Effects of wo rking Capital Manag ement on SME profitability.” working papers series, Dept of organisation de economics Finanzas, Faculbad – de Economia Y Empresa, Universidad Murcia, Campus Espinardo,Spain. Johnson CG (1970) “Ratio Analysis and the prediction of firm failure; comment”. Journal of Finance 25 (5); 1166 – 1168. 10. Narasimhan, M. S. and Murty, L. S. 2001. Research Explorer 97 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Research Explorer ISSN : 2250 - 1940 Vol I : Issue. 2 July - December 2012 A STUDY ON AWARENESS OF CONSUMER RIGHTS AMONG THE COLLEGE STUDENTS IN ERODE TOWN Dr. V.Pasupathi, Dean, Commerce & Management studies, Maharaja College of Arts & Science, Perundurai -638052. Miss .M. Rosi , Assistant Professor, Mr. R.Senthil Kumar, Assistant Professor, Sri Kandhan College of Arts & Science, Erode - 638008. ABSTRACT This study covers most of the legal aspects of consumer protection which is kept as a course contents in almost all the schools and colleges, the researcher has undertaken this study to analyze how for the legal aspects of consumer protection Act 1986 are understood and utilized by the consumers to protect their interest. key words : Consumer rights, Consumer protection, food adulteration, Introduction Consumer is king of the market. Consumer must know about his rights, otherwise He will be exploited. In the 21th century, world has become a global village due to development of communication and information technology, development of new tools result in rapid increase of supply of consumer goods here seller wants to get maximum profit at minimum expenses of price. Objectives of Study To know about the socio economic status of the consumers. To study the level of awareness of public about consumer protection Act. Amongst the various types of cheating done with the consumer, food adulteration is the most dangerous which some times, leads to the death of hundreds of innocent people. The vast Indian market remain flooded with duplicates of all famous brands of product like numbers in battery, perfumes, shampoo, soap, pen , tea, coffee powder, oil, electrical items, power and others many times the advertisement deliberately give only a half truth so as to give a different impression than is the actual fact. th us adve rtisemen t are compo se d or purposefully presented in such a way as to mislead. Future genuine companies. Consumers and governments suffer huge losses due to fake products. To analyses the role of consumers forums in exercising their rights. To find out the problems of consumers in exercising their rights Statement of Problem Protect the interest of those consumers the government of India has enacted several laws and as an important land mark in the history of consumer protection in consumer protection Act 1986 was enacted. This Act facilitate better protection of the interest and for that purpose the Act makes provisions for the establishment of consumer council and consumer court and other authorities for the settlement of consumer dispute and for other matters connected there with. Importance of Study “Consumers! Discharge your Responsibilities: Assert your Rights” Research Explorer 98 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 Source of information and level of satisfaction with the functioning of consumer court Still the consumers are not free from their problems. The level of awareness differs from consumer to consumer. This raises the following questions. To what extend the consumers make use of the consumer councils? Do the really know about their rights? Do the really know about their duties? What factors i nflue nce awarene ss about consumer rights, duties and consumer councils? Since this study covers most of the legal aspects of consumer protection which is kept as a course contents in almost all the schools and colleges, the researcher has undertaken this study to analyze how for the legal aspects of consumer protection Act 1986 are understood and utilized by the consumers to protect their interest. Chi square Test Calculated c2 Value Degree of freedom = 6 Table value = 12.592 Significant level = Significant at 5% level It is observed above the table that the calculated value is of chi-square is lesser than the table value. Hence the null hypothesis is accepted and it is concluded that there is no significant relationship between source of information about consumer rights and the respondents aware the satisfied with the functioning of consumer court. Methodology For the purpose of the study 150 students from various colleges and around Erode Town are selected and data were collected using the questionnaire. For the purpose of selection of consumers convenient random sampling method is used in the study. For the purpose of obtained analysis, the following statistical tools are used in the study such as Percentage analysis ,Chi-Square analysis , ANOVA. Variance Analysis (H0): There is no significant different between the education qualification involvement factors. (H1): There is significant difference between the education qualification involvement factors. Table 1 Filing of complaints by the respondents Awareness = 10.099 Total no.of Educational Qualification Wise Analysis Of Variance Respondents Percentage Yes 98 65.33 No 52 34.67 Total 150 100 If the calculated value is less than the table value at 5% level. The F values is smaller then the critical value of F at 5% level. Hence we accepted the null hypothesis and conclude that there is significant difference between the education qualification involvements factors. Out of the total respondents, 65.33% of them have filing of complaints. But 34.67% they have not filing complaints. Majority of respondents answered that they have filed the complied with the consumer forum. Chi -Square Analysis (H0) : There is no significant relationship between source of information about consumer rights and the respondents aware the satisfied with the functioning of consumer court. Findings (H1) : There is significant relationship between source of information about consumer rights and the respondents aware the satisfied with the functioning of consumer court. Majority of respondents are Aware of the period a judgment has to be give by the court for the complaints. Research Explorer Majo ri ty o f re sponden ts are kno wn the information about consumer court through friend. 99 July - December 2012
  • Vol . I : Issue. 2 ISSN:2250 - 1940 procedure to approach the forum and get grievances redressed. Majority of respondent responded that they are highly satisfied with the functioning of consumer court. Conclusion Majority of respondents feels that the consumer must be educated to gain knowledge about consumer rights. Today generations are the tomorrow’s rulers. In th is reg ard go ve rn men t asso ci atio ns and consumers should come forward and try to improve the concept of consumerism. The consumer movement should be strengthened in our country so that the tendency to push up the prices could be curbed and the quality of product and services could be ensured. The consumers have to protect th emse lves throu gh po we rful con su me rs movement. As well as student must follow the consumer rights in day today life. At the same time should create awareness to the society, otherwise we can’t avoid the duplication of all famous brands, adulteration and malpractices. It lead the future strength of bright consumerism. Majority of respondents have recommended others to get into the consumer court for solving problems. Suggestions The government can choose they effective media especially TV for creating awareness among consumers about exercising and protecting their rights in a best way under various circumstances Consumer clubs can be formed in every educational institution and the students can be made to become the member of those clubs. The achievers the awareness of consumer rights can be conducted periodically in those clubs. Hence this message can be taken to the students family and social at large. References 1. Avatar Singh P :Law of Consumer Protection, Prin ci pl es and Practi ce s Eastern bo ok company., 1999. Su gg este d by the re spon de nts th at the consumer forums be started in all the village and consumer courts can be formed in Taluk level. So that the consumer disputes can be redressed fully. Moreover the consumers at the village are more exploited by their lack of awareness. 2. Gupta, C.B and Rajan Nair, N. Marketing Management New Delhi, Sultan chand & Sons., 1998. 3. Kothari. C.R” Research Methodology:, wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi 2 nd Edition 2002. The consumer protection councils functioning in Erode can take all possible efforts with the help of the Government and the media to make the people aware about important of consumer rights at least by verifying the bill, expiry data of their consumption, checking weights maintained etc., Also, they education the people about the 4. Consumer rights awareness and actions in small cities, Indian journal of marketing vol. XXI,Dec 1990. 5. Dr. Praveen S, Consumer Protection in India journal of marketing , May – june 2009. 6. Raghir Sigh, Consumer education – Need the Hour, Indian Management June-1989. Research Explorer 100 July - December 2012