C.PARAMASIVAN -CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SHG

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  • 1. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Available online at www.selptrust.org SELP Journal of Social Science ISSN : 0975-9999 Vol IV : Issue. 17 July - Septemper 2013 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SHG Dr.C.Paramasivan, Assistant Professor of Commerce Periyar EVR College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu ABSTRACT Empowerment of women in the third world countries is important because the benefits will be felt not only by the women themselves, but by their households as well. It may take a more enlightened approach to ensure the empowerment of women in developing countries, but the returns to their families and even the societies as a whole will be worth it. The conceptual development of the subject matter of research shall be arranged in a chronological order. This Paper highlighted the Conceptual framework which was earlerly undertaken by various researchers. Key words: Empowerment, welfare programme, social systems,SHG Introduction Empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared to be. It is now recognized that empower ment involves advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well-being of the empowered. The Benefits derived from the empowerment programmes must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be made to ensure that the target population is also able to retain the benefits. This is particularly significant for women. Empowerment becomes a popular word which dominates the overall growth and development of any developing society. Since Independence India has been changing in all fields including social systems but still a group of people still struggle to acquire equal rights in the society. All the so-called changes in the developing economy has not touched the major part of their lives as the social welfare programmes have not trickled down to certain parts of the society. It does not mean that the policy makers and the government have not drawn any welfare schemes but the schemes and programmes have not reached in whole for whom it was designed and hence it has lost its vigor and charm thus not bringing any benefits to the society for which it was planned and women sector is the most affected population of that society. SELP Journal of Social Science Murlidhar A. Lokhande (2009) said that, micro finance programme has a significant role to play in Indian economy for booting micro entrepreneurial activities for creating productive assets coupled with employment generation. So, in order to cover all the poor households, particularly BPL households, 28 July -September 2013
  • 2. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 there is need for providing full support by the government, financial institutions and NGOs to SHGs programme. So far the SHGs bank linkage programme has been much successful in achieving quantitative targets. The need of the hour is to make the programme more quantitative, that is, enriching the lives of poor est of the poor in the context of globalised socio – economic environment political interference in the functioning if self – help groups should be avoided. reported now and then. Hence, transforming the prevailing social discrimination against women must become the top priority in our policy and it must happen concurrently with increased direct action to rapidly improve the social and economic status of women is India. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh (2008) said that, the meeting at length discussed the role/ functions of federations in sustainability of SHGs, the future structure and legal status of the feder ations, how to ensur e the autonomous functioning of federation ; sour ces of financial sustainability of federations including founds required for capacity building and mana gement of federations; accountability, transparency; should federations be involved in financial intermediation; type of common grading system for federations; role of NGOs and collabor ating agencies and NGOs federations; relations with panchayat raj institutions (PRIs) at differ ent levels, Gover nment r ole and suppor t to the federations and institutional mechanism for evaluation of federations. Mohantry B.K. (2009) observed that, rural India is first emerging as a prospect for the bankers. This had become possible because banks have taken the extr a step in rediscovering their customers. They have stepped out from their narrow confines of their br a nches to natur e SH Gs, which ultimately give the feed back to the survival and growth of banking business. This is a good opportunity of the public sector banks to boost the SHG movement to enable the villages to absor b the benefits of globalization. Jitendra Ahirrao (2009) Explained that, the SGHs of rural women consists of members who are the poor, having low saving capacity and who depend on money lender s for meeting their consumption needs and social obligations. Formation of women into self help groups paved a way to develop their economic standards, thereby building self confidence. Women in SHGs have been encouraged by the government as well as NGOs to undertake self employment ventures with locally available resources. Tangirala.H.S.K. (2008) Explained that, for the purpose of economic development, the co-operatives have to form the SHGs with the help of t he member s, incr ease their competencies and capabilities. The support, advice and coaching is required from the cooper atives thr ough for mal or infor mal network, to the SHGs to get the business from all the local people. The activities might be deposit mobilization, recovery management is case of credit co-operatives, procurement and sale activities in case of manufacture – based co–operatives. However, even the related diversifications of the activities are justified, provided the needs of the members fulfilled and the ultimate goal of poverty Muthalagu.K. (2008) noted that, what my conclusion is that there is no doubt that status of women in India is developing over the per iod of time though ther e ar e many incidence of crimes against women have been SELP Journal of Social Science 29 July -September 2013
  • 3. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Shyedra.H.S. (2008) noted that, there is a massive mobilization of women taking place as a result of the SHG movement. The growth of SHGs incidentally has occurred during the economic r efor ms per iods. T he SHG movement has a good potential to serve both as a human face of the economic reforms as well as contr ibute towar ds women’s emancipation. There is a major onus on all actors involved in SHGs promotion and development to further intensity their efforts in enabling SHGs to reach a mature stage. We need a major investment in capacity building of SHGs and proactive policies to help overcome the constraints faced by SHGs to integrate them fully into the development pr ogr ammer aimed at women’s empowerment. alleviation take place. Amarjeet kour (2008) reveals that, it is deducted from the present research that the scheme of SHGs has not played a significant role in rural development in this particulars research area. However it is generalized that, effective, functioning and implementation of SHGs can lead to social change, mobilization and involvement of people and thus, to the over all development. This scheme in the pr esent r esear ch has pr oblem at the implementation level. There would be a different situation if the local people were pr oper ly motivated and inf or med and implement ed whole hear tely by the implementing agency. Ramachandran.T. and Balakrishnan.S (2008) noted that, SHGs have the power to create a socio – economic revolution in the rural areas of our country. SHGs have not only produced tangible assets and improved living conditions of the members. But also, helped in changing much of their social outlook and activities. In the study area SHGs have served the cause of women empowerment, social solidarity and socio – economic betterment of the poor. Khullar.K.K (2007) observed that, the greatest achievement of the mahila samakhaya is to create an awareness of the need to struggle for a gender just society where women can lead a life of dignity, for a gender just society where reliant India by 2010. It has increased women’s recognition and visibility both within the family and community. Pargunan.M. (2007) explained that, the strategies above would really empower women and bring them into the mainstream development. If employment, income and social security were improved, women would automatically stronger which will lead them to become powerful in contributing to social and economic development of India. Sivachithappa.K (2008) said that, A number of important results have emerged out of the study. These results are in contrast to the findings of a number of earlier studies. Some of the disagreements of this study with the earlier studies are: the income impact of the extr eme poor is lower, the poorest borrowers may tend to have lower levels of asset accumulation, borrowers taking more number of loans generate more income, larger organizations have larger out reach and formal schooling is an essential critical criterion for exerting better effect of SHGs on income generation. SELP Journal of Social Science Snehalata panda (2007) noted that, women members have played a key role in the gram sabha decision making in matters relating to use of forest, community land, irrigation, marketing of local products and construction of roads and design of work for the newly implemented employment guarantee etc., 30 July -September 2013
  • 4. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 Santosh gupta (2003) noted that, the personality of a celebrity plays an important part in a successful endorsement. The companies must have deep pockets to be able to afford the best available celebrities. Recently a report showed how co firms had gone beyond their advertising budgets to get the best celebrities. But the company should see whether it suits their products & the sales results. have saved them from social and economic empowerment. Self help groups have saved them from social and economic exploitation and the additional income has provided them moral support to initiate new changes in the grassroots. Vijayanthi.K.N. noted that, “Women empowerment through self help groups a participatory approach” attempts to explain the process of women’s empowerment and find out the levels of a awareness creation, decision making self and gr oups empowerment among women from self help gr oups for med under compr ehensive communit y development p r ogr amme implemented in five slum areas of Chennai. Empowerment should give women freedom of choice, equal access to domestic and community resources, opportunities and powers, the programmes of NGOs improving income for providing new opportunities of skills tr a ining, additional employment providing credit and market facilities were the main areas of concern of SEWA. Suneetha. R (2007) said t hat, the empowerment of women become necessary as they ar e almost fifty percent of the population and are being discriminated at all fronts. Women play a vital role in the social and economic transformation of a country. Kala G.S. (2004) said that, “Economic empowerment of women through SHGs”, highlights mahalial thittam which is being implement in erode district since 01.05.1998 to promote self help groups over a project period of five years in rural areas the self help groups are not only engaged in saving internal lending activities b ut also function as important on health and nutrition. Literacy education, adoption of new agricultural practices farm and non farm sector economic activities and help to prepare women to take up leadership position. Till the end of may 2003, 4372 self help groups have been formed in rural areas and 159 self help groups in urban areas taking the total to 592 self help groups with membership of 85,530. Debotosh sinha (2008) s aid the, empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared to be. It is now recognized that empowerment involves an advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well being of the empower ed. Benefits der ived fr om the empowerment programmes must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be ensure that the target population is also able to retain the benefits this is particularly significant for women. Rangi and Siddhuy M.S and Harjit Singh (2002) have revealed that, women under indira mahila yojana have borrowed both from internal sources of self help group, and banks for productive and non productive. Purpose which have benefited directed and indirectly their economic empowerment self help gr ou ps have saved women fr om exploitative money lenders and land lords and SELP Journal of Social Science Tygai.D, Mitali chatterjee (2008) noted that, “there is a need is a need for improving the position of women and empowering them 31 July -September 2013
  • 5. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 with more opportunities, greater access to resources and equal participation with in decision making processes. Empowerment is to share power. The different stages are power over, power to, power with and power within. motivation and confidence, and more say in the family matters. Women should be willing to take additional effort for building a mind set which is suitable for their over all empowerment. Sundar raj.D, Venkata Ravi. R, Hema latha.H.M., (2008) said that, “Women and empowerment” empower ment of women means enhancing awareness of individual household and community level. This helps women to be mor e awar e of their constitutional, legal rights, opportunities. Available for them to make their lines better. Mor e impor tantly, the str ategy of empowerment also helps women to achieve comprehensive development. David Jarachar.P, Usha Nandhini .S and Shivachandran.M (2005) Noted that, though the SHG movement has made an impact on the lives of a number of individuals and communities, there are many pockets of societies which have not been involved in the movement. Micro financing is yet to reach the needy. An encouraging feature is that several commercial banks including ICICI have made a foray into this segment and are actively applying the Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques and SHG concept to achieve rural information. But one aspect stands ou t demanding our immediate attention and action-rural transformation needs to be done on a war footing. Ranjit karmakar and Bholanath ghose (2008) Expressed that, the “Role of women in the self help group” is self – help groups enhanced the quality of status of women as par ticipa nts, decision ma ker s and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic and social activities, involvement of women becomes essential. They encourage women to take active part in the socio – economic progress in the nation. Pankaj Naithani (2001) viewed that, micro financing has developed the self employment activities in rural areas over the last twenty year s. Micr o financing mea ns making provisions for smaller working capital loans to the self employment seeking poor. However, some strategic planners are fearing that micro financing drive may seek. Reallocation of anti-poverty programmes like basic health, education, infr astr uctur e development etc., are found to be suffering they may be true to some extent as target beneficiaries in most of the micro finance project are women. Ruby J.A. James Devassia and Abraham George ( 2009) said tha t, women empowerment aims enabling them to realize their identity, aims enabling them to realize their identity, potentiality and power in all spheres of their lives. It has mainly five dimensions viz., economics, political, social / cultur al, per sonal and familial. Each dimension is very important because the real empowerment of women is possible only when a woman has increased access to economic r esour ces, more strength and courage for entering into the power structure, more involvement through social / cultural relationships and participation, more selfSELP Journal of Social Science Stephen .J.K (2005) concluded, It is realized that NGO’s can play a decisive role as an effective delivery mechanism in rural development they have innate advantage to involve people and ensure their participation in the agencies and fellow NGO’s is added 32 July -September 2013
  • 6. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 advantage to them. The NGO’s are taking keen interest in providing micro financing poor women. The success of NGO’s in helping rural poor to organize SHG’s for cr edit deliver y in a way highlights the importance of NGO-SHG’s linkage for the betterment of the later. increased rate of divorce , as is evident from cases pending and cases ever increasing in family courts to the conditions and shape them in their favour. Monetar y empowerment alone will not make the women empowered. A total empowerment is required that is cognitive, behavioral and affective. There is a proverb that if six to nine is okay, then nine to six will be okay. It means that if family life is okay, work life is better both are related. Thus women empowerment is an unavoidable element, if family is to be empowered, the society is to be empowered people. Behavioral empowerment of women which will permit them to utilize their own unique potential to the point of excellence. Ashokan R.ponnar asu , kalavathi .M.S.(2 005) concluded, women empowerment depends upon the success of women development programmer in terms of women SHG’s. Many studies have shown that SHG’s contribute scientifically to the over all development of women.To understand the level of success of SHG’, this paper analyses the Inter-district variations of SHG’s through performance index. Results have shown that out of twenty-eight districts in Tamilnadu half them performed well. As far as Tamilnadu self help experiment has no far been successful in few pockets. Debotash sinha .R (2005) expressed that, empower ment of women for social development is a more complex process that it appeared be. It is now recognized the empowerment involves an advancement in several important and related spheres to ensur e the over all well-being of the empower ed. Benefits der ived fr om the empowerment programmer must not only be r elevant t o the needs of the intended beneficiaries, but efforts must be made to ensure that the target population is also able to r etain the benefits. Empowerment of women in the thir d wor ld countr ies is important because the benefits will be felt not only by the women themselves but by their households as well. It may take a more enlightened appr oach to ensur e the empower ment of women in developing countries, but the returns to their families and even the societies as a whole will be worth it. Khanka S.S. (2006) suggested, Different people have defined entrepreneur different the commonest definition of an entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages and takes the risk of running an enterprise. He arranges everything required to set up an enterprise (i.e) funds, lad people mat er ial and machiner y. T hey entr epr eneur r etain common character istics, Independence, motivation, optimistic, dynamic, innovating and risk-bearing ability.An entrepreneur differs from a manager on various counts. The farmer is owner where as the latter is a servant entrepreneur are rewarded with profit, which is highly uncertain. On the other hand, Manager gets salary as a reward for the ser vices r ender ed by him in the enterprise. Abdul raheem.A&Yasmeen sultana .H (2005) noted that, the unemployment problem prevalent in india sharply differs from that which prevails in the western Suseela menon .R (2003) said that, India is now facing a lot of family disputes and SELP Journal of Social Science 33 July -September 2013
  • 7. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 nations. There are a number of possible routes to the pr omotion of self employment promotion and strengthening of self help groups is one of them. So more and more self help groups should be encouraged in order to eradicate poverty through self employment and at the same time empower women which in turn lead to overall economic development. Amarjeet Kour (2008), Self Help Group (SHG) and Group Development, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.25. Arujn. Y. Pangannavar (2008), Self Help Groups and Poverty, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.12. Ashokan.R, Ponnarasu .S , Kalavathi.M.S, Inter District Variations in the Performance of self-help gr oups in Tamilnadu, cooperative perspective , vol.40_No.2 , JulySep: 2005. Lamaan s ami (2008) obser ved that micr ofina nce has been fou nd as the appropriate approach and effective tool for poverty alleviation and empowerment, which can be internalized into cooperative system through strategic and legal support, keeping in view long ter m sustaina bility of microfinance within cooperative functioning. David Jarachar. P , Usha Nandhini .S, and Shivachandran .M , Women Entrepreneurship leading of rural transformation , the ICFAI Journal of Entrepreneurship Development , Vol.2, Vol.1, March 2005. Conclusion Debotash sinha.R (2005), Women in Develop ment (Challenges and Achievements) , serials publications , New Delhi , 1st published 2005 , P. 3 to 19. It has encouraged many to form SHG’s and avail the benefit since the scheme provides finance to a SHG rather than to an individual borrower as earlier done under Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). Meghalaya as one of the average state in terms of resource base, population and socio economic infr astr uctur e is also experiencing similar type of upsurge in SHGbank linkage activities in recent years. The analysis of the linkage activities in the foregoing clearly brings some general issues which need to be addressed. Jitendra Ahittrao (2009), Rural Women Empower ment T hr ough Micr ofinance, Kurushetra, Feb 2006, Vol.57, No.4, P.23. Kala G.S. (2004), “Economic of Women Through Self Help Groups” Kisan Word Nov.2004, Vol.31, No.11, P.26. Khanka S.S , Entr epr eneur, entrepreneurial Development , S. Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nagar , New Delhi (2006). Acknowledgement Khullar K.K. (2007), Mahila Samakhya Empower ment of Women T hr ough Education, Kurushetra (A journal r ural development), March 207, Vol.55, P.9. The author is greatly thankful to UGC for financial assistance to conduct this research under the major research project scheme 2012-14. Lamaan sami (2008), “ Self help groups and rural development “ , the Indian Journal of Commer ce, Vol.61-No.4 , OctoberDecember 2008, P. 212 to 217. References. Abdul Raheem and yasmeen sultana .H (2007), Empowerment of women through Self help group : A view , Kisan world, Vol.34No.03 P. 48 to 52. SELP Journal of Social Science Mohantry.B.K. (2009), SHG movement an emerging social innovation of micr o 34 July -September 2013
  • 8. Vol . IV : Issue. 17 ISSN:0975-9999 financing in orssia, kurushetra, February 2009, Vol.57, No.4, P.19. marketing, Vol. XXXIII, No.6, June 2003, P.26. Mur lidhar.A.Lokhande (2009), Microfinance Initiatives in India, Kurushetra, Febuary 2009, Vol.57, No.4, P.16. Shyledra .H.S. (2008), Role of Self Help Gr oups, Yojana Januar y 2008 (Micr o finance) P.25. Muthalagu.K (2008), Indian women in Development Perspective, Kurushetra, Sep. 2008, Vol.56, No.11, P.18. Sivachithappa .K (2008), Success Story Poverty Alleviation T hrough Self-Help Groups, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, Vol.No.2, P.35. Narayana Reddy, V.Vijiyakumar .S and Nalini. B , Women Development (Challenges and achievements) ,serial publications , New Delhi , First Published 2-2005 – P.18. Snehalata Panda (2007), P olitical Empowerment of Tribal Women in Orissa, Kurushetra, March2007, ( A Journal Rural Development) Vol.55, No.5, P.29. Pankaj Naithani , “ NGO and Rural Development” , kurukshetra , April 2001, Vol.49_ No. 12 , P. 35-37. Stephen J.K, Selian .A, Role of NGO’s in micro financing through SHG’s , Indian Journal of marketing , Vol.No.8 , August 2005. Parguna .M.(2007), Political Empower ment of Women in I llusion, Kurushetra, March 2007, (A journal rural development) Vol.55, No.5, P .12. Sundar Raj. D, Venkata Ravi.R, Hema latha. H.M. “Women and Empowerment”, Women in Development (Challenges and Achievements) Serials Publications, P.45 to 59. Pati .A.P., “ Subsidised Micro financing and financial sustainability of SHG’s” , the Indian Journal of commerce , Vol.61-No.4 , Oct-Dec 2008, P.137 to149. Suneetha .R (2007) is DWCR Programme Empowering The Rural Women, Kurushetra ( A Journal Rural Development) March, 2007, Vol. 55, No.5, P.17. Raghuvansh Prasad Singh (2008), SHG Federations Should Play Proactive Role for the Economic Empower ment of Rur al Masses, Kurushetra, December 2008, Vol.57, No.2,P.11. Suseela Menon R. “Women empowerment through India tr aditional classical art forms”, Kisan world , Sep 2007 , Vol.34-No.09 P. 60 to 62. Ramachandran .T and Balakrishnan .S (2008) of Self Help Groups on Women’s Empowerment a Study in Kanyakumari District, Kurushetra, Dec. 2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.31. Tangirala .H.S.K.(2008) , SHG is a Tool of Economic Development of Co-operatives and its Members, Kurushetra, Dec.2008, Vol.57, No.2, P.22. Ruby . J.A., James Devassia and Abraham George ,Women empowerment : Meaning , Characteristics and Dimensions , Southern Economist , May1, 2009 , P. 41 & 42 Tyadi. D, Mitali Chetterjee, “Women in Development”, Women is Development (Challenges and Achievement), Narayana Reddy, V. Vijaya Kumar.S, Nalini B, Serials Publications P. 35 to 44. Santhosh Gupta (2003), Strategy for Empowerment of Women Indian Journal of SELP Journal of Social Science 35 July -September 2013