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  • 1. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 Asia Pacific Journal of Management and Entrepreneurship 3333333 Volume 2, Issue 2 April 2013 A Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, Bi-Annual, Open Access, Online Research Journal ISSN 2277-8098 33 333333 Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 234 | P a g e
  • 2. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 Contents Sr. Title & Name of the Author (s) No 1 Shaping and Developing Managerial Competencies as Strategic Goal of Corporate Type Enterprise Operation Khalidia Ksenofontova Page No 1-9 2 Entrepreneurial Behavior in the Context of Bangladesh: Lessons from A Few First Generation 10-30 Entrepreneurs Dr. Mohammad Tahlil Azim 3 “A Cross Sectional Study of the Awareness and Satisfaction Level of the People in the Rural & 31-54 Urban Areas of India & Bhutan in line with their Settlement Preferences in a Locality i.e. Urban or Rural” Shad Ahmad Khan, Wahengbam Jotin Singh, Kavita Sharma 4 Multiplying Entrepreneurs: Upholding Entrepreneurship Dr. G. Nagalingappa, Prof. Neetha K. 55-69 V. 5 The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Customer Service Quality: A Review of Service Sector Ms. Jikku Susan Kurian 70-91 6 A Study on Factors Affecting Employees’ Psychological Contract and its Impact on Employee Motivation in BHEL EDN, Bangalore Jensmon George, 92-106 7 A Comparative Study on Air Transport and Marine Transport in India M.Saravanan, Dr.M.Ashok Kumar 107-124 8 Financing of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise: Challenges and Strategies Dr. Biswadeep Mishra 125-138 9 An Analysis of Financial Performance in Power Industry in India Dr. (Mrs.) Asha Sharma 139-167 10 Non-Performing Assets of Foreign Banks in India Vivek Srivastava Dr.Sandeep K. Gupta 168-181 11 Understanding the role of Indian Business Schools in execution of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Subrata Chattopadhyay, Dr.Saumya Singh 182-197 12 Role of Internet in Sustainable Growth of Indian Tourism Industry Dr. Shalini Dubey, Priya Parihar 198-212 13 Celebrity Endorsement through TV Medium- A Study with reference to Virudhunagar District N.Muthukumar Dr.M.Jeyakumaran 213-233 14 Impact of Home Loan on Tax liability of Salaried Employees Dr. Y.G.Baligatti 234-248 Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 235 | P a g e
  • 3. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 15 Status of Dalit Entrepreneurs in India Dr. C. Paramasivan, P. Mari Selvam 249-262 16 “Sustainability & Corporate Brand Equity Through Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives” 263-279 Abdul Alim Khan, Dr. D. T. Manwani © Copyright 2012 Asia Pacific Journal of Management and Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) & Lebanon International Foudation (LIF) No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form without prior written permission of the editor. The views expressed in this publication are purely personal judgments of the authors and do not reflect the views of APJMER and LIF. Call for Papers Guidelines for Submission of Manuscript COVERING LETTER FOR SUBMISSION: DATED: _____________ THE EDITOR APJMER Subject: SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPT IN THE AREA OF__________________ DEAR SIR/MADAM Please find my submission of manuscript entitled__________________________________________’ for possible publication in your journals. I hereby affirm that the contents of this manuscript are original. Furthermore, it has neither been published elsewhere in any language fully or partly, nor is it under review for publication elsewhere. I affirm that all the author (s) have seen and agreed to the submitted version of the manuscript and their inclusion of name (s) as co-author (s). Also, if my/our manuscript is accepted, I/We agree to comply with the formalities as given on the website of the journal & you are free to publish our contribution in any of your journals. NAME OF CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Designation: Affiliation with full address,contact numbers & Pin Code: Residential address with Pin Code: Mobile Number (s): Landline Number (s): E-mail Address: Alternate E-mail Address: NOTES : a) The whole manuscript is required to be in ONE MS WORD FILE only (pdf. version is liable to be rejected without any consideration), which will start from the covering letter, inside the manuscript. b) The sender is required to mention the following in the SUBJECT COLUMN of the mail: New Manuscript for Review in the area of ______________ c) There is no need to give any text in the body of mail, except the cases where the author wishes to give any specific message w.r.t. to the manuscript. d) The total size of the file containing the manuscript is required to be below 500 KB. e) Abstract alone will not be considered for review, and the author is required to submit the complete Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 236 | P a g e
  • 4. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 manuscript in the first instance. f) The journal gives acknowledgment w.r.t. the receipt of every email and in case of non-receipt of acknowledgment from the journal, w.r.t. the submission of manuscript, within two days of submission, the corresponding author is required to demand for the same by sending separate mail to the journal. The research papers must include clear indications of the purpose of research, methodology, major results, implications and key references. The papers submitted for review should include: 1.Manuscript Manuscript should be sent along with authorized letter in favour of the Editor-in-Chief that it may be published after necessary editing. 2.Cover Page Manuscript of a paper should have a cover page which should contain Title of Paper, Author ( s ) ' Qualification and Designation, Mailing Address, Phone and Fax number and E-mail Addresses. Details about the author should not appear elsewhere in the manuscript. 3.Abstract Each paper should be preceded by an abstract of about 100-150 words 4.Transcript The maximum length of transcript is 6000 words excluding title / cover page and references 5.Footnotes All footnotes should be indicated by serial numbers in the text and literature cited should be detailed under 'References' at the end of the research paper bearing corresponding numbers. 6.Tables and Figures Tables / Figures should be numbered consecutively and inserted into the document in the preferred location. 7.References References should include full details of the name ( s ) of the author ( s ) , title of the article or book, name of the journal, details of the publishers, year and month of publication and individual page numbers as shown below : ( A) Journal : Sharma M. & Bajaj, B.R. ( 1993) , “Coping Styles and Job Satisfaction”, Indian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 41 No. 82, pp. 1-16. ( B ) Book : Nath, T. ( 2004) : Management and Spiritualism : Meditation , Admax Associate publishing, pp. 11-12 8.Submission Soft copy of the paper must be submitted through e-mail: or All the papers accepted by the editorial board will be published in “Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research” Lebanon International Foundation, Bangalore reserves the right to all published papers. Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 237 | P a g e
  • 5. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 Status of Dalit Entrepreneurs in India Dr. C. Paramasivan Assistant Professor & Research Supervisor, P. Mari Selvam Ph.D (F.T) Research Scholar, PG & Research Department of Commerce, Periyar EVR College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu. Abstract The Scheduled castes, since old ages, have been victims of socio-economic exploitation and have been relegated to low income generating occupations, inferior trades, unhygienic environment and unclean menial occupations. Due to the stiff competition of the business and marketability traits dalit entrepreneurs are facing problems. In India total number of enterprises amounted to 15,64,000 out of this scheduled caste enterprises are 1,19,000. This article is focused on the Status of Dalit Entrepreneurs in India, with reference to Micro Small and Medium Enterprises. Keywords: Dalit Entrepreneurs, MSME, Scheduled caste enterprises, state wise performance Introduction India lives in its villages are as true today as it was 65 years ago when India was freed from the alien rule. The majority of its population still lives in rural areas and is dependent on agriculture for sustenance. A significant proportion of this population lives under poverty, which is a complex phenomenon and manifests itself in a myriad ways. The poor not only suffer from low and high unemployment, but also low life expectancy, low level of business traits of competence its dalit entrepreneurs. The more competition and caste dominated in the society. Show the dalit entrepreneur’s success is critical path of the business. There 14, 45,000 enterprises in India for other caste enterprises, out of dalit enterprises in 1, 19,000. Dalit entrepreneurs steady to working and their positive motive for Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 238 | P a g e
  • 6. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 the business. Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the attempt to creative value through recognition of business opportunity, the management of risk-taking appropriate to the opportunity, and through the communicative and management skills to mobilize human, financial, and material resources necessary to bring a project to fruition. Entrepreneurship is a creative activity. An entrepreneur is basically an innovator who introduces something new into the economy. The innovation may be a method of production not yet applied in the particular branch of manufacturing, or a product with which consumers are not yet familiar or a new source of raw material or a new market hitherto unexploited or a new combination of means of production. An entrepreneur foresees the potentially profitable opportunity and tries to exploit it. Innovation involves problem solving and the entrepreneur is a problem solver. Dalit Entrepreneurs The fund was envisaged as a way to finance the expansion and modernization of dalit-run businesses and also fund prospective dalit entrepreneurs. What grabbed the dalit entrepreneur’s attention was a new principle. Under existing schemes for scheduled castes, the state has been the giver and the community the recipient. Now, dalit entrepreneurs need not worry about collateral and make rounds of banks, as we have our own venture fund. Socio-economic condition of Dalit entrepreneurs The Scheduled castes entrepreneurs have been victims of socio-economic exploitation and have been relegated to low income generating occupations, inferior trades, unhygienic environment and unclean menial occupations. Although overt untouchability practices may be declining in many parts of the country, caste rigidities continue to confine many scheduled caste worker in demeaning occupations, which put them at a disadvantage when compared to other communities. The forces of urbanization, social and protective legislations, positive discrimination and other measures taken by the Government, have led to gradual improvement in occupational mobility and living standards over the years, but the living conditions of the majority of scheduled castes continue to show socio-economic backwardness. Status of Dalit Entrepreneurs The majority of dalit entrepreneurs is poor, socially backward, and deprived of basic needs. Though some dalits have occupied important positions in politics and government jobs, majority of them have faced discrimination like access to education, health and honorable livelihood. The dalit entrepreneur Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 239 | P a g e
  • 7. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 generally perform menial and degrade jobs, Social backwardness, and lack of access to education. A large majority of the scheduled castes that have become entrepreneurs have mainly ventured into those activities that deal with their hereditary occupation. They have modified and diversified their hereditary skills in preparing the hides and skins. It is significant to not that 9.37 per cent of them have become industrialist out of which nearly six per cent are manufacturing a variety of goods. Objective of the Study The primary objective of the study is to understand the status of dalit entrepreneurs in India with the respect of profile, nature, types and organizational structure of business. Methodology The study is based on descriptive in nature used secondary data from the report of MSME 2006 and simple percentage method is used to analysis the data. Review of Literature Curpreet Bal et al. (2010) has pointed that through entrepreneurship, the ex-untouchables and the downtrodden sections of the society could acquire higher economic position that raised their social status. As a result of modifications and diversification in their work, they have been able to earn more profits, which raised their standard of living and they moved up in the social hierarchy as well. It may be emphasized that the artisan castes have been able to utilize their skills according to the new needs of the modern industry and thus, are able to perform better than the other scheduled castes. Owing to their affluence as a result of entrepreneurship, they have started asserting their political and caste status. Divya Rajagopal (2011) has pointed that the ministry had lent Rs.2,524 crore to companies run by members of scheduled castes and tribes during the same period last year. Though data on bank loans to dalit entrepreneurs are not available, evidence suggests the trend may not be any different there too. Last month, the ministry of micro, small and medium enterprises mandated 4 per cent of Government purchases be made from units run by dalits and tribal. Jean Luc Racine and Josiane Racine (1998) have concluded that the socio economic status of most dalit entrepreneur is still very depressed. Most of them 72 per cent are landless agricultural laborers. Dalits account for 23 per cent of the rural population in Tamilnadu, but own only seven percent of the land, and even those who do own land have, for the most part, very small plots. In terms of access to amenities, they are well below the state average. Ninety per cent of rural dalits are still illiterate; the figure for non dalits is 10 per cent. Dalits entrepreneurs are not only experiencing poverty, they are also Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 240 | P a g e
  • 8. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 victims of violence. The official registries of violence do not tell the whole story, for all acts of violence are not reported to the court. Kajal Iyer (2011) has recommended that dalits were self-employed, whereas, in rural areas, 7 per cent dalits were entrepreneurs. The 2006-07 censuses of MSMEs said that dalits account for 7.7 per cent of the 1.55 million MSMEs in India. Today the construction business is seeing the rise of many dalit entrepreneurs, businessmen like who no longer rely on caste quotas for jobs but have made their way up in the private sector through open competition. Krishna. B et al. (2009) has observed that the socio economic conditions of the dalits, human development index, lower access to capital assets, land and livestock, wage labor and economic, market and labor, labor market and factor market discrimination. Division of labor is discriminatory against dalits women. Of these empowerment is one of the most important concepts, which has not been widespread and not understood as it is on its terms. Dalit women’s access to financial, natural and community resources are lowest compared to other high caste women and males. Profile of Dalit Entrepreneurs Dalits entrepreneur were self-employed, whereas, in rural areas, 7 per cent dalits were entrepreneurs. The 2006-07 censuses of MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium enterprises) said that dalits account for 7.7 per cent of the 1.55 million MSMEs in India. Today the construction business is seeing the rise of many dalit entrepreneurs, businessmen like who no longer rely on caste quotas for jobs but have made their way up in the private sector through open competition. Table No. 5 State wise Profile of Dalit Entrepreneurship (Number in Thousands) SC Total State / UT Percent % Total Name No. Percent % Jammu & 0.97 0.81 14.99 0.9 Kashmir Himachal 2.17 2.00 11.93 0.7 Pradesh Punjab 6.35 5.00 48.11 3 Chandigarh 0.01 0.008 1.00 0.06 Uttarakhand 3.52 3.00 23.76 1.5 Haryana 2.82 2.00 33.15 2 Delhi 2.82 2.00 33.15 2 Rajasthan 4.47 4.00 54.89 3.5 [[{ State Code 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 241 | P a g e
  • 9. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 09 10 11 12 Uttar Pradesh 14.14 12.00 187.74 Bihar 6.20 5.00 50.04 Sikkim 0.01 0.008 0.12 Arunachal 0.01 0.008 0.42 Pradesh 13 Nagaland 0.07 0.05 1.33 14 Manipur 0.10 0.08 4.49 15 Mizoram 0.13 0.01 3.72 16 Tripura 0.15 0.012 1.34 17 Meghalaya 0.06 0.05 3.01 18 Assam 1.57 1.00 19.86 19 West Bengal 4.28 4.00 43.26 20 Jharkhand 1.41 1.00 18.19 21 Orissa 0.98 0.08 19.60 22 Chhattisgarh 2.85 2.00 22.77 23 Madhya 13.65 12.00 107.00 Pradesh 24 Gujarat 4.90 4.00 229.83 25 Daman & Diu 0.01 0.008 0.59 26 Dadra & 0.02 0.016 1.72 Nagar Haveli 27 Maharashtra 4.88 4.00 86.59 28 Andhra 2.03 2.00 45.69 Pradesh 29 Karnataka 16.58 14.00 136.19 30 Goa 0.04 0.033 2.62 31 Lakshadweep 0.00 0.00 0.00 32 Kerala 6.17 5.00 150.19 33 Tamilnadu 18.12 15.00 233.88 34 Puducherry 0.08 0.006 1.45 35 Andaman & 0.04 0.033 0.75 Nicobar Ils. All India 118.90 100 1563.97 Source: MSME Annual Report on 2011-2012 State wise profile of dalit enterprises are presented in the table no. 5. ISSN 2277-9089 12 3 0.008 0.02 0.08 0.28 0.23 0.08 0.19 1 2.76 1.1 1 1.4 6.8 14.6 0.03 0.11 5.5 2.9 8.7 0.16 0.00 9.6 15 0.09 0.04 100 As on whole, 118.90 thousands of entrepreneurs are belongs to dalit as against the total of 1563.97 thousand total entrepreneurs. Dalit entrepreneurs are more in Tamilnadu which constitute 18.12 thousands (15%) followed by 16.58 thousands entrepreneurs in Karnataka (14%) Uttar Pradesh (14.14 thousands), Madhya Pradesh (13.65 thousands), Punjab (6.35 thousands), Bihar (6.20 thousands), Kerala (6.17 thousands), Gujarat (4.90 thousands), Maharashtra (4.88 thousands), Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 242 | P a g e
  • 10. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 Rajasthan (4.47 thousands), West Bengal (4.28 thousands), Uttarakhand (3.52 thousands), Chhattisgarh (2.85 thousands), Haryana (2.82 thousands), Delhi (2.82 thousands), Himachal Pradesh (2.17 thousands), Assam (1.57 thousands), Jharkhand (1.41 thousands), Orissa (0.98 thousands), Jammu & Kashmir (0.97 thousands), Tripura (0.15 thousands), Mizoram (0.13 thousands), Manipur (0.10 thousands), Pondicherry (0.08 thousands), Nagaland (0.07 thousands), Goa (0.04 thousands), Andaman & Nicobar Ills. (0.04 thousands), Dadra & Nagar Haveli (0.02 thousands), Chandigarh (0.01 thousands), Sikkim (0.01 thousands), Arunachal Pradesh 0.01 thousands). Pondicherry constitutes very least number (0.08 thousands) of dalit entrepreneurs in the country followed by Sikkim, (0.008) and Arunachal Pradesh (0.008). Type of Enterprise Enterprises are broadly classified into Manufacturing; and those engaged in providing rendering of services. Both categories of enterprises have been further classified into Micro, Small, Medium, and large enterprises based on their investment in plant and machinery for manufacturing enterprises or on equipments (in case of enterprises proving or rendering services), and finally Repairing & Maintenance. Table No. 2 Type of Enterprise Sl. No. (Number in Thousand) Total Percent % SC Type of Total Enterprise No. Percent % 1 Micro 116.95 98.40 1484.76 94.94 2 Small 1.82 1.50 76.53 4.89 3 Medium 0.13 0.10 2.69 0.17 Total 118.90 100 1563.97 100 Source: MSME Annual Report on 2011-2012 Table no.1 reveals that the types of enterprise owned by dalit in India. There are 118.90 thousands of enterprises owned by dalit entrepreneurs, as against the total of 1563.97 thousands of enterprises of which 116.95 thousands of enterprises belongs to micro units (98.40%) 1.82 thousands belongs to small units (1.50%) and 0.13 thousands belongs to medium units (0.10%). Nature of Activity The Ministry of MSME (earlier known as Ministry of Small Scale Industries and Agro & Rural Industries (SSI & ARI) came into being from 1999 to provide focused attention to the development and Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 243 | P a g e
  • 11. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 promotion sector. MSME Act, 2006 seeks to facilitate the development of these enterprise as also enhance their competitiveness. It provides the first-ever legal frame work for recognition of the concept of “enterprise” which comprises both manufacturing and service entities. Table No. 3 Nature of Activity Sl. No. 01 Nature of SC Activity No. Percent % 68.35 57.48 Total (Number in Thousands) Total Percent % Manufacturin 1049.39 g 02 Services 24.18 20.33 262.37 03 Repairing & 26.38 22.19 252.21 Maintenance Total 118.91 100 1563.98 Source: MSME Annual Report on 2011-2012 Table no.2 indicates that the nature of activities of the dalit entrepreneurs in India. 67 17 16 100 There are 57.48 per cent of dalit entrepreneurs are involved in service activities, and 26.38 per cent are involved in Repairing and Maintenance. It observed that, the marginality (57.48%) of the dalit entrepreneurs involved in the manufacturing activities Nature of Operation Entrepreneurs set up industries which remove scarcity of essential commodities and introduce new products. Production of goods on mass scale and manufacture of handicrafts, etc. in small scale sector help to improve the standard of life of a common man. These offer goods at lower costs and increase variety in consumption. Entrepreneurs in the public and private sectors help to remove regional disparities in economic development. Table No. 4 Nature of Operation (Number in Thousand) Nature of SC Total Total Operation Percent % No. Percent % 1 Perennial 113.68 95.60 1514.12 96.81 2 Seasonal 4.72 3.98 46.39 2.97 3 Casual 0.51 0.42 3.47 0.22 Total 118.91 100 1563.98 100 Source: MSME Annual Report on 2011-2012 Table no.3 indicates that the Nature of operation of the dalit entrepreneurs in India. Sl. No. Business operation of dalit entrepreneurs are 95.60 per cent belongs to perennial, 3.98 per cent are seasonal and 0.42 per cent are casual nature of operation. It concludes that, the marginality of the Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 244 | P a g e
  • 12. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 dalit entrepreneurs are belongs to perennial type of operation of business. Type of Organization Organization are broadly classified into two Categories.: i) Functional organization, ii) Team Management, Organization different wise introducing the Entrepreneur is one who introduce new goods, inaugurates new method of production, discovers new market and reorganizes the enterprises. It is important to note that such entrepreneurs can work only when a certain level of development is already achieved, and people look forward to change and environment. Table No. 5 Type of Organizational Structure Sl. No. Type SC of Organisation No. Percent % 1 Proprietary or 113.28 95.29 HUF 2 Partnership 1.92 1.61 3 Pvt. 1.47 1.23 Company 4 Pub. Ltd. 0.49 0.41 Company 5 Cooperatives 0.55 0.46 6 Others 1.19 1.00 Total 118.90 100 Source: MSME Annual Report on 2011-2012 Table no.4 indicates that the Type of Organization of Total (Number in Thousands) Total Percent % 1408.76 90 62.73 43.41 4.01 3 8.39 0.54 4.72 35.96 1563.97 0.30 2.2 100 the dalit entrepreneurs in India. Organizational structure is one of the major criteria for deciding the size and efficiency of the business. 95.29 per cent of the dalit entrepreneurs are belongs to the proprietary type of organization, followed by 1.61 per cent belongs to partnership firm, 1.23 per cent belongs to Private company, 0.41 per cent belongs to public limited company, 0.46 per cent belongs to co-operative services and 1.00 per cent belongs to other types of organization owned by dalit entrepreneurs. In terms of members of enterprise, there are 113.28 thousands of dalit entrepreneurs are belongs to proprietary type of organization and out of 118.90 thousands of enterprises. Major Suggestions Entrepreneurship becomes a vital role for the socio-economic development of the country which provides capital formation, employment generation, purchasing power and market economy. In Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 245 | P a g e
  • 13. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 this regards, promoting entrepreneurship is essential for a developing countries like India to bring the equitable and sustainable growth. In India, entrepreneurship is associated with the socio-culture aspects of the people and it has become a traditional or heredity based. Since the country is caste dominated almost in all aspects, entrepreneurs from deprived communities like dalit become highly complicated and goes through dot of struggle to become of successful entrepreneurs in India. Dalit entrepreneurship facing various kinds of discriminations, atrocities and violation socially, economically and psychologically. Since the dalit population accounted to 19 per cent of the total population in the country, only 2,33,880 enterprises owned by dalit in India and mostly belongs to traditional and caste base business. Therefore, there is a special scheme is needed to promote the dalit as entrepreneurs. Central and state government has been established financial and non financial institutions to promote the dalit entrepreneurship since the independence. But the result has been very poor due to attitude of the implementing authorities and personnel. SCDFC were utilized only 20 per cent of the allotted funds from the central Government that too also not in a result oriented activities. Status of dalit entrepreneurs in India shows negative impact in economic development, because these people have commitment to hard work, creators of local resources, but failed to attract the upper caste people or the upper caste people not ready to accept the economic empowerment of dalit entrepreneurs. It is purely caste based discrimination against dalit around the country. Conclusion Caste is the only matter to become an entrepreneur in India which dominates the entire quality of business. A dalit become an entrepreneur in India is not that much of easy and he has to spent lot of time and effort to fight against his social discrimination prevalent by caste Hindus, upper caste people even from the Government promoting the dalit entrepreneurship is the mere concept no one serious about its importance including dalits. Even tribal become entrepreneurs and successes in their origin but in the case of dalit, no one able to tolerate their business empowerment in the country. In this regards, we conclude that, status of dalit entrepreneurs is very poor as like their social status when they become socially empowered, they can also improve their status through business. Reference: Aggarwal Y.P. (1998). Statistical Method- Concepts, Application and Computations, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. Balaji C.D. and Prasad G. (2009), Business Organization. Margham Publications, Chennai Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 246 | P a g e
  • 14. Volume 2 Issue 2 April 2013 ISSN 2277-9089 Curpreet Bal and Paramjit. S Judge. (2010). Innovations, Entrepreneurship and Development : A Study of the Scheduled Caste in Punjab, The Journal of Entrepreneurship, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp 43-62. Divya Rajagopal. (2011). Credit disbursement to Dalit Entrepreneurs drops 33.8 per cent fiscal, The Economic Times, December 12, pp 1-3. Gupta S.P. (2001). Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi. Gupta. C.B and Srinivasan NP. (2010), Entrepreneurial Development. Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi. Jean Luc Racine and Josiane Racine. (1998). Dalit Identities and the Dialectics of Oppression and Emancipation in a Changing India; The Tamil Case and Beyond, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East formerly South Asia Bulletin, Vol. XVIII, No. 1, pp 1-19. Kajal Iyer. (2012). The Dalit Entrepreneur, IBN live Business News. Kajal Iyer. (2012). The Dalit Entrepreneur, IBN live Business News, Nov. 26, pp 1-5. Karthiresan and Radha. (2010). Business Organization. Prasanna Publisher, Chennai. Khanka S.S.(2010). Entrepreneurial Development, S.Chand & Company ltd. New Delhi. Kothari C.R. (1998). Research Methods, Wishwa Prakashan, Second Edition. Krishna B. Bhattachan Tej B. Sunar and Yasso Kanti Bhattachan. (2009). Caste Based Discrimination in Nepal, Indian Institute of Dalit Studies New Delhi, Vol. III, pp 16-22. MSME Annual Report 2007-08. Munish Vohra. (2006). Entrepreneurial Development, ANMOL Publications Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. Paramasivan C. Research Methodology for Commerce and Management, Regal Publication, New Delhi. Asia Pacific Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship Research (APJMER) 247 | P a g e