OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To investigate the impact of job design on employee motivationINTRODUCTION: Job design refers to any set of activities that involve the alteration of specific jobs or interdependent systems of jobs with the intent of improving the quality of employees’ job experience and their on-the- job productivity.
BACKGROUND Major challenge was loss of productivity due to absenteeism. Increased demands for industrial democracy. Imposition of employment legislation In 1980s, major changes occurred like recession, increased competition and technological advancement.
MECHANISTIC APPROACH Roots from Frederick Taylor’s research on industrial engineering and scientific management. Employee performs same task repeatedly, so:a) Lesser training is requiredb) Mental demand is minimalc) Lesser chances of stress and errors Disadvantages:a) Boredomb) Job dissatisfactionc) Increased turnover and absenteeismd) Less motivation
MOTIVATIONAL APPROACHES A motivational strategy is any effort to induce employees to begin and continue activities that can directly or indirectly improve employee productivity. Positive outcomes of Negative aspects of motivation approaches motivation approaches • Employee satisfaction • Longer training time • Improved motivation • Greater mental demands • Reduced absenteeism leading to difficulty in • Reduced turnover staffing • Improved performance • Stress and mental overload • More chances of error
JOB ENLARGEMENT Putting a variety into a job A process of horizontal loading in which responsibilities are increased. Advantages:I. Reduced level of boredomII. Increased flexibilityIII. Improved efficiencyIV. Maximal utilization of employee skills
JOB ROTATION Moving an employee from one specialized job to another Job rotation is based on the fact that ‘change is as good as a holiday’ Many researchers doubts if any employee could be trained to do more than ten jobs effectively Firms adopt job rotation for - employee learning - employer learning - employee motivation
Difficulties in implementation Operators do not want to ‘lend’ their equipment to others Unsuitable wage forms Practical problems of physically getting from one job to the next Education and training of workers for new jobs Difficulties in finding appropriate jobs to rotate to Inappropriate use of job rotation by management Experienced workers do not want to learn new types of work
Job Enrichment Modification of the job to provide the opportunity of achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement to the employees Job enrichment is the practical implication of Herzberg’s Motivator Hygiene Theory Job enrichment leads to employee motivation by increasing the quality of work rather than quantity of work It increases the employees’ intrinsic motivation.
Job Characteristics Model(JCM) According to the JCM, there are five core job characteristics that affect the employee motivation and performance core dimensions include: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback when designing a new job description use the job characteristics model as checklist
Ways of Job Enrichment Expose the employees to the variety of tasks Give training to the employees. This will also cut the cost of recruitment by developing the existing employees for new positions in the organization• Combine work activities to provide the “task identity”• Allow the team members to participate in decision making and consider their ideas
Biological Approach Biological approach to job design is developed from the biomechanics, work psychology and ergonomics This approach works under the assumption that if employees’ lower needs (for safety and comfort) are not met, their higher needs will not be motivated Positive outcomes include : (a) less physical effort and fatigue, (b) lower absenteeism (c) higher satisfaction
PERCEPTUAL MOTOR APPROACH The main contributors to this approach are human factors engineering guidelines, perceptual and cognitive skills. It focuses on the amount of information an employee should have. Ensures that a person’s mental capability and limitations are not exceeded.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF JOB DESIGN APPROACHES Approach Practical implication Designed through1.Mechanistic approach Low level factory jobs Specialization, simplification and defining skill requirements2. Motivational approach Executive, managerial and Enrichment and enlargement professional jobs3. Behavioural approach Heavy industry or lighter Knowledge of ergonomics, focusing repetitive jobs on biomechanics, physiology, occupational medicine and anthropometry to limit movement and safety5. Perceptual/ motor All kinds of jobs Focusing on maximizing but not exceeding mental capabilities. Works in tandem with three approaches.
Conclusion Findings on the topic suggest that job design has a positive impact on employee satisfaction nd performance . Job design also encourages the employees’ innovative behaviour Each individual has different abilities, goals and desire to learn and even they have different reactions towards any change in an organization. While redesigning a job, the organizations need to consider the approach which best suits to the job that is to be redesigned.
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