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Two Well-Being of the  EMT-Basic Chapter
Chapter <ul><li>Effects of emotion and stress   on the EMT-B </li></ul><ul><li>Death and dying and the   reactions of the ...
E MOTION AND STRESS
EMS Stressful Situations: Mass-Casualty Incidents
EMS Stressful Situations: Infant and Child Trauma
EMS Stressful Situations: Amputations
EMS Stressful Situations <ul><li>Infant/elderly/spouse abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Death or injury of a coworker  </li></ul>
Stress: Warning Signs <ul><li>Irritability toward coworkers,   family, friends </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate ...
Stress: Warning Signs <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Indecisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of a...
Stress: Warning Signs <ul><li>Loss of interest in sex </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of interest in wo...
Stress Management <ul><li>Lifestyle Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Change diet </li></ul>Reduce sugar, caffeine, and alcohol. A...
Stress Management <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation, visual imagery </li></ul><ul...
Stress Management <ul><li>Environmental Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Request shifts that allow more  </li></ul><ul><li>Reques...
Stress Management <ul><li>Seek professional  </li></ul>help if needed.
Stress: Reactions of  Family and Friends <ul><li>Lack of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Fear  (of separation, being ignor...
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
<ul><li>Within 24 – 72 hours after incident </li></ul><ul><li>Open discussion   (feelings, fears, reactions) </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Not an investigation or </li></ul><ul><li>CISD team offers suggestions  </li></ul>interrogation on overcoming stre...
Death and Dying Stages <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </...
Death and Dying Patient and Family Needs <ul><li>Dignity and Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Communica...
Reaction of Family <ul><li>Rage </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Despair </li></ul>Death and Dying
Dealing with Patient and Family <ul><li>Listen empathetically. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a gentle tone    of voice. </li></ul>...
S CENE SAFETY
<ul><li>Fighting or loud voices </li></ul><ul><li>Intoxicants or illegal drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Broken glass, bloodstains </li></ul>Indicators of Danger
<ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sixth sense” </li></ul>Use Your Senses
Response to Danger: COVER hides and protects your body.
Response to Danger: CONCEALMENT hides your body.
<ul><li>Leave the scene  </li></ul>Response to Danger: RETREAT immediately. <ul><li>Get far enough away. </li></ul><ul><li...
Body armor may offer additional protection.
<ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials </li></ul>Res...
<ul><li>Turnout gear </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture-proof gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Helmet </li></ul><ul><li>Eyewear </li></ul>...
The  police  are responsible for securing the scene from violence. Violence
Violence <ul><li>Patients </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Bystanders </li></ul><ul><li>Family m...
<ul><li>EMT-B identifies situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized teams control </li></ul>Hazardous Materials Incidents s...
Identify situations from a distance.
Placards help identify hazardous materials.
Emergency Response Guidebook (hazardous materials reference)
B ODY SUBSTANCE ISOLATION
Body Substance Isolation <ul><li>Protects EMT-B  and  patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes all body substances are    </li><...
Since an exposure incident may be anxiety-provoking to new EMT-Bs, discuss with them your state laws and local policies re...
The biohazard symbol identifies potentially infectious items.
Wash hands thoroughly, even if gloves were used.
Wear latex, vinyl, or synthetic gloves.
Use protective eyewear.
Gowns protect clothing from fluid splatter.
Mask/eyeshield combination offers protection from fluid splatter.
N-95 respirator HEPA respirator (HEPA stands for  “ high-efficiency particulate air”) Two NIOSH-approved respirators desig...
<ul><li>Preventive vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Immune status verification  (titer) </li></ul><ul><li>Testing  (tuberculin P...
1. What are the effects of emotion and stress on the EMT-B? 2. What are the reactions of the family,  patient, and EMT-B t...
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  1. 1. Two Well-Being of the EMT-Basic Chapter
  2. 2. Chapter <ul><li>Effects of emotion and stress on the EMT-B </li></ul><ul><li>Death and dying and the reactions of the patient, family, and EMT-B </li></ul><ul><li>Safety at the scene </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure control </li></ul><ul><li>Body substance isolation throughout the call </li></ul>CORE CONCEPTS Two
  3. 3. E MOTION AND STRESS
  4. 4. EMS Stressful Situations: Mass-Casualty Incidents
  5. 5. EMS Stressful Situations: Infant and Child Trauma
  6. 6. EMS Stressful Situations: Amputations
  7. 7. EMS Stressful Situations <ul><li>Infant/elderly/spouse abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Death or injury of a coworker </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stress: Warning Signs <ul><li>Irritability toward coworkers, family, friends </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia and/or nightmares </li></ul>(Continued)
  9. 9. Stress: Warning Signs <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Indecisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul>(Continued)
  10. 10. Stress: Warning Signs <ul><li>Loss of interest in sex </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of interest in work </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stress Management <ul><li>Lifestyle Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Change diet </li></ul>Reduce sugar, caffeine, and alcohol. Avoid fatty foods. Increase carbohydrates. (Continued)
  12. 12. Stress Management <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation, visual imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Balance work, family, </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle Changes </li></ul>(Continued) recreation, and health
  13. 13. Stress Management <ul><li>Environmental Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Request shifts that allow more </li></ul><ul><li>Request duty assignment to </li></ul>time with family and friends. a less busy area. (Continued)
  14. 14. Stress Management <ul><li>Seek professional </li></ul>help if needed.
  15. 15. Stress: Reactions of Family and Friends <ul><li>Lack of understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Fear (of separation, being ignored) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress (caused by on-call situations) </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration (wanting to share) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
  17. 17. <ul><li>Within 24 – 72 hours after incident </li></ul><ul><li>Open discussion (feelings, fears, reactions) </li></ul><ul><li>Completely confidential </li></ul>CISD (Continued)
  18. 18. <ul><li>Not an investigation or </li></ul><ul><li>CISD team offers suggestions </li></ul>interrogation on overcoming stress CISD
  19. 19. Death and Dying Stages <ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>
  20. 20. Death and Dying Patient and Family Needs <ul><li>Dignity and Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reaction of Family <ul><li>Rage </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Despair </li></ul>Death and Dying
  22. 22. Dealing with Patient and Family <ul><li>Listen empathetically. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a gentle tone of voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a reassuring touch, if appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not falsely reassure. </li></ul>Death and Dying
  23. 23. S CENE SAFETY
  24. 24. <ul><li>Fighting or loud voices </li></ul><ul><li>Intoxicants or illegal drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Crime scenes </li></ul>Indicators of Danger (Continued)
  25. 25. <ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Broken glass, bloodstains </li></ul>Indicators of Danger
  26. 26. <ul><li>Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sixth sense” </li></ul>Use Your Senses
  27. 27. Response to Danger: COVER hides and protects your body.
  28. 28. Response to Danger: CONCEALMENT hides your body.
  29. 29. <ul><li>Leave the scene </li></ul>Response to Danger: RETREAT immediately. <ul><li>Get far enough away. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio for police. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Body armor may offer additional protection.
  31. 31. <ul><li>Electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous materials </li></ul>Rescue: Identify Threats
  32. 32. <ul><li>Turnout gear </li></ul><ul><li>Puncture-proof gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Helmet </li></ul><ul><li>Eyewear </li></ul>Protective Clothing
  33. 33. The police are responsible for securing the scene from violence. Violence
  34. 34. Violence <ul><li>Patients </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrators of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Bystanders </li></ul><ul><li>Family members </li></ul>Scene Dangers Come From:
  35. 35. <ul><li>EMT-B identifies situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized teams control </li></ul>Hazardous Materials Incidents scene. <ul><li>EMT-B treats patients after </li></ul>contamination is limited.
  36. 36. Identify situations from a distance.
  37. 37. Placards help identify hazardous materials.
  38. 38. Emergency Response Guidebook (hazardous materials reference)
  39. 39. B ODY SUBSTANCE ISOLATION
  40. 40. Body Substance Isolation <ul><li>Protects EMT-B and patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes all body substances are </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures set by OSHA and </li></ul><ul><li>local policy. </li></ul>infectious.
  41. 41. Since an exposure incident may be anxiety-provoking to new EMT-Bs, discuss with them your state laws and local policies regarding postexposure procedures. P RECEPTOR P EARL
  42. 42. The biohazard symbol identifies potentially infectious items.
  43. 43. Wash hands thoroughly, even if gloves were used.
  44. 44. Wear latex, vinyl, or synthetic gloves.
  45. 45. Use protective eyewear.
  46. 46. Gowns protect clothing from fluid splatter.
  47. 47. Mask/eyeshield combination offers protection from fluid splatter.
  48. 48. N-95 respirator HEPA respirator (HEPA stands for “ high-efficiency particulate air”) Two NIOSH-approved respirators designed to protect caregivers against airborne pathogens
  49. 49. <ul><li>Preventive vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Immune status verification (titer) </li></ul><ul><li>Testing (tuberculin PPD) </li></ul>Infectious Disease Prevention
  50. 50. 1. What are the effects of emotion and stress on the EMT-B? 2. What are the reactions of the family, patient, and EMT-B to death and dying? 3. How can the EMT-B maintain a safe scene? 4. Discuss exposure control and how to take BSI throughout the call. R EVIEW QUESTIONS
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