Security And Ethical Challenges Of Infornation Technology


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Security And Ethical Challenges Of Infornation Technology

  2. 2. Objectives of Ethical challenges <ul><li>Identify ethical issues in how the use of information technologies in business affects employment, individuality, working conditions, privacy, crime, health, and solutions to societal problems. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ethical Responsibility Security Ethics and Society Employment Privacy Health Crime Working Conditions Individuality
  4. 4. What is Computer Crime ? <ul><li>The unauthorized use, access, modification, and destruction of hardware, software, data, or network resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized release of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized copying of software </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Computer Crime Hacking Unauthorized Use at work Cyber Theft Piracy Computer Viruses
  6. 6. Computer Crime (cont..) <ul><li>Hacking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The obsessive use of computers, or the unauthorized access and use of networked computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyber Theft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves unauthorized network entry and the fraudulent alteration of computer databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized use at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called time and resource theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May range from doing private consulting or personal finances, to playing video games, to unauthorized use of the Internet on company networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piracy of intellectual property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other forms of intellectual property covered by copyright laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music, Videos, Images, Articles, Books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Software Piracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized copying of software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer viruses and worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A program that cannot work without being inserted into another program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A distinct program that can run unaided </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Privacy Issues <ul><li>Privacy issues are at the top of the list in regards to ethical use of information. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Misuse of information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk to physical privacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of identity theft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted intrusions into daily life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users of the Internet are highly visible and open to violations of privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsecured with no real rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cookies capture information about you every time you visit a site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That information may be sold to third parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Privacy laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to enforce the privacy of computer-based files and communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Communications Privacy Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Fraud and Abuse Act </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Employment Challenges <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New jobs have been created and productivity has increased, yet there has been a significant reduction in some types of jobs as a result of IT. </li></ul></ul>Lost Job Opportunities Computer Monitoring Lost Individuality Health Issues Working Conditions
  9. 9. Other Challenges <ul><li>Health Issues </li></ul><ul><li>- Job stress </li></ul><ul><li>- Muscle damage </li></ul><ul><li>- Eye strain </li></ul><ul><li>- Radiation exposure </li></ul><ul><li>- Accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Individuality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-based systems criticized as impersonal systems that dehumanize and depersonalize activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IT has eliminated many monotonous, obnoxious tasks, but has created others </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Factors in the Workplace
  11. 11. Security Management
  12. 12. Goal of Security Management <ul><ul><li>Minimize errors, fraud, and losses in the e-business systems that interconnect businesses with their customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Security Measures Encryption Denial of Service Defenses Fire Walls Monitor E-mail Virus Defenses
  14. 14. Security Measures (cont..) Security Codes Security Monitors Backup Files Biometric Security Controls
  15. 15. Security Measures (cont..) <ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passwords, messages, files, and other data is transmitted in scrambled form and unscrambled for authorized users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves using special mathematical algorithms to transform digital data in scrambled code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used method uses a pair of public and private keys unique to each individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firewalls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a “gatekeeper” system that protects a company’s intranets and other computer networks from intrusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a filter and safe transfer point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screens all network traffic for proper passwords or other security codes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Denial of Service Defenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These assaults depend on three layers of networked computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victim’s website </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victim’s ISP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sites of “zombie” or slave computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive measures and security precautions must be taken at all three levels </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Security Measures (cont..) <ul><li>E-mail Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spot checks just aren’t good enough anymore. The tide is turning toward systematic monitoring of corporate e-mail traffic using content-monitoring software that scans for troublesome words that might compromise corporate security.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virus Defenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection may accomplished through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized distribution and updating of antivirus software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outsourcing the virus protection responsibility to ISPs or to telecommunications or security management companies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Security codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilevel password system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Log onto the computer system, Gain access into the system, Access individual files </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Security Measures (cont..) <ul><li>Backup Files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicate files of data or programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File retention measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes several generations of files are kept for control purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security Monitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programs that monitor the use of computer systems and networks and protect them from unauthorized use, fraud, and destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biometric Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure physical traits that make each individual unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand geometry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signature dynamics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retina scanning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face recognition and Genetic pattern analysis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. System Controls and Audits <ul><li>Information System Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods and devices that attempt to ensure the accuracy, validity, and propriety of information system activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to monitor and maintain the quality and security of input, processing, and storage activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditing Business Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review and evaluate whether proper and adequate security measures and management policies have been developed and implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing the integrity of an application’s audit trail </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Thank you…………!!!!!!!!!! By : Rashmi Ankit Rohan Akash Sonali Sabanaz Thakurdas Yashdeep