Volleyball, volleyball, volleyball, volleyball or just volleyball (English: volleyball1), is a sport where two teams face on a smooth pitch separated by a central network, trying to pass the ball over the net to the floor of the attacking. The ball can be touched or driven to clean shots, but can not be stopped, held, withheld or company. Each team has a limited number of touches to return the ball to the opposite field. Usually the ball is hit with hands and arms, but also elsewhere in the body except the feet. One of the most unique characteristics is that volleyball players have to be rotated their positions as they earn points. El voleibol es uno de los deportes donde mayor es la paridad entre las competiciones femeninas y masculinas, tanto por el nivel de la competencia como por la popularidad, presencia en los medios y público que sigue a los equipos.
Volleyball (initially under The first ball was specially the name of mintonette) was designed at the request of born on February 9, 1895 in Morgan by the firm AG the U.S., in Spalding & Holyoke, Massachusetts. Its inventor was William Bros., Chicopee, Massachuset George Morgan, a professor ts. In 1912 we reviewed the of physical education at the initial rules in what concerns YMCA. It was an indoor the size of the pitch and the game with similarities team ball were not tennis or handball. Although insured, limited to six the close in basketball for number of players per delivery time and team, and joins the rotation space, clearly deviate from this in the roughness in the on the serve. In absence of contact between 1922, regulates the number the players. of touches, limited attack by defenders and lays down two points to achieve the set.
The field where they play volleyball is a rectangle of 18 m long and 9 m wide, its center line divided into a network that separates the two teams. In fact the game is also on the outside, in the free zone, provided that the ball does not touch ground or any other element. The free zone must be at least 3 m minimum in international competitions is increased to 5 m on the sidelines and 8 m for the bottom lines. The free space on the track must have a minimum height of 7 m in international competitions up to 12.5 m. A 3 m of the network, a line delimiting each field in the attack zone, an area where the shares are restricted to players who are currently in defensive roles (backs and sweeper). These lines extending outside the field with broken lines, and limited projects that represent equally all along the line, even beyond the lines drawn. All lines are 5 cm wide. Contact between players is continuous with the ground, usually using joint protection. The surface can be roughened or not sliding.
At the core of the field lies a network of 1 m wide and 9.5 to 10 m long, with two bands at the top and bottom and two vertical rods protruding on the sideline of the field. The top edge of the network, the rods and the roof of the pavilion itself define the space by which to pass the ball to the attacking. The height of the net may vary in different categories, being in the adult categories of 2.43 m and 2.24 m for men and women.
The ball is spherical and flexiblecircumference 65-67 cm, 260-280 g in weight and internal pressurebetween 0.300 and 0.325 kg / cm ². It is smaller and lighter than basketball or soccer balls. Can be made of various materials but the mostcomfortable and the leather is used. There are also occasionally plastic balls can be used in practice.
As in tennis, volleyball players during the matchdress shirt, shorts, socks, sneakers and knee pads.To be continuous contact with the ground isusually also wear protection on knees and elbows.At first glance, the players immediatelydistinguishes sweepers because they have adifferent color dress the rest of his teammates.
A match consists of three, four or five sets. The volleyball matches are played best of five runs or blocks that are, as in tennis, the Anglo-Saxon name sets. At the moment one of the two teams won three sets won, wins the game and closed the match. A team wins a set when it reaches or exceeds 25 points with a two (ie: with 25-23 win, but would have to wait 25-24 26-24 and so on while none of the two teams do not get the two-point lead). If necessary the fifth time, set-offs, the target is lowered to 15 points but also two ahead. This set thus has a shorter duration, but still, the duration of the volleyball matches are highly variable and can range from about an hour to even more than two hours. Fields are drawn before the game and the kickoff. Each set is a change of field and alternates first serve. If necessary the fifth set decider, we proceed to a new draw and we perform a change of field at the point reached by the first 8 teams.
Each team plays with six players can be replaced withconditions. Three of the players form the front line inattack tasks and the other three are placed behind andact as advocates or defenders. The entire team it canbe a maximum of 14 players (12 plus 2sweepers), coach, assistant coach, a masseur and adoctor. Each player is identified by a different numberfrom 1 to 20, number on both the front and rear of theshirt. One player will captain the team and is identifiedby a visible band under your number. The sweeperscan not be captain and they alone can and must wear adifferent dress, usually of different colors to the team.
Point is achieved when the opposing team commits any of the following offenses or offenses: If the ball touches the ground inside the field, whether the latter one corresponds to a player touches itself as one of the opposing team. If the ball just outside the playing court or by a misguided attack on the opponent or a mistake in trying to defend. The absence is for the player and the team that last touched the ball once, and instead point is scored. It is considered to be the contact with the roof, public or any member of the pavilion, or the same colleges. Contact with the net, poles or wires on the outside of the sidebands is also out. If you exceed the number of three hits allowed without having gone to the opposite field, or if a player touches it twice in a row the ball. As an exception, should touch the block, that first touch is not accounted for the lack of equipment and four hits for double single. If at the time of the serve the players are positioned incorrectly, or that is not fitted to the corresponding rotation. If the wrong ball touch and there is retention or accompaniment (double in this case). If a back row player attacks beyond the attack line. The libero can not participate in any way in the block and has restricted the attack, as has been seen. If a player enters the opponents court under the net interfering with the play of the hand, or if one foot has completely crossed the center line. If it hinders the contrary playing the net, or touches the top or the top of the rods when playing the ball. Contact is permitted provided that the network does not interfere with the game.
Each point begins with a throw of the ball from behind the baseline. He throws the ball into the air and hits to the opposite field looking for weaknesses in the opponents defense. It can be done standing or jumping. Orientation is important to remove because the opposing player, he is obliged to receive the shot, is limited to participate in the subsequent attack.
I t is the action to intercept any attack the opposing team, jumping at the net with arms raised looking to return the ball directly to the field of the opponent, or failing that, shake the front court to induce him to throw the ball off the field game. The lock can be up to three players (three forwards) to increase the chances of interception. Also be important here aid of the second line to retrieve the ball for a block attempt. One of the options available to the attacker jump is just throwing the ball with force directly against the block looking for the missing.
Intercept and control a ball directing it toanother partner in good condition to play. Thelow balls are received with the forearmstogether in front, at waist level and highfingers above his head. In other cases it takesmore spectacular moves. It is common to see aplayer jump in iron on the abdomen stretchinghis arm to the ball pot on hand instead of onthe ground and avoid the point. Usually thesecond touch is intended to provide a ball inoptimal conditions for an auctioneer to put himto the opposite field. Placement is done raisinghis hands with a finger pass, the more accuratepass in volleyball. The setter has in his hand(and head) the responsibility to be distributedthroughout the game balls to variousauctioneers and different areas. Generally usesthe techniques of forearm, broadcast, pitch orhit with any part of the body as a last resort.
The player, jumping, finally sends the ballhard to the opposite field looking forplaces poorly defended, or against onesopponents in terms of speed or directionsuch that it can control and the ball goesout. The player can also opt for the feintdeception or leaving at the end a soft ballis not expected on the contrary. Althoughthere are three blasts on computer, you canmake an attack (or fake) in the first touchto find misplaced or the opposing team offguard. Types are named with the numberof attacks in the area: Attack defender: Theperforming those found in defensivepositions without exceeding the 3-meterline. 4 attack: the attack is performed bythe attacker who is located in zone 4.Attack by 2: the attack is performed by theattacker who is located in zone 2. Central
Gymnastics is a sport in running exercise sequences that require strength, flexibility and agility. Etymology == == is not football, it comes from the Greek football γυμναστική Gymnastics (gymnastike), f. (Gymnastikos), "fond of athletic exercises", 1st (gymnastics), "exercise" 2 γυμνός derivative (gymnos), "naked", 3 because athletes trained and competed in the nude
The Romans of the Republic enthusiasticallydevoted to walking, riding and othergymnastic exercises. Not infrequently, afterviolent exercise were thrown into the Tiber asthe Spartans the Eurotas. Plutarch reportsthat Caesar got cured neuralgia amassed aslave making your muscles. However, theRomans practiced gymnastics never true, theAthlete. Only Greece took exercises incircuses, adapting to its harsh characterexercises in Greek and transforminggladiatorial games of the Greek athletes. TheMiddle Ages knew no gymnastics. Only turnto her characters as jesters or harlequins. Alsosome aristocrats continued exercising.Christianity, so hostile to the naked body didnothing to make or establish physicalexercises. True Fitness was defended byphilosophers reformersLuther, Zwingli, Melanchthon and Roussene.
General gymnastics General Gymnastics is a discipline that involve people of all ages in groups from 6 to 150 gymnasts perform choreographed synchronized. Groups can be single gender or mixed.
The artistic gymnastics involves the performance of a choreographic composition, simultaneously combining high speed and body movements. It consists of different manner in male and female categories.
Is a discipline that combines elements ofballet, gymnastics, dance and the use ofvarious devices such asrope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon. In thissport competitions take place both asexhibitions in which the gymnast isaccompanied by music to keep a rhythm intheir movements. We can distinguish twotypes: individual and sets.. The modernrhythmic gymnastics was developed in thelate 1950s. In 1963, was organized inBudapest the first International RhythmicGymnastics Tournament. A year later theBudapest International Tournament wasofficially declared the first RhythmicGymnastics World Championships. In theLos Angeles Olympic Games, held in1984, becomes an Olympic sport, but onlyaccepted then the individual category. In the
The aerobics, formerly known as sport aerobics is a discipline of gymnastics in a routine that runs between 100 and 110 seconds with high-intensity movements derived from traditional aerobics plus a number of elements of difficulty. This routine must demonstrate continuous movement, flexibility, strength and perfect execution on the elements of difficulty.
Acrobatic gymnastics also known as acro-sport or acrosport is a group discipline in which there are patterns of male partner, female partner, mixed couple, female and male quartet trio. Collective gymnastics demonstrations occur where the body acts as a motor unit, driver support and other bodies performing jumps, figures and human pyramids.
Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been played in many countries throughout history. According to FIFA, the "very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in China", which was known as cuju. The modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century. The Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow,Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury schools. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862,John Charles Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules.
These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemasons Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand; the second for obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding.
Other English rugby football clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA, or subsequently left the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game. These rules included handling of the ball by "marks" and the lack of a crossbar, rules which made it remarkably similar to Victorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s with the FA absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games.
The laws of the game are currently determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). The Board was formed in 1886 after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association. The worlds oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The first official international football match took place in 1872 between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock. England is home to the worlds first football league, which was founded in Birmingham in 1888 by Aston Villa directorWilliam McGregor. The original format contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England. FIFA, the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to Laws of the Game of the Football Association. The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the International Football Association Board in 1913. The board currently consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations.
Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams, while billions more watch the game on television or on the internet. A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by FIFA published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 countries regularly play football. Football has the highest global television audience in sport.
In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations. R. Kapuscinski says that people who are polite, modest or even humble in Europe fall easily into rage with playing or watching soccer games. The Côte dIvoire national football team helped secure a truce to the nations civil war in 2006 and it helped further reduce tensions between government and rebel forces in 2007 by playing a match in the rebel capital of Bouaké, an occasion that brought both armies together peacefully for the first time. By contrast, football is widely considered to be the final proximate cause in the Football War in June 1969 between. The Salvador and Honduras. The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade degenerated into rioting in May 1990.
There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulation and guidelines. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted. The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. The Laws of the Game are published by FIFA, but are maintained by the International Football Association Board(IFAB). In addition to the seventeen laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football.
The length of the pitch for international adult matches is in the range of 100–110 m (110–120 yd) and the width is in the range of 64–75 m (70– 80 yd). Fields for non-international matches may be 90–120 m (100– 130 yd) length and 45–90 m (50–100 yd) in width, provided that the pitch does not become square. Although in 2008, the IFAB initially approved a fixed size of 105 m (344 ft) long and 68 m (223 ft) wide as a standard pitch dimension for A international matches, this decision was later put on hold and was never actually implemented.
World Cup CONCACAF Gold Cup UEFA Champions League UEFA Europa League CAF AFC
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball in to the opposing teams end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally asgridiron football, and even more rare, the "pigskin". The ball can be advanced by running with it or throwing it to a teammate. Points can be scored by carrying the ball over the opponents goal line, catching a pass thrown over that goal line, kicking the ball through the opponents goal posts or tackling an opposing ball carrier in his own end zone. In the United States, the major forms are high school football, college football and professional football. Each of these are played under slightly different rules. High school football is governed by the National Federation of State High School Associations and college football by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. The major league for professional football is the National Football League.
The history of American football can be traced to early versions of rugby football and association football. Both games have their origins invarieties of football played in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century, in which a ball is kicked at a goal and/or run over a line. Many games known as "football" were being played at colleges and universities in the United States in the first half of the 19th century. Rutgers University and its neighbor, Princeton University, played the first game of intercollegiate football on 6 November 1869 on a plot of ground where the present-day Rutgers gymnasium now stands in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers won that first game, 6-4.
American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby football, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, considered the "Father of American Football." Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmage and of down-and-distance rules. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, game play developments by college coaches such as Eddie Cochems, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Knute Rockne, and Glenn "Pop" Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass. The popularity of collegiate football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport for the first half of the twentieth century. Bowl games, a college football tradition, attracted a national audience for collegiate teams. Bolstered by fierce rivalries, college football still holds widespread appeal in the US.
Football is played on a field 360 by 160 feet (120.0 by 53.3 yards; 109.7 by 48.8 meters). The longer boundary lines aresidelines, while the shorter boundary lines are end lines. Sidelines and end lines are out of bounds. Near each end of the field is agoal line; they are 100 yards (91.4 m) apart. A scoring area called an end zone extends 10 yards (9.1 m) beyond each goal line to each end line. The end zone includes the goal line but not the end line. While the playing field is effectively flat, it is common for a field to be built with a slight crown—with the middle of the field higher than the sides—to allow water to drain from the field. Yard lines cross the field every 5 yards (4.6 m), and are numbered every 10 yards from each goal line to the 50-yard line, or midfield. Two rows of short lines, known as inbounds lines or hash marks, run at 1-yard (91.4 cm) intervals perpendicular to the sidelines near the middle of the field. All plays start with the ball on or between the hash marks. Because of the arrangement of the lines, the field is occasionally referred to as a gridiron in a reference to the cooking grill with a similar pattern of lines. At the back of each end zone are two goalposts (also called uprights) connected by a crossbar 10 feet (3.05 m) from the ground. For high skill levels, the posts are 18 feet 6 inches (5.64 m) apart. For lower skill levels, these are widened to 23 feet 4 inches (7.11 m).
Each team has 11 players on the field at a time. Usually there are many more players off the field (an NFL team has a limit of 53 players on its roster, 46 of whom can be dressed for a game). However, teams may substitute for any or all of their players during the breaks between plays. As a result, players have very specialized roles and are divided into three separate units: the offense the defense and the special teams. It is rare for all team members to participate in a given game, as some roles have little utility beyond that of an injury substitute.
A touchdown(TD) is worth 6 points. It is scored when a player runs the ball into or catches a pass in his opponents end zone.A touchdown is analogous to a try in rugby. Unlike rugby, a player does not have to touch the ball to the ground to score; a touchdown is scored any time a player has possession of the ball while any part of the ball is beyond the vertical plane created by the leading edge of the opponents goal line stripe (the stripe itself is a part of the end zone).After a touchdown, the scoring team attempts a try (which is also analogous to the conversion in rugby). The ball is placed at the other teams 3 yard line (the 2 yard line in the NFL). The team can attempt to kick it through the goalposts (over the crossbar and between the uprights) in the manner of a field goal for 1 point (an extra point or point-after touchdown (PAT)), or run or pass it into the end zone in the manner of a touchdown for 2 points (a two-point conversion). In college football, if the defense intercepts or recovers a fumble during a one or two point conversion attempt and returns it to the opposing end zone, the defensive team is awarded the two points. A field goal (FG) is worth 3 points, and it is scored by kicking the ball through the goalposts defended by the opposition. Field goals may be place kicked (kicked when the ball is held vertically against the ground by a teammate) or drop kicked (extremely uncommon in the modern game due to the better accuracy of place kicks, with only two successful drop kicks in sixty-plus years in the NFL). A field goal is usually attempted on fourth down instead of a punt when the ball is close enough to the opponents goalposts, or, when there is little or no time left to otherwise score.
(Rare) A safety, worth 2 points, is scored by the opposing team when the team in possession at the end of a down is responsible for the ball becoming dead behind its own goal line. For instance, a safety is scored by the defense if an offensive player is tackled, goes out of bounds, or fumbles the ball out of bounds in his own end zone. Safeties are relatively rare. Note that, though even more rare, the team initially on offense during a down can score a safety if a player of the original defense gains possession of the ball in front of his own goal line and then carries the ball or fumbles it into his own end zone where it becomes dead. However, if the ball becomes dead behind the goal line of the team in possession and its opponent is responsible for the ball being there (for instance, if the defense intercepts a forward pass in its own end zone and the ball becomes dead before the ball is advanced out of the end zone) it is a touchback: no points are scored and the team last in possession keeps possession with a first down at its own 20 yard line. In the extremely rare instance that a safety is scored on a try, it is worth only 1 point.
Fouls (a type of rule violation) are punished with penalties against the offending team. Most penalties result in moving the football towards the offending teams end zone. If the penalty would move the ball more than half the distance towards the offenders end zone, the penalty becomes half the distance to the goal instead of its normal value. Most penalties result in replaying the down. Some defensive penalties give the offense an automatic first down. Conversely, some offensive penalties result in loss of a down (loss of the right to repeat the down). If a penalty gives the offensive team enough yardage to gain a first down, they get a first down, as usual. The only penalty that results in points is if a team on offense commits certain fouls, such as holding, in its own end zone, which results in a safety. If a foul occurs during a down (after the play has begun), the down is allowed to continue and an official throws a yellow penalty flag near the spot of the foul. When the down ends, the team that did not commit the foul has the option of accepting the penalty, or declining the penalty and accepting the result of the down.
In the NFL, ranges of uniform numbers are (usually) reserved for certain positions: 1–19: Quarterbacks, punters and placekickers (by rule) 20–49: Running backs and defensive backs (by rule) 50–59: Centers and linebackers (by custom) 60–79: Offensive guards and tackles (mandatory), defensive guards and tackles (by custom) 10–19, 80–89: Wide receivers (by rule)[ 80–89 (by rule),[40-49 (optional): Tight ends 90–99: Defensive ends and linebackers (by custom)
The International Federation of American Football (IFAF) is the de facto governing body for American football, with 45 member associations from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. The organization is headquartered in La Courneuve, France. Although the IFAF has relatively little standing in the U.S. compared to the NFL, NCAA, and the other established aforementioned bodies, these same organizations also give support to USA Football, the designated U.S. representative to the IFAF. The IFAF also oversees the American Football World Cup, which is held every four years. Japan won the first two World Cups, held in 1999 and 2003. Team USA, which had not participated in the previous World Cups, won the title in 2007 and 2011. A long term goal of the IFAF is for American football to be accepted by the International Olympic Committee as an Olympic sport. The only time that the sport was played was at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, but as a demonstration sport.
The basketball or basketball (basketball English) is a team sport that is basically in the ball in a hoop, from which hangs a network, which gives it a basket. In some regions is called basketball, the castellanizar the English term for the word basket.It was invented by Dr. James Naismith in December 1891 at the Springfield YMCA. It is played with two teams of five people during 4 periods or quarters of 10 (international) or 12 (NBA) minutes each. At the end of the second quarter, a break is made, usually 10 to 20 minutes as the proper legislation championship which the party belongs.
Game Mode:Duration of a match: In FIBA, by regulations, the party is composed of four periods of 10 minutes each. In the NBA the duration of each period is 12 min, and NCAA play two periods of 20 minutes each. If the match ends with a tie between the two teams will play an extension of 5 min. And so on until one team wins the match.Players: The team presented the game consists of 12 players max. 5 form the starting lineup and the other 7 will be the alternates. The coach can change the players as often as you leveraging game interruptions.
Kick-Off: Must register one player from each team within the center circle with one foot close to the line that divides the field into two halves, each located in their field. The other players must be outside the circle. The referee throws the ball up from the center of the circle and the two players jump vertically to try to divert, without taking it, to some companion of his team.Referees: for most competitions are usually two referees in charge of directing the meeting. Although for many professional leagues and there are three others with a very low budget.Scorers table: the scorers table (scorekeeper, assistant scorekeeper, timekeeper, operator of the rule of 24 s, if any, curator) controls all occurrences of the game (score, time-outs, play time, faults, changes , etc..) and made the score sheet.Regulation:
A party must be conducted by three arbitrators, one principal and two assistants. They will be assisted from the table of scorers, timekeepers and technical commissioner. The referee and his assistants lead the game according to the rules and official interpretations. Will have to adjust the most to the rules and can have no connection with any of the equipment having to be fully competent and impartial. The referee will decide in any situation of conflict between assistant referees, scorers table, questions of validity in the baskets, shall approve the minutes, is responsible to verify, inspect and approve all technical elements and can make decisions about situations unregulated and regulated. The referees can communicate with the scorers table and the rest of arbitrators by the gesture, signaling the impact with a series of preset signals.
Game Time:The basketball games are divided into 4 quarters of 10 minutes each in the field of FIBA basketball, four quarters of 12 minutes in the NBA and two parts of 20 minutes in the NCAA.
The Playground:A basketball court has to be a hard, flat, rectangular and free of obstacles, with 15 m wide and 28 m in length.The perimeter of the track must be clear of obstructions to two meters away.The height of the first obstacle that is vertically over the course must be at least 7 m in height.The field is divided into two equal halves separated by the midfield line labeled with a circle of the center of the track, the center circle measures 3.6 m diameter. For each team, the midfield containing defends the basket is called defensive midfield and midfield containing the basket that is to write is called offensive midfield.In the shorter sides are placed the rings that are 3.05 m. in height and 1.20 m are introduced. within the rectangle of play, have to be provided with tilting approved.Parallel to the bottom line we find the free throw line, which is 5.80 m from the baseline and 4.60 m from the basket. The circle where the free throw line has a diameter of 1.80 m. The lines are 6 cm. wide.The three-point line is located at 6.25 m. (FIBA) and to 7.25 m. (NBA) away from the basket.
The Ball:The basketball should be, obviously, spherical, or rough skin leather or synthetic material to facilitate gripping of the players even with sweaty hands (the balls have a surface with 9.366 points). Traditionally is orange with black lines, but there are many variants. Indoor balls (covered pavilion) and outdoor (exterior) differ in the material which are coated.From the 2004-05 season FIBA competitions has taken to a ball with yellow light bands on the classic orange background color to improve visibility of the ball by both players and audiences.Since 2007 in Spain using a ball with black stripes, on which we discuss its duration and sliding too much.Circumference: 68 - 73 cmDiameter: 23-24 cmWeight: 567 - 650 gBalls are used three different names for three different sizes and weights according to category: the number "7", used for mens basketball, the "6" for womens basketball, and "5" for children and pre-minibasket (children 8 to 12 years usually). Furthermore, it stipulates that the ball must have a pressure that dropped from 1.80 m high, between 1.40 and 1.60 boat m.
The Pack:The board of the basket is a rectangle of 1.05 x 1.80 m, at least 30 mm thick and the lower edges acolchados.En the bottom center, is a rectangle painted 0.45my 0.59mx board that is raised 0.15m from the bottom, inside the rectangle is a swing arm that holds the approved measuring 0.45m basket, the basket will grab the inner rectangle in the center. The rim of the basket should have a diameter of 45.7 cm, the inner rectangle is used to calculate the shot, and that to hit the ball enters the basket. The hoop is located at a height of 3.05 meters and is provided with approved networks.
Attachments:The equipment of a basketball player consists of:A tank top, cotton originally, and now plastic. In the front we find the team logo and advertising agreed (although in the NBA and other competitions there). In the back are the name of the player and sometimes the first letter of the name when two or more players with the same surname. Under the name in large, the number of the player, it is important to note the number of fouls and the players points and substitutions.The pants can be short or shorts (although the fashion of taking "pirate" some competitions like the NBA impose rules on its length) can be found in small, the players number on the right end of the leg. Must be the same color as the shirt, can not have pockets.Footwear: boots are shaped to securely hold and protect the ankle sprains. They also have air chambers to preserve the foot. Soles should be properly designed to stop fast.Socks: Generally short and cotton. Although usually white socks and other sports can be a different color to match the uniform or, rarely, be left to the taste of the player.You can also add wristbands, belts, bracelets, heaters, goggles, etc..Scoring System:
Free throws are worth one point.Shots within the zone or within the triple line worth two points.Shots from the triple line (at 6.25 m from the center of the ring, or 7.24 in the NBA) are worth three points.If the player is shooting a free throw line and hits the shot becomes invalid, if the player is shooting from 3-point line if you step on the line of 6.25 (NBA 7.24) the shot will be rated as a field goal (2 points). However, a player if you pull from a distance of three can start with a jump shot without stepping over the line and drop or exceed it, then the shot would be considered 3 points.The score is carried by two systems, the first is the form where the scorer marks all baskets have become a numbered box that contains the numbers of a score and the second system is the electronic board, which also points out the stopwatch, counting errors of each player and each team and the fourth being played (if the minutes and the score are in disagreement, it is true that the record reflects, the marker is not binding and serves only to show so no regulations on the content).
Baseball, baseball or ball also called base1 (English baseball) is a team sport played between two teams of 9 players each. It is considered one of the most popular sports in the U.S., Japan (reigning WBC), Canada, South Korea (Olympic champion), Taiwan, Cuba (Pan American champions), Australia, Mexico, Nicaragua, Pan ama , Puerto Rico, South Africa, Netherlands, Dominican Republic, Italy (European champion), Colombia and Venezuela.
The countries of the sport powers are concentrated in the Americas (North, Central, Caribbean) and Asia, with European and African continents laggards, although Europe has two good examples such as the Netherlands and Italy and in Africa can only be highlight the selection of South Africa with some good talent.It is played on a vast field of natural grass or artificial (except the area where the offensive players to reach the bases are located at the vertices of the square area called the diamond, and record, called Corridor line, and the area launcher where the terrain is a ridge of land).
The object is to hit a ball with a bat (bat), moving through the field and run around the infield dirt (infield) seeking to reach as many potential bases to give back to the base from where you hit (home) and get both known and score the run, while defensive players looking for a ball hit to kill the player who hit the ball or other brokers before they arrive first at any of the bases or get career scoring (see Rules for details of the game).The team scoring the most runs after nine (9) episodes, called the meeting innings lasts, is the one that wins. If at the end of nine innings scores level is still a regular racing, the meeting is extended as necessary for there to be a winner, according to the rules of the game there is no tie, allowed only in amateur leagues and children to limit wear of the players.
Typical scene of baseball.Unlike other sports that are played with ball, such as football, which is also known as football or basketball, also known as basketball, even though "baseball" could be translated into Spanish, the custom of using English as root, could give the impression of a strange name phonetically: the translation should be pelotabase or bolabase, although in some Spanish-speaking countries is usually referred to colloquially as the ball game or just ball.On the other hand, one of the characteristics that differentiate the other baseball team sports, is that this defense is the one with the ball.
Tennis is a sport that is practiced in a plain, rectangular, divided by an intermediate network, which is called pista. is disputed between two players (singles) or between two pairs (doubles) playing with rackets and balls and is to hit the ball with the racket to go from one side to another field bypassing the red. The word "tennis" comes from English, tennis which in turn has its origins in the French language word tenez, expression that comes from the cry of the tennis player (called tennis), who exclaims, throwing the ball here goes! , which in French is tenez.
Egyptian, Roman, Greek and Aztec and played games like tennis. The first references of tennis taking place in France, named "Jeu de Paume" because at first struck the ball with his hand. But later they began to use snowshoes. The original tennis courts played on natural grass. It originated in Europe in the late eighteenth century and expanded in the beginning by the Anglophone countries, especially among the upper classes. Todays tennis has become universal, and is played in almost every country in the world. Since 1926, with the creation of the first tour, is a professional sport. It is also an Olympic sport since the Athens 1896 Olympic Games.
A tennis game starts with the pull of one of the players must hit the ball so it bounces inside the box diagonal to the side that takes, that is if a player gets from his right, the ball must bounce in the box on the left but always in the box attached to the network side of his rival and metersala very strong. For each point the player has two opportunities out if it fails the first, has one more. After the break, the player must pass the ball from one field to another in search of the ball bounce twice and can get a point. The games are 4 points and the sets of 6 games, while the match or match is divided into 2 sets (maximum 3) at the ATP World Tour tournaments and 3, maximum of 5 in Grand Slam tournaments 0.
Tennis is played on a rectangular track. Its exact measurements are defined in units of the imperial system and vary depending on the mode you play (singles and doubles). For individuals is 78 feet (23.78 meters) long and 27 feet (8.23 meters) wide. To double the length is the same and the width is 36 feet (10.97 meters). These limits are marked by lines, which are considered part of the track. A mesh net-shaped track divided into two halves, which are divided opponents. The net height at the poles is 3 feet 6 inches (1.06 meters), and in the middle of 3 feet (0.914 meters). On each side of the network there are two rectangles, measuring 21 feet (6.40 meters) long and 13.5 feet (4.11 meters) wide, which serve only to determine if a goal is valid.
During the game you use many types of strokes, each with their respective techniques, shocks are:
The serve is the most important stroke in tennis, since it is going to kick off the point and its proper application can be allowed to punch in an advantageous position upon return or achieve a goal winner or "ace" point won without the opponent impacts the ball, or after the impact the ball does not pass the network or go outside the boundaries of the strips (in which case it is called ace, but the point of service). By having good serve a tennis player learns to stop the beatings made better without the ball touching the ground and can make it difficult for the opponent to mark a point after you make a cut.
The drive or right is the basic beat. Is to hit the ball after the bounce, directly, on the same side of the business arm of the player. For most of the players is the key weapon to win a point and the most control. For proper drive must be profiled to the ball (depending on with which the player plays hand) in the case of a right- handed, the stroke begins on the right side of the body, continuing through it to hit the ball and ending on the left side of the body.
The reverse is the blow to the side opposite the drive. Despite being a natural mechanical stroke, is often one of the hardest to master when you start in tennis. It is very important body position, which must be placed in profile, used as a technique to it, lower the shoulder to point toward the network, while the right arm for right-handers and left lefties, passes without being bent by under the chin, to settle before returning back to hit the ball, always in front of the body. It is important, as the drive, which body weight is transferred back and forth at the time of ball impact.
The volley, or blast of air, is the stroke that takes place before the ball bounces. Is normally run close to the net to define a point. Because the player closer to the opponent, is a blow that needs to be done with great speed and reflex. The racket must be at all times to the front and top.
The left or drop shot (English drop, drop) is a blow to the power that is subtracted from the ball with the intention that falls closest to the network, the other side. Drive is usually done, but you can also do reverse. The preparation of stroke is similar to the preparation of the drive (or reverse) and should be held until the last minute, wait for the opponent a shot to the bottom. Upon impact, instead of realizing the broad swing the racquet should fall perpendicular to the ball with a flick of the wrist to produce the trickle down effect that will drop the ball and pass well the network.
The left tends to be the appropriate response to a drop shot, which the player comes shortly before the second bounce. As the ball is usually very low and near the net, it is possible to use a powerful blow. Therefore, the player only has the option of a gentle tap on the bottom, or left against, ie, a new left response, this time made from near the net.
The coup is prepared outlining the body, taking the racket back and placing it behind the neck, while his free hand points to the top, towards the ball. At the moment of impact, the rear foot goes forward, while leaving behind the racket body in a movement similar to the kick. Upon ball impact, the wrist should bend down, ending the strike similarly to serve. The ball must bounce before returning it.
Es un golpe inusual, habitualmente en situación desesperada, cuando la pelota ha pasado al jugador, que consiste en impactarla entre las piernas de espalda a la red. Lleva ese nombre porque fue inventado por el tenista argentino Guillermo Vilas.
Swimming is a sport consisting of moving a person in the water without that touch the suelo. is regulated by the International Swimming Federation and born of the need that humans have had to adapt to the aquatic environment, on Planet Earth which occupies much more area than the land, thus making swimming in a very useful skill for survival. Swimming as a sport has a number of physiological benefits and also provides many positive effects on mental health practitioners.
The history of swimming dates back to prehistory, paintings have been discovered swimming Stone Age 7,000 years ago and the first written references dating from 2000 BC. C. However, swimming as a sport began in the early nineteenth century in Britain, with the National Swimming Society of London, founded in 1837. The first champion was Tom Morris, who won a mile race on the Thames in 1869. By the late nineteenth century competitive swimming was being established in Australia and New Zealand and several European countries had already established federations. In the United States amateur clubs began to hold competitions in the year 1870.
Swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games 1896 in Athens in the case of men, and from 1912 to the women. In 1908 the style trudgen Richard Cavill was improved by using the boot continues. In 1908 he created the FINA: International Swimming Federation. The butterfly was originally developed as a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a style in 1952.
The swimming was a sport very dear to the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome, especially as a training method for warriors. In Japan and competitions were held in the first century BC However, during the Middle Ages in Europe the practice was almost forgotten, and that immersion in water is associated with the continuing epidemic of the time. By the nineteenth century and this prejudice disappeared, and in the twentieth, the swimming has been considered a valuable system of physical therapy and exercise as there is generally more beneficial. No other exercise use many muscles of the body and so intensely. In addition, the increased influx of swimmers and the best construction techniques and heating, have greatly increased the number of public pools and outdoor decks around the world. The private pool, which was once a sign of exceptional privilege, is increasingly common.
There are 4 swimming strokes used in competition: Freestyle. Backstroke. Breast stroke or chest. Butterfly.
Competitive swimming is swimming with the aim of improving own brands and those established by others, is a sport of self- improvement. It became popular in the nineteenth century, and is a major event in the Olympics. The body that administers competitive swimming is FINA, which includes sub-branches of local groups such as the United States Swimming (USS) in the United States. FINA coordinates four swimming disciplines, at different distances.
Freestyle (crawl) means that the swimmer can do it the style that suits you. In freestyle, the only rules are that at the time of the test, the swimmer must start from the bank output after the start and each turn, you can stay submerged up to 15 meters. During the swim can not get out of the "rails" can not be promoted or walk along the bottom of the pool until testing is completed. Upon completion of any stage and at the end of the test, you must touch the wall in any way that marks the end of the pool. By tradition and speed, using the crawl to swim the freestyle, but we know how to differentiate which are not synonymous. The events are made at distances of 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m, 1500 m and 3000 m, the latter being the longest and toughest test you can swim in a pool competition.
Backstroke no symmetry restrictions, but swimmers should stay back for the entire event, except during the turn is made in the wall. This style is essentially a reversal of the crawl, but with the elbows straight - the competitor moves his arms back over her shoulders, and gets fully stretched hand pushing water to produce progress, coupled with a kick similar to crawl, but that this kick is done from the knees. Events are held at distances of 50 m, 100 m and 200 m.
Braza, from which evolved the butterfly, has the additional restriction that the swimmers hands must be pushed forward together from the chest and elbows must remain under water, at an angle of 90 °. Style is slower in competitive swimming. Events are held at distances of 50 m, 100 m and 200 m. This style is what the legs provide the greatest force for progress.
Butterfly requires the swimmers actions have bilateral symmetry (the left side of the body must do the same as the right) and also the legs are coordinated in a shake up and down like the hip with the arms starting the movement of the legs with a ripple that will travel from the hip to the foot of the swimmer. This style is one that requires more strength and more energy- consuming of all. The events are made at distances of 50 m, 100 m and 200 m.Deshacer cambios
To put the arm in the water, is the hand the first to enter the water, creating a streamlined effect. At the stroke as possible, since apart from increasing the distance reduces fatigue. Close the palm of your hand to keep water from escaping between the fingers, with much less thrust produced. Learn to breathe on both sides, keeping the axis of the body towards the target firm, without rocking. Jump as far as possible from the podium (recommended to get to the pennant in competitions). Swimming through the middle of the lane to avoid hitting the streets separating rows.Deshacer cambios
In breaststroke, try sticking your head while his arms shrink, and give the kick while the arms are stretched. For backstroke, posting the recommended distance (stroke) from the flag to the finish (wall) to perform well then the first signs. When turning, close to the wall as possible in order to propel (legs-wall), while leaving the gap enough to not have to bow and exit the water
It originated in Canada in 1920 and spread to America, the first country to exploit was the United States in 1930, which won many awards, especially for its great musical water. At first they called water ballet. He began exhibiting in 1984 at the Olympic Games. To participate in tournaments it takes at least three hours of training which includes one hour of physical training, also need: physical strength, thanks, beauty, agility and musical interpretation. This game shows a strength and coordination in an artwork: the choreography. The rules are similar to those of other artistic sports like skating and gymnastics.
Aerobic swimming as a sport helps promote good blood circulation body and thus significantly improves the oxygenation of vital organs like the brain. Studies have shown a strong relationship between swimming and swimming and practice adapted it for people who lead sedentary lives of exercise, such as retirees or seniors. Studies show a strong relationship between the practice of sport and improving emotional and self-esteem (measured in Rosenberg Scale and physical aspects such as weight reduction, optimization of motor skills and joint mobility. There are also studies that demonstrate a relationship between the practice of swimming in women over 55 years and improvements in psychological well-being variables such as trust in the Auto Physical presentation, the perceived Physical Ability, self-esteem Rosenberg scale) and satisfaction with life.