Teaching in a Public Institution
Dominant Ideology <ul><li>Hegemony theory states that a dominant set of ideals support a particular way of seeing a proble...
Grading vs. Dominant Ideology … an Example <ul><li>Grading in schools provides a mask for the appearance of consensus </li...
Grading vs. Dominant Ideology … an Example <ul><li>Despite teacher-driven objections, they overwhelmingly continue to use ...
Hegemony Theory vs. The Public School Teacher <ul><li>The teacher is an important actor in the process </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Using the  Authority  to Educate <ul><li>If rules bring a class into a single room at a particular time so as to facilitat...
The  Authority  of the Expert <ul><li>Teachers who are experts in their disciplines are better positioned to guard against...
The Pedagogical  Authority <ul><li>A teacher’s role is to fit rather misfit students for more mature and autonomous partic...
A Tribute to Horace Mann <ul><li>Massachusetts in the 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to improve the quality and quantity of...
A Tribute to Horace Mann <ul><li>Pushed teaching into the direction of becoming a profession </li></ul><ul><li>Recruited w...
Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Common School Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- improve teaching and teachers </li></ul><...
Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Progressive Era Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- late 19 th  and 20 th  centuries </li><...
Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Progressive Era Reform (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>-  Professional Administrator...
Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Conant Era Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- post WW II teachers and teacher-training wer...
Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Conant Era Reform (Continued) </li></ul><ul><li>- like the medical and legal profe...
Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>The 1980 and 1990s emphasized teacher professionalization </li></ul><ul><li>President B...
Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased accountabili...
Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>A neo-liberal response to the problems of the profession </li></ul><ul><li>- ARTC (Alte...
Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>ARTC does not look like traditional undergraduate or even graduate teacher preparation ...
Teaching as a Public Profession <ul><li>In 1986 Dee Ann Spencer presented a viewpoint assessing improvements and the valid...
Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>Legitimate stakeholders play a significant role </li></ul><ul><li>Statuto...
Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>State Government and Local Control </li></ul><ul><li>- state education po...
Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>Local School Boards </li></ul><ul><li>representative of state government ...
Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>The Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>serves as district leader of the edu...
Professional Satisfaction vs. Professional Ethics <ul><li>National Educational Association  (NEA) research revealed in 200...
Professional Satisfaction vs. Professional Ethics <ul><li>The Louis study shows that teachers find significance in the fol...
Professional Satisfaction vs. Professional Ethics <ul><li>The 1980s school reform movement has impacted professional satis...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Teaching in a Public Institution

1,231

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,231
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
34
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Teaching in a Public Institution

  1. 1. Teaching in a Public Institution
  2. 2. Dominant Ideology <ul><li>Hegemony theory states that a dominant set of ideals support a particular way of seeing a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Results in the appearance of consensus, when in fact there is very little agreement and few ways to disagree </li></ul>
  3. 3. Grading vs. Dominant Ideology … an Example <ul><li>Grading in schools provides a mask for the appearance of consensus </li></ul><ul><li>- teachers from elementary schools to colleges who object to using the A – F grading system condemn it with phrases such as “I don’t believe in grades.” </li></ul><ul><li>- admit that grading interferes with education </li></ul><ul><li>- condemn how it compares students to their peers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Grading vs. Dominant Ideology … an Example <ul><li>Despite teacher-driven objections, they overwhelmingly continue to use this grading system </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the outward appearance that they believe in the practice </li></ul><ul><li>These teachers are … </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hegemony Theory vs. The Public School Teacher <ul><li>The teacher is an important actor in the process </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher who entered the profession to help students learn to think and question for themselves find that they are helping students learn to accept the status quo </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM! </li></ul><ul><li>- teachers see themselves as state employees – they see this as the validating source of their teaching authority </li></ul><ul><li>- the authority of the state institution- the school- is the authority of the teacher </li></ul>
  6. 6. Using the Authority to Educate <ul><li>If rules bring a class into a single room at a particular time so as to facilitate being taught something that will help them develop their minds </li></ul><ul><li>- rules become part of a liberating process </li></ul><ul><li>Valid inquiry provides a basis of authority from teachers to teach students to question the authority of the institution </li></ul><ul><li>- provide evidence and arguments </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Authority of the Expert <ul><li>Teachers who are experts in their disciplines are better positioned to guard against, and to alert students to errors and half-truths in texts and prepared curricula </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Pedagogical Authority <ul><li>A teacher’s role is to fit rather misfit students for more mature and autonomous participation in community life </li></ul><ul><li>What a student is taught depends on the community’s environment into which that student will emerge into </li></ul><ul><li>- checks and balances come from the School Board or the principal </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Tribute to Horace Mann <ul><li>Massachusetts in the 1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to improve the quality and quantity of teachers available to common schools </li></ul><ul><li>Centralize state control of schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Developed Normal Schools as “teacher schools” whose curriculum included: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) pedagogy, (2) psychology of learning, (3) training in the teacher’s subject matter </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Tribute to Horace Mann <ul><li>Pushed teaching into the direction of becoming a profession </li></ul><ul><li>Recruited women into the profession </li></ul><ul><li>Paved the way for current issues on </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher preparation and licensure </li></ul><ul><li>Addressed the consequences of public funding versus private funding </li></ul><ul><li>Addressed tensions between public and professional control over teaching practice and what would be accepted as a specialized knowledge base of the profession </li></ul>
  11. 11. Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Common School Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- improve teaching and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>- establish and enforce a moral code of behavior throughout the state and local school councils: </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ professional Code of Ethics </li></ul>
  12. 12. Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Progressive Era Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- late 19 th and 20 th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>- teacher preparation programs where attached to four-year baccalaureate degree programs (like law and medicine) </li></ul><ul><li>- by the end of WW II, the normal-school era had ended </li></ul><ul><li>- teacher preparation curricula emphasized current research on learning psychology, principles of group management, and a better preparation into the history, sociology, and philosophy of education </li></ul><ul><li>- Columbia Teachers College of the 1930s- model </li></ul>
  13. 13. Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Progressive Era Reform (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>- Professional Administrators were educated to play a greater role in school management and decision-making (business model approach) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Conant Era Reform </li></ul><ul><li>- post WW II teachers and teacher-training were being judged </li></ul><ul><li>schooling in the United States had become academically “soft” </li></ul><ul><li>James Conant reforms called for greater academic rigor </li></ul><ul><li>1963 produced literature as The Miseducation of American Teachers by James D. Koerner and </li></ul><ul><li>The Education of American Teachers by James B. Conant </li></ul><ul><li>- attacked teacher-training programs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Professionalization of Teaching <ul><li>Conant Era Reform (Continued) </li></ul><ul><li>- like the medical and legal professions, stressed the importance of an intensive period of practice teaching </li></ul><ul><li>- internship programs </li></ul><ul><li>- 1970s and thereafter linked teacher evaluations to student test scores- an effort by legislators and policymakers to control the quality of teachers from the top down </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>The 1980 and 1990s emphasized teacher professionalization </li></ul><ul><li>President Bush announced in January 2002- the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) </li></ul><ul><li>Re-enacted the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 which raised accountability of local school systems for educating all students </li></ul>
  17. 17. Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased accountability for states, school districts, and schools </li></ul><ul><li>Provided a broader choice for parents and students (especially those in low – SES) </li></ul><ul><li>Provided more flexibility for states and local educational agencies (LEAs) in the use of federal funds for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Provided a stronger emphasis on reading </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>A neo-liberal response to the problems of the profession </li></ul><ul><li>- ARTC (Alternative Routes to Teacher Certification) programs emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Teach for America </li></ul><ul><li>Troops to Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Americorps </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE Corps (Partnership for Los Angeles Catholic Education) – Loyola Marymount University L. A. </li></ul><ul><li>The Concordia System of Schools (for the Missouri Synod schools) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Contemporary School Reform <ul><li>ARTC does not look like traditional undergraduate or even graduate teacher preparation programs which require completion of a degree and/or certification before full-time teaching can begin </li></ul><ul><li>ARTC will be “under the gun” by NCLB </li></ul>
  20. 20. Teaching as a Public Profession <ul><li>In 1986 Dee Ann Spencer presented a viewpoint assessing improvements and the validity of the teaching profession </li></ul><ul><li>- teaching is a quasi-profession because of low pay and a teacher’s lack of control over their workplace </li></ul><ul><li>- teaching conditions are similar to blue-collar conditions </li></ul><ul><li>- the way in which the organizational structure of schools has developed over time and the pre-dominance of women in teaching have perpetuated these conditions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>Legitimate stakeholders play a significant role </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory Control </li></ul><ul><li>- Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution grants that “powers” not delegated to the United States by the Constitution are reserved to the states- the state has the plenary control over public education </li></ul>
  22. 22. Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>State Government and Local Control </li></ul><ul><li>- state education policies are administered through boards of education and state departments of education </li></ul><ul><li>- States … </li></ul><ul><li>establish teacher certification requirements </li></ul><ul><li>minimum number of days public schools are in session </li></ul><ul><li>guidelines for compulsory student attendance </li></ul><ul><li>required subjects to be taught </li></ul><ul><li>health and safety standards </li></ul><ul><li>graduation requirements </li></ul><ul><li>finance policies </li></ul><ul><li>California and Texas require approval of textbooks at the state level </li></ul>
  23. 23. Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>Local School Boards </li></ul><ul><li>representative of state government within their community- serve without pay </li></ul><ul><li>appoint the district superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>approves the district budget </li></ul><ul><li>negotiates collective bargaining agreements with teacher unions </li></ul><ul><li>acts on employee hiring and dismissals </li></ul>
  24. 24. Public Control vs. Professional Autonomy <ul><li>The Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>serves as district leader of the educational staff </li></ul><ul><li>provides direction and supervision of district activity </li></ul><ul><li>advises school board on matters before it </li></ul><ul><li>recommends policy </li></ul><ul><li>National acts which have influenced national educational reforms </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The National Defense Educational Act of 1958 (for science, math, foreign language, and guidance) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (now NCLB) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Professional Satisfaction vs. Professional Ethics <ul><li>National Educational Association (NEA) research revealed in 2002 that 88% of teachers prefer more say-so over curriculum and instruction in their schools </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher Karen Seashore Louis outlined a common denominator of conditions for teachers in America </li></ul>
  26. 26. Professional Satisfaction vs. Professional Ethics <ul><li>The Louis study shows that teachers find significance in the following working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Respect and status within the larger community </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent and stimulating professional interaction among peers </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to make full use of existing skills and knowledge- professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Standard procedures which facilitate immediate and accurate feedback on teacher performance and student learning </li></ul><ul><li>A pleasant physical hostile-free learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of congruence between personal goals and the school’s goals – low degree of alienation </li></ul>
  27. 27. Professional Satisfaction vs. Professional Ethics <ul><li>The 1980s school reform movement has impacted professional satisfaction in </li></ul><ul><li>- the effort to increase teachers’ salaries </li></ul><ul><li>* the average elementary teacher spends 47 hours per week on school duties due to 25 students in a self-contained class </li></ul><ul><li>* the average secondary school teacher spends 51 hours per week on school duties due to 23 students in each of five classes </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×