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Differentiation and Graphic Organizers


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  • 2.
    • By
    • Dr. Paul A. Rodriguez
  • 3. Differentiation with Graphic Organizers
    • Tomlinson (1999) explains that teachers can modify three aspects of teaching…
      • Content
      • Process
      • Product
    • Use of leveled graphic organizers differentiates by product
    • Graphic organizers are NOT end products, they are planners used to record ideas for subsequent activities
  • 4. Tiered Teaching
    • When we use leveled graphic organizers we create planners on three levels…
      • Beginning : students demonstrate a basic understanding of the target concept using pictures and a limited amount of writing
      • Developing: students are ready to engage, with some support, in higher levels of thinking and writing than beginning students
      • Extending: appropriate for students who are able to work with limited support on material that is more cognitively advanced than the previous two levels
  • 5. Differentiation by Content
    • Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002) have identified three tiers that can be used to teach vocabulary
    • Tier 1
      • Common everyday words that most elementary and middle school students know and use regularly(fast, little, big)
    • Tier 2
      • More sophisticated words, often synonyms for Tier 1 words (quick, tiny, enormous)
    • Tier 3
      • Words that we come across less frequently, often in content area classes and texts (trapezoid, chrysalis, biome)
  • 6. What is a graphic organizer?
    • “ A visual representation of knowledge that structures information by arranging important aspects of a concept or topic into a pattern using labels”
    • “ Graphic organizers present information in concise ways that highlight the organization and relationships of concepts”
    • Can be used with any subject matter at any level and with diverse groups of students (ELL, gifted, special-needs)
    50 Graphic Organizers for Reading, Writing & More
  • 7.
    • Focuses on Similarities and Differences
  • 8.
    • For Describing with Adjectives
  • 9.
    • Developed by Susan Szabo to help struggling readers improve reading comprehension and provide differentiated learning
    KWHHL an Evolution of the KWL
  • 10. Why KWHHL?
    • -Does not encourage reflective thinking of background knowledge to determine if what students know is correct
    • -Does not encourage developing questions during reading
    • -Does not encourage vocabulary growth
    • -Develops students’ interest,
    • curiosity, and motivation
    • -Helps students determine what they want to learn
    • -Help students monitor their comprehension
    • -Provides an opportunity for students to expand on ideas and learn vocabulary
    • Advantages of KWHHL
    • Limitations of KWL
  • 11. Modified KWL Strategy K What do you know? W What do you want to know? H Head Words H Heart Words L What have you learned? (This is done before reading the text. Brainstorm by thinking about what you already know about the topic and write below.) (Questions are developed by you both before and while reading in order to set a purpose for reading.) Head words are words that confuse you. (When you read, you may find words that you do not understand. Write the sentence and underline the word.) Heart words tell us what you feel. (Write down the emotional word and the event that triggered that emotion.) When we read information books, we read to learn. Therefore, we need to think about what we read and what we already know critically. Positive Ideas/Thoughts: 1. 2. Negative Ideas/Thoughts 1. 2. Neutral Ideas 1. 2. Before reading: 1. 2. 3. While reading: 1. 2. 3. Head Words: 1. 2. 3. 4.. 5. Heart Words & Why: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. New Information Learned: 1. 2. “ Stayed the same” “ Correct but added to” “ Adjusted because flawed”
  • 12. Variations to the KWL Chart
    • KWL Plus-incorporates semantic mapping and summarizing procedures
    • KWHLS (Know, Want, How, Learn, Still) -helps students answer questions, “How will I learn it and work with others. How will I share the information I have learned?”
    • KWWL (Know, Want, Where, Learn)- “Where can I learn this?”
    • BKWLQ ( B uilding background, Q is for new questions after reading)-encourages the teacher to read aloud
  • 13. Vocabulary Cartoons
    • Vocabulary Cartoons introduce mnemonic memory techniques into the vocabulary learning technique.
    • A mnemonic device is something that helps you remember something by associating what you are trying to remember with something you already know.  
    • Rhymes and poems also serve as mnemonics. For example, “Columbus sailed the ocean blue in fourteen hundred and ninety two.”
    • In addition to auditory mnemonics, there are visual mnemonics, where you create in your mind’s eye a mental image of whatever it is you wish to remember.
  • 14.
    • Mnemonic cartoons to help students increase their vocabulary
    Vocabulary Cartoons
  • 15. Vocabulary Cartoons 1998
  • 16. Teaching New Vocabulary Words
    • Vocabulary word (Main Word)
    • Copy the phonetic pronunciation
    • Copy the definition
    • Write the Link Word (It can sound like or rhyme with the main word.)
    • Write the caption (Use the main word and linking word in a sentence.)
    • Draw the cartoon (Illustrate the caption into a humorous or bizarre cartoon.)
  • 17. Vocabulary Rating Sheet
    • Write the sentence in which it appears in the text.
    • Based upon how it is used in the text, predict what the word means.
    • Consult an “expert” for the actual definition.
    • Show your understanding of the word by using it in a sentence of your own.
    • Choose one of the following ways to help you remember the word’s meaning.
    • Draw a picture of what the word means to you or connect the word with something that you have heard --- a story, a news report, a song, a sound. In the space below, draw or write down the association or connection you have made:
    • Explain why you chose this way to represent what the word means to you.
    • Finally, explain to a partner your understanding of the word’s meaning as well as the visual, mental or physical representation you chose to help you recall the definition.
  • 18. Students’ responses to graphic organizers
    • Second Grade Students
      • Can we do the “circle thing again?”
      • I love it, this is my favorite.
      • This is super-cool.
    • Special Education High School
      • 1. It helps us to understand the story better.
      • 2. It makes us think more.
      • 3. It helps us learn words .
      • 4. It helps us understand the character(s) better.
    • High School Students
      • Graphic organizers help you begin ideas and then be more specific later.  
      • Graphic organizers help with organization, especially with those longer writing assignments.  
      • Graphic organizers are great references for use with final drafts.