Brain Specialization
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    Brain Specialization Brain Specialization Presentation Transcript

    • Dr. Paul A. Rodriguez Brain Specialization and Learning
    • Brain Lateralization
      • The brain is able to perform unique functions particular to one hemisphere. In complex tasks, both hemispheres are engaged.
      • Left hemisphere processes external stimuli such as: speech , interprets words and evaluates material.
      • Right hemisphere processes internal messages by gathering information and looking for patterns.
    • Hemispheric Preference
      • Left Hemisphere Functions
      • Right Hemisphere Functions
      • Connected to right side of the body
      • Processes input in a sequential and analytical manner
      • Time-sensitive
      • Generates spoke n language
      • Does invariable and arithmetic operations
      • Specializes in recognizing words and numbers
      • Connected to the left side of the body
      • Processes input more holistically and abstractly
      • Space –sensitive
      • Interprets language through gestures, facial movements, emotions, and body language
      • Does relational and mathematical operations
      • Specializes in recognizing faces, places, objects, and music
    • The Gender Connection
      • Males
      • Females
      • Less gray matter than females , with more in left hemisphere than right .
      • Higher white matter than females, with the same in both hemispheres.
      • Cerebral spinal fluid is higher than in males.
      • Corpus callosum is smaller and thinner in females.
      • Language areas is located almost exclusively in left hemisphere.
      • Amygdala grows faster in teenage boys.
      • Hippocampus grows slower in teenage boys than in girls.
      • Gray matter is the same in both hemispheres.
      • Lower percentage of white matter than males.
      • Cerebral spinal fluid is lower than men.
      • Corpus callosum is larger and thicker than in males.
      • Language areas are in the left hemisphere.
      • Amygdala grows slower in teenage girls than in boys.
      • Hippocampus grows faster in teenage girls than in boys.
    • Possible Causes of Gender Differences
      • The Effects of Hormones influence brain development differently in the sexes. Example with testosterone and boys.
      • The Effects of Natural Selection have fostered structural changes in the brain that are specific to each gender.
      • The Impact of the Environment studies indicate that boys’ and girls’ acuity of senses do not develop identically in both genders.
      • The Empathizing Female and Systemizing Male according to Simon Baron-Cohen (2003) proposes that female brains are wired for empathy, and that male brains are wired for systemizing.
    • Schools and Hemispheric Preference
      • Left-Hemisphere Schools
      • -Structured environments that run according to time schedules, favor facts and rules over patterns, and offer verbal instruction
      • Impact on Mathematics and Science
      • -Male and female brains deal differently with numbers and computation. Both boys and girls are on a level playing field.
    • Spoken Language Specialization
      • Learning Sounds Called Phonemes
      • Learning Grammar
      • The total number of phonemes in the world languages is around 90, which represents the maximum number of sounds that the human voice apparatus can create (Beatty, 2001).
      • Practice in speaking and adult correction helps children decode the mysteries of grammar’s irregularities. Prolonged television watching can impair the growth of young brains (Zimmerman & Christakis, 2005).
    • Learning Spoken Language
      • Language Delay to two years is inherited, and thus represents a distinct disorder not easily remedied by environmental interventions (Dale et al.,1998).
      • Implications are that the brain’s ability to acquire spoken language is at its peak in the early years, students benefit from a create a rich environment that includes lots of communication activities
    • Learning To Read
      • Is Reading a Natural Ability?
      • -No areas of the brain specializes in reading.
      • -Learning to read requires three neural systems:
      • -Understanding
      • -Auditory Processing
      • -Visual Processing
      • Skills Involved in Reading
      • -Phonological and phonemic awareness
      • -Alphabetic principle and phonics
      • -Vocabulary
      • -Fluency
      • -Text comprehension
    • Problems in Learning to Read
      • Linguistic Causes
      • Nonlinguistic Causes
      • -Phonological deficits
      • -Differences in auditory and visual processing speeds
      • -Structural differences in the brain
      • -Phonological memory deficits
      • -Genetics and gender
      • -Brain lesions in the word processing areas
      • -Word-blindness
      • -Perception of sequential sounds
      • -Sound-frequency discrimination
      • -Detection of target sounds in noise
      • -Motor coordination and the cerebellum
      • -Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    • Reference
      • How the Brain Learns
      • by
      • David A. Sousa