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  1. 2. HOW TO DEAL WITH CHILDREN THAT HAVE ADHD <ul><li>What is ADHD (ADD) </li></ul><ul><li>Types of ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Students with ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments for ADHD Students </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD resources for teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  2. 3. What is ADHD ? <ul><li>According to the 1994, Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Ed. IV, (DSM-IV). ADHD is a Disruptive Behavior Disorder characterized by the presence of a set of chronic and impairing behavior patterns that display abnormal levels of inattention, hyperactivity, or their combination. </li></ul><ul><li>The American Academy of Pediatrics estimates that between 4 and 12 percent of all school-age children have ADHD. Making ADHD the most common childhood neurobehavioral disorder. </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is ADHD? (Continuation) <ul><li>ADHD has had many names. ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) is one of those many names. ADD has been used so frequently that many people still use it instead of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Is not unusual to have at least 3 to 4 students with ADHD in a class of 30 students. </li></ul>
  4. 5. THERE ARE 3 SUB-TYPES OF ADHD <ul><li>Predominantly hyperactive </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly inattentive </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of the type, many children with ADHD commonly report that their minds distract them, therefore, they can not focus on one task or activity at a time. Some children with ADHD don't even hear people speak because they are so distracted, according to the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). </li></ul>
  5. 6. ADHD Behaviors <ul><li>Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat </li></ul><ul><li>b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected </li></ul><ul><li>c) often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which </li></ul><ul><li>it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to </li></ul><ul><li>subjective feelings of restlessness) </li></ul><ul><li>d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities </li></ul><ul><li>quietly. </li></ul><ul><li>e) is often &quot;on the go&quot; or often acts as if &quot;driven by a motor “ </li></ul><ul><li>f) often talks excessively </li></ul>
  6. 7. ADHD Behaviors <ul><li>j) often blurts out answers before questions have been completed </li></ul><ul><li>k) often has difficulty awaiting turn </li></ul><ul><li>l) often interrupts or intrudes on others </li></ul>
  7. 8. ADHD Behaviors (continuation) <ul><li>2. Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>a) often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, or other activities </li></ul><ul><li>b) often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities </li></ul><ul><li>c) often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly </li></ul><ul><li>d) often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions). </li></ul><ul><li>e) often has difficulty organizing tasks & activities </li></ul>
  8. 9. ADHD Behaviors (Continuation) <ul><li>f) often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework). </li></ul><ul><li>g) often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools). </li></ul><ul><li>h) is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>i) is often forgetful in daily activities. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Students with ADHD <ul><li>A child must exhibit at least 6 of 9 symptoms of the criteria </li></ul><ul><li>defined by the American Psychiatric Association. </li></ul><ul><li>• Child should demonstrate symptoms in at least 2 settings </li></ul><ul><li>• Those symptoms must be harmful to the child's academic or </li></ul><ul><li>social functioning for at least 6 months. </li></ul><ul><li>• A medical assessment for a diagnosis requires evidence </li></ul><ul><li>directly obtained from the classroom teacher (or another </li></ul><ul><li>school professional). </li></ul><ul><li>• An additional Individual Educational Program (IEP) should </li></ul><ul><li>also be conducted for associated (coexisting) conditions, such </li></ul><ul><li>as learning disabilities and other mental health or behavioral </li></ul><ul><li>disorders </li></ul>
  10. 11. Differentiated Instruction (General) <ul><li>Slowing down & allowing processing time will lead to more retention of learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage movement throughout daily class activities. Avoid more than 20 minutes of seatwork or inactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Place the student in the least distracting area in class. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify & increase visual presentations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual references for auditory instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact with the student when giving verbal instructions. Make directions clear, concise, and simple. Repeat instructions as needed in a calm voice . </li></ul><ul><li>Break assignments into small chunks. Provide immediate feedback on each assignment. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Differentiated Instruction (Continuation) <ul><li>Insure that the student has recorded homework assignments each day before leaving school. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide activities that require active participation such as talking through problems or acting out the steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the student with opportunities to demonstrate strengths at school. Set up times in which the student can assist peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Use learning aides such as computers, calculators, tape recorders, and programmed learning materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach organization and study skills. For example teach the students to use sticky notes & highlighters to follow along teacher-led Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the students with a quiet place in which to work . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Differentiated Instruction (Specific – According to Subject) <ul><li>DIFFERENTIATION IN READING </li></ul><ul><li>Add cues to help students decode troublesome words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark long vowels (s ee d) / Cross out silent letters / Divide words into syllables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide markers for students who lose their place while reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Use peer tutors and volunteers for sight word review </li></ul><ul><li>To increase reading fluency, have students reread a passage several times. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students strategies for approaching comprehension tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach students to name the most important person (Who?) & the major event (What is happening?) in each paragraph. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell students the purposes for reading and what to look for in the passage ahead of time. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. DIFFERENTIATION IN SPELLING/WRITTEN LANGUAGE <ul><li>Help students who are poor spellers begin to use the dictionary as an aid; provide them with a mini-dictionary or “ My Words ” booklet that contains high-frequency words and words that they often misspell. </li></ul><ul><li>Review rules for capitalization & punctuation before students begin writing; post rules on the bulletin board. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students keep a daily journal, write three-sentence stories, compose a note to a friend, describe an event or person. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students to use word processors for writing. Use word processing tools that assist students in the drafting, revising, and editing stages of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach writing as a multistage process. Whatever process model is used, provide guided practice at each stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach strategies for locating and correcting writing errors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: C capitalization / O overall appearance / P punctuation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. DIFFERENTIATION IN MATH <ul><li>Add visual prompts to help students solve computation problems. </li></ul><ul><li>For students who have trouble spacing math problems and writing numbers, use paper that has been marked off in squares. </li></ul><ul><li>Include only a few problems per page if students have difficulty finishing their work. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop automaticity, research suggests introducing no more than two or three facts and their reciprocals at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students begin to analyze story problems by identifying the key words that often signal the different operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Addition: Altogether, sum, and, plus, finds. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. DIFFERENTIATED ASSESSMENTS <ul><li>Writing tests with easier question dispersed throughout. This keeps the motivation high. </li></ul><ul><li>For students who work slowly, reduce the length of written assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the child extra time to work on exams. </li></ul><ul><li>Use multiple choice or one-to-one oral tests to assess the child ’ s mastery of content. </li></ul>
  16. 17. ADHD resources for teachers
  17. 18. ADHD resources for teachers
  18. 19. ADHD resources for teachers
  19. 20. Behavior Contract <ul><li>  Date: _________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I, ________________________________, agree that I will work toward these behavior goals: </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I understand that the rewards for meeting my behavior goals will be: </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>I also understand what will happen if I do not meet my behavior goals: </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   </li></ul><ul><li>My Name: __________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Parent:_____________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: ____________________________________ </li></ul>
  20. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>When a child has ADHD, the parents, child, teachers, and doctors need to work together as a team to understand the child ’ s needs & develop an appropriate learning plan to allow the child to reach his or her full potential. </li></ul>
  21. 25. REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL HELP <ul><li>For information about child and adolescent mental </li></ul><ul><li>health, contact: </li></ul><ul><li>SAMHSA ’ s National Mental Health Information Center </li></ul><ul><li>P.O. Box 42490 </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, DC 20015 </li></ul><ul><li>Toll-free: 1.800.789.2647 (English/Spanish) </li></ul><ul><li>TDD: 1.866.889.2647 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 26. REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL HELP <ul><li>National Institute of Mental Health Science Writing, Press & Dissemination Branch 6001 Executive Boulevard Room 8184, MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Toll-free: 1-866-615-NIMH (6464) TTY Toll-free: 1-866-415-8051 E-mail: [email_address] Web site: </li></ul>
  23. 27. REFERENCES & ADDITIONAL HELP <ul><li>National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Human Development and Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>1600 Clifton Road MS E-87 Atlanta, GA 30333 </li></ul><ul><li>800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 24 Hours/Every Day </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  24. 28. To treat everyone the same is to treat them unequally. We are making a plea for the understanding of diversity, for greater flexibility in education and parenting, so that every child can find success in his or her own way. ” -Dr. Mel Levine, Founder, All Kinds of Minds