Elements water macromolecules


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Elements water macromolecules

  1. 1. IB BIOLOGYTopics 3.1 & 3.2
  2. 2. C H O N carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogenOrganic molecules contain both carbon and hydrogen
  3. 3. Element Prokaryotes Plants AnimalsSulfur (S) Proteins Proteins proteinsCalcium (Ca) Flagella movement Forms cell plate Shells, bones and during cytokinesis teethPhosphorus (P) Nucleic acids and Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP ATPIron (Fe) Cytochrome- used Cytochrome- used in Haemoglobin; in respiration mitochondrial Cytochrome- used respiration in mitochondrial respirationSodium (Na) Main ion in cytoplasm Transmission of nerve impulses
  4. 4.  Polar molecule (has + and – ends) O is slightly –; H is slightly + Oxygen attracts electrons more strongly
  5. 5.  Hydrogen bonding- + and – ends of H2O attract each other (not a real bond, only an attraction force)  High specific heat- Polarity allows it to dissolve other polar molecules like sugars and amino acids, a ‘universal solvent’  Causes cohesion
  6. 6.  Transparent: allows plants/algae tosurvive under water, other organismsto see in water. Ice floats, protecting the waterbelow from freezing, allowingorganisms to survive Cohesion allows for some organismsto ‘walk’ on water
  7. 7.  Water has a high specific heat, heat of fusion /heat of vaporization which allows it to store a lot ofheat.Value to organisms: can absorb larger amounts of energy and still remain liquid. Ex: large body of water have a constant temperature coolant effect = water absorbs large amounts of heat and cools the body (sweat)
  8. 8.  water requires high input of water to break the H bonds to go from liquid to gas (high specific heat) Evaporation off the surface of organism allows it to lose heat. Value to organism:  Desert plants increase transpiration when in danger of over- heating  Mammals sweat for thermo-regulation
  9. 9.  Good for allowing metabolic reactions Water is a good solvent due to polarity Liquid between the temperatures in most regions of the Earth Value to organism:  Watery habitat dissolves substances that can be absorbed by organisms  Watery cytoplasm dissolves substances  Easy for metabolic reactions to take place between dissolved substances.
  10. 10.  High specific heat  Heat transport- blood can transfer heat from hot regions of the body to cooler areas for thermoregulation. Water is dense  Allows it to support large particles like blood cells, fat and transport by flowing Polarity  allows substances to be dissolved and therefore transported to all parts of organism. Cohesion  As water evaporates off of leaves, other water molecules are pulled from below in the xylem of plants
  11. 11.  Most abundant Short term energy storage General molecular formula (CH2O)n Basic unit: monosaccharides (fructose, glucose, galactose) Two monosaccharides: disaccharides (maltose, lactose, sucrose) Anything larger than this: polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
  12. 12.  Glucose: one of main products of photosynthesis, starts cellularrespiration - cell uses it as a source of energy Galactose: sugar in milk Fructose: sugar found in honey, fruits, vegetables Ribose/Deoxyribose: RNA/DNA structure
  13. 13.  Sucrose — common table sugar (glucose + fructose) Lactose — major sugar in milk (glucose + galactose) Maltose — product of starch digestion (glucose + glucose)
  14. 14.  Starches: plant storage (excess glucose) Glycogen: animals storage (excess glucose).-The liver and skeletal muscle are major deposits of glycogen. Starch grains in potato cells Cellulose: plant structure (cell wall). Probably the single most abundant organic molecule in the biosphere. (fibers – paper, cotton) Cellulose fibers
  15. 15. Condensation: 2 molecules are joined together + 1 water molecule producedHydrolysis: water helps break molecule into smaller units (monomers)
  16. 16.  Glycerol + fatty acid chains Large number of C - H bonds = non-polar molecules. Insoluble in water phospholipid Functions:- Long term energy storage- Thermal insulation (Arctic animals)- Major component of the cell membrane The fatty "tail" is non-polar (Hydrophobic) The phosphate "head" is a polar (Hydrophilic)
  17. 17.  Saturated: full of hydrogens – solidat room temperature Unsaturated: one or more doublebonds connecting carbons – liquid atroom temperature
  18. 18.  Cis – Trans- Oil for frying causes some of thecis bonds to convert to trans bonds.Fatty acids with trans bonds arecarcinogenic. Cholesterol = fat-like substance; controls how fluid the cell membrane will be necessary to produce vitamin D and steroids (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, cortisone…)
  19. 19.  Animals use fats forenergy storage Fat stores lots of caloriesin a small space - 9Kca/g -against carbs (4Kcal/g)
  20. 20.  Made of amino acids Contain nitrogen Many functions:- Structural (muscles, collagen, keratin)- Enzymes (metabolism)- Carriers (hemoglobin, albumin)- Antibodies- Hormones (ex. insulin)- Membrane pumps (ATP pumps), receptors, neurotransmitters- Movement (actin, myosin)
  21. 21.  peptide bond = joins two amino acids