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E.3 presentation E.3 presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Innate and Learned Behavior Leena and Perle
  • Become  an...E"ologist:  A  person  who  studies  the  behavior  of  animals  in  their  natural  environmentPsychologist:  A  person  who  studies  behavior  in  an  ar"ficial  environment
  • Develops  independent  of  environmental  contextNo  learning/  no  trial  and  errorGene"cally  programmedExamples Spiders  and  their  webs Wasp  and  their  nests Termites  and  their  mounds   Babies  and  suckingInnate  sequenceMeasured  through  an  animal’s  response  to  environmental  s"muli
  • A B C E D G FH I J
  • I E G A H B F C D J
  • Not  gene(cally  programmedThe  process  of  gaining  new  knowledge  or  skills  or  modifying  exis2ng  knowledge  or  skillsExamples Riding  a  bike Learning  to  swim Reading  a  book
  • Cannot  measure  it  directlyMeasured  through  the  change  in  performance  -­‐stored  in  the  nervous  system  as  memoryExample:  The  rat  and  the  pedalDisadvantage:  Output  is  not  easily  seen  
  • Innate  Behavior Learned  Behavior dependent  on  the  environmental   develops  independently  of  the   context  of  the  animal  for   environmental  context development controlled  by  genes not  controlled  by  genes inherited  from  parents not  inherited  from  parents develops  by  response  to  an   developed  by  natural  selec"on environmental  s"mulusincreases  chances  of  survival  and   may  or  may  not  increase  chance  of   reproduc"on survival  and  reproduc"on
  • Reminder:  Innate  behavior  is  measured  by  an  organism’s  response  to  environmental  s(muli  Response  can  be  executed  by  two  kinds  of  movement   Taxis   Kinesis
  • Movement  produced  by  a  direct  s(mulusMeasured  by  the  movement  towards  or  away  from  the  s(mulusAnimal  body  directed... towards  the  s(muli:  Posi2ve  response! away  from  the  s(muli:  Nega2ve  response!Taxes  are  iden(fied  by  the  type  of  s(muli  to  which  it  is  responding  to
  • The  response  to  light  Examples: Fly  larvae Planaria   EuglenaExperiments  to  determine  the  phototaxis  of  animals: Different  wavelengths  of  light   Different  light  intensi(es   Different  types  of  bulbs  
  • The  response  to  chemicals  in  the  environment  Examples: Bacterium  with  food  molecules  e.g.  glucose Planarian  with  food  molecules  e.g.  raw  liver   Bacterium  with  poisons  e.g.  phenolcri"cal  role  in  reproduc"on  Experiments  to  determine  the  chemotaxis  of  animals: Different  pH  levels Different  concentra"on  of  dissolved  drugs,  foods  or   pes"cides
  • The  response  to  gravityExperiments  u(lizing  containers  or  slow,  spinning  turn  tables
  • The  response  to  water  currents  Experiments  used  to  test  whether  animals  move  towards  or  away  from  water  currents
  • The  response  to  touch  Example Rats  with  a  water  maze  
  • Movement  in  response  to  a  non-­‐direc"onal  s"mulus  measurement  indicated  by  their  rate  of  movement  Examples: Isopods Porcellio  scaber Armadilidium  vulgareTypes  of  Kinesis Orthokinesis:  when  an  organism  MOVES  slowly  or  rapidly  in  response   to  the  s"mulus  but  it  does  not  move  towards  the  s"mulus.   Klinokinesis:  when  an  organism  TURNS  slowly  or  rapidly  in  response   to  the  s"mulus  but  it  does  not  move  towards  the  s"mulus.  
  • 1. Observa(on2. Research    Formulate  a  research  ques(on ‘What  is  the  effect  of  humidity  on  the   distribu(on  of  the  isopod  Porcellio  Scaber?’
  • 3.   Method   •    Modify  Petri  dishes  so  that  they  work  as  choice  chambers v Chamber  1  –  drying  agent  CCl2 v Chamber  2  –  wet  towels •  Measure  the  humidity  using  a  Vernier  probe •  Place  ten  individuals  in  each  chamber  through  the  rubber  stoppers •  Count  the  number  of  individuals  in  each  chamber  every  5  minutes •  Repeat  procedure  un"l  there  is  data  for  40  organisms
  • Light  condi(onsTemperature  condi(onsEqual  possibility  to  chambersSize  of  chambers
  • Chi  testIsopods  lack  waterproof  cu(cle  more  prone  to  desicca(on  dying  outKinesis  ensures  survival  and  enhances  the  ability  to  reproduce  Natural  selec(on!
  • Learning  occurs  most  easily  when  it  results  in  improving  the  animal’s  survivalImprin"ng,  Food  Hoarding,  BirdsongOther  examples: Grizzly  bear Chimpanzees  using   s"ck  to  get  termites
  • Imprin"ng process  by  which  young  animals  become  aaached  to   their  parent  within  the  first  day  or  so  aber  hatching    assures  that  the  young  stay  close  to  their  mother  for  protec"on  and  as  a   source  of  food
  • Food  hoarding store  food  then  return  when  there  is  a  shortage example: squirrels  hoard  nuts,   moles  store  worms allows  animals  to  stay  nourished
  • young  male  sparrowfirst  100  days  of  its  lifetwo  func(ons: aXracts  mate  and  discourages  rival  males
  • Classical  condi"oning  can  be  used  to  modify  a  reflex  responseExperiments the  subject  responds  to  a  s"mulus  in  a   new  way
  • Russian  Physiologistdesigned  experiments  to  illustrate  classical  condi"oning  using  dogsSaliva"on  in  dogs  is  a  reflex  response  to  the  sight  or  smell  of  foodUncondi2oned  s2muli  (UCS)  -­‐  type  of  s"muli  which  uncondi"onally  s"mulates  a  response  without  learningUncondi2oned  response  (UCR)  -­‐    result  of  uncondi"oned  s"muliNatural  s2mulus  (NS)Condi2oned  s2mulus  (CS)Condi2oned  response  (CR)
  • Each  species  of  bird  has  an   inherited  species-­‐specific   song In  each  species,  there  are   many  varia(ons  of  the  song Birds  can  learn  to  improve   the  song  they  have   inherited
  • Syrinx   vocal  organ bony  structure  at  the  boXom  of  trachea   (windpipe)Forces  air  past  a  membrane  in  the  syrinx  which  vibrates  and  produces  soundPitch  control  -­‐  altering  tension  in  the  membranes  of  the  syrinxVolume  control  -­‐  altering  the  flow  of  air
  • Experimental  DataCrude  song  is  species-­‐specificEvidence  that  template  is  inheritedAll  next  steps  are  learned
  • Aber  hatchingBird  is  silent,  listens  to  the  song  of  his  species  from  adultsAaempts  to  match  his  template  to  the  full  adult  song  by  modifying  the  inherited  templateOver  at  about  100  days  aber  hatchingSensi2ve  period  -­‐    first  100  days
  • Second  phaseyoung  bird  prac"ces  singing  the  songhears  own  songbegins  to  match  his  own  song  to  the  one  he  has  heard  from  the  adultmust  hear  his  own  song  in  order  to  sing  accurate  adult  song