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E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
E2 perception of stimuli
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E2 perception of stimuli

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  • 1. ST I MULI Done By: Mint + Thon IB Biology HL Y2
  • 2. SENSORY cells: send messages to the part of the brain that controls emotion and memory Music or food reminds our childhood times Sense organ: Mouth, Eye, Tongue, Nose, Skin Filled with sensory neurons Send messages to CNS We see, smell, taste, feel with our BRAIN! (not sense organ)
  • 3. Mechanoreceptors: respond to mechanical force/pressurePressure: Touching (Skin) Change in blood pressure (Arteries) Auditory and Equibrioception* (Ears) (sense of balance)Proprioreceptors: maintain posture and balance
  • 4. Proprioreceptors: maintain posture and balance
  • 5. Chemoreceptors: respond to chemical substancesChemical: Taste and Smell (Tongue + Nose) Monitor pH changes (blood vessels) Adjust breathing rate according to change in pH (Ears)Painreceptors: respond to chemicals from damaged tissues e.g. reflex protects us from danger
  • 6. Thermoreceptors: respond to change in temperatureWarmthreceptors: respond when temperature risesColdreceptors: respond when temperature drops REGULATING body temperature (related to HOMEOSTASIS!)
  • 7. Photoreceptors: respond to light energyLight: Sensitive to light & give us vision (eye) Rod Cell: Respond to dim light Give black and white vision Cone Cell: Respond to bright light Give us color vision
  • 8. Outer ear catches sound waves Sound waves: successive vibrations of air molecules1. EARDRUM2. BONES of the MIDDLE EAR3. OVAL WINDOW4. HAIR CELLS in the COCHLEA
  • 9. Sound waves entered  VIBRATE the eardrum ROLE: Pick up sound vibrations from the air Transmitthem to the middle ear
  • 10. There’s a risk of breaking the ear drum(perforation)Although this is commonly done…it’srecommend against using cotton tippedapplicators, hair pins, and similar devices toclean the ear.
  • 11. Series of small bones --- OssiclesOssicles: All of them are touched Touched with eardrum and oval window A lever to reduce the amplitude of waves
  • 12. Muscles:Attached to ossicles to protect ear from loudsounds --- by contracting to damp down vibrations in ossicles
  • 13. Membranous structure --- like eardrumOval Window: Transmitting sound waves to fluidRound Window: Allows movement of fluid in cochlea (by moving away) Oval window move towards cochlea | Round window moves away
  • 14. Fluid in cochlea can vibrate freely -- volume remaining constant
  • 15. Cochlea --- a tube wound to form spiral shape hair receptors (hair cells) on membraneSound waves pass through fluid in cochleaEach hair bundle resonates with particular frequenciesHair cells: have hair bundles send messages across synapse on to brain throughauditory nerve http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCyz8-eAs1I&feature=related
  • 16. . ....On the Outside• Iris: Regulation• Pupil: Admittance• Lens + Cornea: Focus• Sclera: Protect & Serve• Conjunctiva: Cover & Moisture
  • 17. From the Inside • Aqueous Humor: Transmission & Support . • Vitreous Humor: .. Transmission & SupportIn the Back• Retina: Receptors• Rods: Black, white, dim• Cones: Colorful, bright• Fovea: Dense with . .cones, acute vision• Choroid: Absorb strays• Optic Nerve: Transmission• Blind Spot: No visionperceived
  • 18. • Light focused on retina’s photoreceptor cells • Rods • Cones• Vision: Light → Photoreceptor cell → Bipolar neurone → Ganglion cells →Optic Nerve•D&C • Rods: Very sensitive to light, better in dim light • Cones: Less sensitive to light, better in bright light • Bipolar Neurone: Sends message of rods and cones to ganglion cells • Ganglion cells: Cell bodies of optic nerve, transmission to brain.
  • 19. • Sensitivity & Function • Rods: High sensitivity, prefers dim lights • Cones: Low sensistivity, prefers bright lights• Types of cells • Rods: One type • Cones: 3 types, (Red – Blue – Green)• Attachment to Bipolar Neurones • Rods: Group of rod cells • Cones: Single cone cell
  • 20. • Light stimulates rods and cones• Impulses sent to Bipolar Neurones & Ganglion cells• Brain corrects image orientation• Study of vision • Optical Illusions • Effects of brain injuries
  • 21. • Ganglion cells stimulated when lightfalls in receptive field• 2 types of Ganglion cells • A: Light on receptive field = Stimulation, Light on periphery = reduced stimulation • B: Light on periphery = Stimulation, Light on receptive field = reduced stimulation• Both Most Stimulated = Edgebetween contrasts in the receptivefield • Body has a knack for seeing edges
  • 22. • Optic Chiasma: Intersection of L & R opticnerves• Sharing of information: • L to R, R to L •½+½=1• Brain able to deduce distance, sizes, andidentity. • R Lesions: Identification problems • L Lesions: Naming problems

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