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THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS
RUSSIA UNDER THE TSARS
NICHOLAS II, THE TSAR
AND HIS FAMILY
- Immense Empire, but politically,
economically and socially b...
POLITICAL PARTIES
PLEJANOV
RUSSIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC LABOUR PARTY
SOCIALIST-REVOLUTIONARY PARTY
KERENSKYCHERNOV
CONSTITUTI...
THE 1905 REVOLUTION
Demonstration to the Winter Palace
Bloody Sunday (9th January 1905)
Battleship Potemkin
The Russian de...
RUSSIA DURING WORLD WAR 1
- Total disaster for the Russian army:
they suffered continuous defeats against
the Germans (Tan...
1917: THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION (24th- 27th February)
Strikes increased, calling for:
- the end of the war
- bread
- the abd...
1917: APRIL
Lenin coming back to Russia from Stockholm
The Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, led
by Lenin, opposed to contin...
1917: JULY AND AUGUST
General Kornilov
Bolsheviks
-The Bolsheviks tried to seize power in
Petrograd, but they failed. Leni...
OCTOBER: THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION
25th
-26th
October
On a planned action led by
Trotsky, the Bolsheviks took the
control o...
FIRST DECISIONS OF THE BOLSHEVIKS
-Signature of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with
Germany, in order to take Russia out of war....
Russia lost a lot of territories in the West:
the best industrial and agricultural lands in
Poland and Ukraine and the ter...
PROBLEMS: CIVIL WAR (1918-1921)
The partisans of the tsar (part of the
army, aristocracy and rich peasants)
formed the Whi...
The Bolsheviks finally won the war, but at a high cost:
-5 million dead by starvation and poverty
-total destruction of th...
CREATION OF THE USSR
-The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
was created in 1922: federal State formed
by 11 republics: R...
SOVIET OF THE
UNION
SOVIET OF THE
NATIONALITIES
SUPREME
SOVIET
PRESIDIUM
TWO CHAMBERS
PEOPLE
ELECTED
The General Secretary...
THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY
Economic policy launched by Lenin in order
to recover production after the wars and the
awful cons...
FIGHT FOR POWER: STALIN AND TROTSKY
In January 1924 Lenin died and a fight for
succession started:
-Trotsky wanted to expo...
STALINISM (1927- 1953)
ECONOMY
Period under Stalin´s government.
Stalin changed the orientation of the
economic policy. Hi...
Peasants who resisted collectivization
were sent to Siberia.
All the efforts were focused on
industrialization and food pr...
CULT OF STALIN´S PERSONALITY
Propaganda presented
Stalin as a big leader and
the USSR savior.
STALINIST PURGES
ZINOVIEV
NIKHOLAI YEZHOV (HEAD OF THE NKVD)
CRUSHING THE TRAITORS
Constant repression against anyone
susp...
ELIMINATING THE ENEMY
YEZHOV REMOVEDTROTSKI REMOVED
The members of the Communist Party that had fallen from grace were pro...
http://englishrussia.com/2007/02/22/soviet-russian-photos-correction
GULAG (SOVIET FORCED LABOUR AGENCY)
Forced labour camps were created
across the USSR and millions of
people were confined ...
http://gulaghistory.org/nps/onlineexhibit/
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The Russian Revolutions

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The revolutions of 1905 and 1917 in Russia and the creation of the USSR.

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Transcript of "The Russian Revolutions"

  1. 1. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS
  2. 2. RUSSIA UNDER THE TSARS NICHOLAS II, THE TSAR AND HIS FAMILY - Immense Empire, but politically, economically and socially backwards with respect to Western Europe - Autocracy: the tsar ruled as an absolute monarch: he concentrated a lot of powers, there was not a Parliament and there were no elections. He was supported by the Orthodox Church, bureaucracy (police, civil servants) and the army. -Political parties were forbidden -Most of the population were peasants, their living conditions were very hard and most of them were illiterate. -Only in some cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg) there were industries and workers
  3. 3. POLITICAL PARTIES PLEJANOV RUSSIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC LABOUR PARTY SOCIALIST-REVOLUTIONARY PARTY KERENSKYCHERNOV CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY (KADETS) MILIUKOV LENIN All the political parties were forbidden Marxist ideology Liberal ideology
  4. 4. THE 1905 REVOLUTION Demonstration to the Winter Palace Bloody Sunday (9th January 1905) Battleship Potemkin The Russian defeat against Japan in the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905), showed Russia´s backwardness and encouraged protests. -January 1905: a demonstration of workers asking for better working conditions was brutally repressed by the army: 200 people were killed -The revolt extended to other parts of the country. -Soviets (councils of workers ,peasants and soldiers) appeared and tried to coordinate protests. -The Tsar promised to make some reforms (a Constitution, a representative Parliament, universal suffrage), but he didn´t keep his promises.
  5. 5. RUSSIA DURING WORLD WAR 1 - Total disaster for the Russian army: they suffered continuous defeats against the Germans (Tannenberg, Masurian Lakes in 1914), who conquered a large amount of Russian territory. -The Tsar took personal command of the army and he was considered to be responsible for the disaster -At least two million Russian soldiers and two million civilians were killed during the war. -The mobilization of millions of peasants reduced the harvests and provoked a shortage of food, an increase of prices and hunger. - Increasing desertions in the army and strikes in cities. Soviets reappeared and organized protests. Orange line: Eastern front in 1915 Red squares: Russian army Yellow squares: German army Blue squares: Austro-Hungarian army
  6. 6. 1917: THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION (24th- 27th February) Strikes increased, calling for: - the end of the war - bread - the abdication of the tsar Finally Nicholas II abdicated, the Republic was proclaimed and a Provisional Government was formed by Liberals, Social-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks. This government decided to continue war and make reforms to transform Russia into a democracy (write a Constitution). This meant postponing land reform (the peasants´ greatest hope). Deception spread and desertions in the army increased. Demostrations in February 1917
  7. 7. 1917: APRIL Lenin coming back to Russia from Stockholm The Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, led by Lenin, opposed to continue war. The Germans facilitated Lenin´s comeback to Russian from Switzerland, where he was exiled. In April 1917 Lenin issued The April Theses: -No support to the Provisional Government (a bourgeois government) -All the power to the Soviets -Confiscation and nationalization of the lands of the country - Collectivization of factories - Bolshevik slogan: Peace, bread and land.
  8. 8. 1917: JULY AND AUGUST General Kornilov Bolsheviks -The Bolsheviks tried to seize power in Petrograd, but they failed. Lenin fled to Finland. -Some days later, in August General Kornilov tried to depose the Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks (Trotski´s Red Guard) organized the defense of the city and contributed to stop Kornilov´s thread. This increased the Bolsheviks´ popularity and in September they took control of the Petrograd Soviet.
  9. 9. OCTOBER: THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION 25th -26th October On a planned action led by Trotsky, the Bolsheviks took the control of the banks, communication buildings and stations in Petrograd and stormed the Winter Palace and took it over with no resistance. The Provisional Government was deposed and Kerensky fled. The Bolsheviks formed a new government, supported by the Congress of the Soviets of Russia. Bolshevik re-enactment of the storming of the Winter Palace
  10. 10. FIRST DECISIONS OF THE BOLSHEVIKS -Signature of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty with Germany, in order to take Russia out of war. -Expropriation of lands to distribute them among the peasants. -Factories were put under workers´ control. - Eight-hour day, unemployment pay and pensions for workers -Religion was banned and divorce allowed -The Constituent Assembly was dissolved and the “dictatorship of the proletariat” was proclaimed -The Cheka (secret police) started arresting, torturing and killing the considered to be enemies of the State. 2nd Congress of the Soviets (26th October)
  11. 11. Russia lost a lot of territories in the West: the best industrial and agricultural lands in Poland and Ukraine and the territories of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. RUSSIAN TERRITORIAL LOSSES Brest- Litovsk Treaty
  12. 12. PROBLEMS: CIVIL WAR (1918-1921) The partisans of the tsar (part of the army, aristocracy and rich peasants) formed the White Army and declared war on the Bolsheviks. They received the support of the UK and France. The Bolsheviks organized the Red Army (directed by Trostky), mobilized 5 million soldiers and ordered the total requisition of food (War Communism) Execution of Nicholas II and his family in Ekaterinburg, July 1918
  13. 13. The Bolsheviks finally won the war, but at a high cost: -5 million dead by starvation and poverty -total destruction of the productive system -development of the black market and shortage of supplies in the official markets The Bolsheviks managed to get rid of the other parties and control the soviets.
  14. 14. CREATION OF THE USSR -The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was created in 1922: federal State formed by 11 republics: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan - Totalitarian State: - One/ Single-party system: the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), considered to be the representative of the proletariat. The Communist Party controlled all the institutions - No division of powers: ruled by a Parliament called Supreme Soviet, which concentrated both the executive and the legislative power - Those who opposed the government were persecuted and punished.Flag of the Soviet Union (USSR)
  15. 15. SOVIET OF THE UNION SOVIET OF THE NATIONALITIES SUPREME SOVIET PRESIDIUM TWO CHAMBERS PEOPLE ELECTED The General Secretary of the Communist Party was normally the head of the Presidium and the Head of State of the USSR EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE POWER STRUCTURE OF POWER IN THE USSR
  16. 16. THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY Economic policy launched by Lenin in order to recover production after the wars and the awful consequences of food requisition. Lenin defined it as State capitalism: -Privatization of lands and small factories -The State kept the control of the big industries, banks and foreign trade Results: economy quickly recovered
  17. 17. FIGHT FOR POWER: STALIN AND TROTSKY In January 1924 Lenin died and a fight for succession started: -Trotsky wanted to export revolution to other countries (proletarian internationalism) -Stalin wanted to consolidate revolution in the USSR (socialism in one country) TROTSKY STALIN Finally Stalin managed to control the Communist Party, eliminated his enemies and became the leader of the USSR in1927. Trotsky had to exile and was killed by Stalin´s order in 1940.
  18. 18. STALINISM (1927- 1953) ECONOMY Period under Stalin´s government. Stalin changed the orientation of the economic policy. His priority was to transform the USSR into an industrial power. He imposed: -Collectivization of all the private properties: lands,factories, transports, banks became State property. -Centrally planned economy: the State controlled and planned economy through the Gosplan (Ministry of Planning). They elaborated Five-Year Plans, in which they decided on all the production of the USSR. All the producers had to carry out these plans. - Priority to heavy industry, to the detriment of light industry Former Gosplan (State Committe for Planning) building in Moscow. At present it´s the State Duma. Results: quick industrialization of the USSR, but permanent lack of consumers´ goods and consolidation of the black market
  19. 19. Peasants who resisted collectivization were sent to Siberia. All the efforts were focused on industrialization and food production was destined to feed industrial workers and export. Millions of peasants died from starvation (between 2 and 10 million dead, mainly in Ukraine)
  20. 20. CULT OF STALIN´S PERSONALITY Propaganda presented Stalin as a big leader and the USSR savior.
  21. 21. STALINIST PURGES ZINOVIEV NIKHOLAI YEZHOV (HEAD OF THE NKVD) CRUSHING THE TRAITORS Constant repression against anyone suspected of critizicing the regime. The Communist Party was purged several times and many of its leaders were killed. More than 1.5 million people were arrested and 700,000 were killed in the 1930s.
  22. 22. ELIMINATING THE ENEMY YEZHOV REMOVEDTROTSKI REMOVED The members of the Communist Party that had fallen from grace were progressively eliminated from the official pictures
  23. 23. http://englishrussia.com/2007/02/22/soviet-russian-photos-correction
  24. 24. GULAG (SOVIET FORCED LABOUR AGENCY) Forced labour camps were created across the USSR and millions of people were confined there, accussed of being enemies of the country.
  25. 25. http://gulaghistory.org/nps/onlineexhibit/

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