The Hispanic Monarchy in the 16th and 17th centuries


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Charles I, Philip II, Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II's reigns

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The Hispanic Monarchy in the 16th and 17th centuries

  2. 2. HOUSE OF HABSBURG OR AUSTRIA 16TH CENTURY - CHARLES I (1517-1556) - PHILIP II (1556-1598) 17th CENTURY - PHILIP III (1598-1621) - PHILIP IV (1621-1665) - CHARLES II (1665-1700)
  3. 3. 16th CENTURY: THE SUPREMACY OF THE HISPANIC MONARCHY CHARLESI (1516- 1556) PHILIP II (1556-1598) In this century the monarchs of the House of Austria were hegemonic in Europe and enlarged their territories in America with the conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires.
  4. 4. CHARLES I´S FAMILY TREE Charles with his paternal family: Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg, Philip the Handsome and Mary of Burgundy Joanna the Mad with Charles and one of his sisters Charles I inherited the big patrimony of the Catholic Monarch as a consequence of a series of dramatic circumstances: the deaths of those destined to be the heirs, like his uncle prince John of Castile and Aragón, his infant cousin Miguel of Portugal, his father Philip I (Philip the Handsome) and the mental instability of his mother, Joanna the Mad. CHARLES I (1516-1556)
  5. 5. CHARLES I´S HERITAGE BLUE: CASTILE (including the Canary Islands antd the Indies) ORANGE: ARAGON GREEN: HOUSE OF AUSTRIA (HABSBURG TERRITORIES) PURPLE: BURGUNDY - Empire made up of different territories with their own laws and institutions -Itinerant court -King’s power limited by the Parliaments of each territory - Castile, main financial support of the monarchy
  6. 6. Born in Ghent in 1500, he didn´t arrive in the Iberian Peninsula until 1517 He brought many Flemish counselors with him. When his grandfather Maximilian died, he left Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht as regent of Castile and Aragon and went to Germany to be appointed as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. ADRIAN OF UTRECHT
  7. 7. INTERNAL PROBLEMS: REVOLTS IN CASTILE AND ARAGÓN Charles I’s way of treating his subjects and several latent conflicts led to the outbreak of two important revolts: -revolt of the Comunidades (Communities) in Castile -revolt of the Germanías (Brotherhoods) in Aragón
  8. 8. Agermanats with Adrian of Utrecht REVOLT OF THE GERMANIAS IN ARAGON - It lasted from 1519 to 1521. - It developed in Valencia and Mallorca -Revolt of peasants and craftsmen who wanted to have access to the government of municipalities and an improvement in the renting conditions of land. -The leaders of the revolt were Vicent Peris and Joan Llorenç -The king signed an alliance with the nobles and together they defeated the revolted
  9. 9. It started in 1520 and it finished in 1521. - Many Castilian cities revolted against the king due to the new taxes they had to pay. - They also protested against the foreigners who held the most important posts in Castile and wanted these posts for Castilian people. - The cities asked for protection for Castilian industry. - In some places peasants revolted against their lords. The Comuneros visited queen Joanna I in Tordesillas in order to try to get her support, but Charles made an agreement with the Castilian nobles and they defeated the Comuneros in Villalar (23rd April 1521) The leaders of the revolt, Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado, were executed REVOLT OF THE COMUNEROS IN CASTILE
  11. 11. WARS AGAINST FRANCE KING FRANCIS I OF FRANCE BATTLE OF PAVIA, 1525 After several wars, the Emperor´s armies occupied Milan in 1535.
  12. 12. WARS AGAINST THE MUSLIMS Charles I announcing Pope Paul III the conquest of Tunis, tapestry made in 1535 Suleiman the Magnificent, sultan of the Ottoman Empire Charles I also launched several attacks to stop the Ottoman Turks and the Barbary pirates of the North of Africa, who threatened the Mediterranean possessions : ∙He helped his brother Ferdinand stop the Ottoman Turks, commanded by Suleiman the Magnificent, in Vienna (1532) and stopped their advance in Eastern Europe. ∙In the Mediterranean Sea he conquered Tunis and La Goulette in 1535, but he failed in his attempt to conquer Algiers in 1541. Barbarossa, Ottoman admiral defeated at La Goulette Ottoman depiction of the siege of Vienna, from 1529 to 1532
  13. 13. WARS AGAINST THE PROTESTANTS IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Charles V at Mühlberg (1547), painted by Titian Diet of Worms, 1521. Excommunication of the Lutherans Although at the beginning Charles V tried to make an agreement with the Lutheran princes, in 1631 he declared war against the Schmalkaldic League (alliance of Lutheran princes). Charles V defeated them at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547. But he was aware of the fact that he couldn’t impose Catholicism in the Empire and finally the Augsburg Peace (1555) was signed.
  14. 14. AUGSBURG PEACE, 1555 This agreement gave the German princes the possibility of choosing religión in the Holy Roman Empire: every prince could choose the religion he preferred, but all the inhabitants of his state had to have the same religion of his prince (CUIUS REGIS, EIUS RELIGIO). This agreement meant the end of religion wars in the Empire, but intolerance continued. - GREEN: Protestant States - DARK GREEN: Schmalkaldic League members States - LIGHT BROWN: territories of the House of Austria (Habsburg) - YELLOW AND LIGHT BROWN: Catholic States
  15. 15. In 1556, after so many wars, tired and ill, Charles I decided to abdicate and divide his heritage: - The territories of the House of Austria and the title of Emperor were assigned to his brother Ferdinand. -The rest of his heritage (including the Low Countries) was for his first son Philip, who ruled with the name of Philip II. SUCCESSION Charles I’s abdication in Brussels, 1556 Ferdinand, Charles´s brother, inherited the Holy Roman Empire. Philip II inherited the rest of the Empire Isabella of Portugal, Charles V’s cousin and wife and Philip II’s mother
  16. 16. After his abdication, Charles I retired to the Monastery of Yuste, in Extremadura. In 1557 the expenses created by so many wars led to the first default in the Hispanic Monarchy. The Treasury couldn’t pay the amount of debts created after long years of war. Philip II had to restructure the debt In 1558 Charles V died of malaria and was buried in Yuste, although his remains were later moved to the Royal Pantheon of the Monastery of El Escorial Charles V in the Monastery of Yuste, painted by Eugène Delacroix in 1837 Monastery of Yuste
  17. 17. PHILIP II (1556-1598) Although Philip II didn ´t inherit the Holy Roman Empire, he was the king of a huge Empire (“the Sun never set in his Empire”). -In 1565 he annexed the Philippines Islands -In 1580 he added Portugal and its colonies in America, Africa and Asia in 1580.
  18. 18. GOVERNMENT - Capital city in Madrid - Personal government. The king was helped by: - a professional bureaucracy - several councils: Council of War, Council of the Indies, Council of State… - Growth of political centralization: Castile became the political center of the Monarchy, the King didn´t call the Cortes and made almost all the decisions -Main objectives: •Defense of catholicism •preservation of the Empire Royal Monastery of El Escorial, built to commemorate the victory in the Battle of Saint Quentin, and Philip II’s favourite place Philip II Antonio Pérez, Philip II’s secretary. His intrigues caused a lot of problems in the
  19. 19. DEFENSE OF CATHOLICISM -Prohibition of protestantism in his kingdoms. -Reinforcement of the Holy Inquisition - Students couldn´t study abroad -Prohibition of importing books - “Blood cleanliness” in the administration Document of blood cleanliness, 18th century Revolt of the Alpujarras, 1567 Religious intolerance caused many problems: •inside the Peninsula, repression of the Moorish of Granada: revolt of the Alpujarras and exile of the Moorish to other parts of the Peninsula. •outside the Peninsula, revolt of the Low Countries (Eighty Years’ War, 1568-1648)
  20. 20. REVOLT IN THE LOW COUNTRIES The Northern Provinces of the Low Countries (Holland), revolted against taxation demands, authoritarianism of the governors (Duke of Alba) and religious intolerance. The revolt started in 1568 and it didn´t finish until 1648 (Independence of Holland). Philip II gave the Low Countries to his daughter Isabel Clara Eugenia, but she didn´t have children and the Low Countries came back to the Hispanic Empire in 1621. Flag of the revolt of the Low Countries. William of Orange, Leader of the revolt Duke of Alba Isabel Clara Eugenia and Archduke Albert of Austria
  21. 21. This objective led to several wars against France, the Ottoman Turks and England. So many wars ruined the economy: several bankruptcies and defaults PRESERVATION OF THE EMPIRE The French were defeated in Saint Quentin in 1557, but Philip II continued to intervene in France: he supported the Catholics in the religion wars in France, between Huguenots (Calvinists) and Catholics. WARS AGAINST FRANCE Engraving of the Battle of Saint Quentin
  22. 22. The Holy League, a Catholic coalition led by the Hispanic Monarchy, defeated the Ottoman Turks in Lepanto (near Greece) in 1571. WARS AGAINST THE OTTOMAN TURKS Cervantes participated in this battle and was injured in one of his arms
  23. 23. Invincible Armada CONFLICT WITH ENGLAND The alliance with England, which dated to the Catholic Monarchs’ time, broke up. Causes: - The English supported the Protestants in the revolt of the Low Countries. - English privateers attacked the ships which came from the Indies (West Indies Fleet). -Philip II supported Mary, the Catholic Queen of Scotland, to the detriment of the Anglican Elizabeth. Philip II decided to invade England with a big army, called the Invincible Armada. But the Armada sunk before reaching the English coasts in 1588
  24. 24. Mary I Tudor, his aunt Anna of Austria, his nieceElisabeth of ValoisMaría Manuela of Portugal PHILIP II´S WIVES AND SUCCESSION Philip II had four wives and twelve children, but only three survived. His wives came from the traditional allies from the time of the Catholic Monarchs, except for the third one: - In 1543 he married his cousin María Manuela of Portugal. Their son, Prince Charles, was mentally unstable and died in 1569. - In 1554 he married his aunt Mary Tudor, queen of England, eleven years older. They didn’t have children - In 1559 he married Elisabeth of Valois, a French princess, as a result of the Cateau– Cambrésis agreements. She was his most beloved wife. They had six children, but only two daughters survived: Isabel Clara Eugenia, governor of the Low Countries, and Catalina Micaela - In 1570 he married his niece Anna of Austria, with whom he had five children, but only one survived: Philip III, who was Philip II’s heir. Prince Charles, mentally unstable and deformed. Confined by his father, because he conspired with the Dutch. He died six months later- Isabel Clara Eugenia, Duchess of Luxemburg, Sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands in the Low Countries Philip III, heir of the Empire
  25. 25. ECONOMY IN THE 16th CENTURY: THE PRICE REVOLUTION AND DEFAULTS The arrival of precious metals from the Indies provoked a huge inflation. Prices increased a lot, because there was not enough production to satisfy the demand. Many products were imported from Europe and the wealth of the Indies wasn´t used to develop a productive economy. The Indies were a Castilian monopoly. The Aragonese economy couldn´t take advantage of the Empire. Despite the huge amount of precios metals arrived from the Indies, the wars were very expensive and ruined the economy. Philip II was forced to declare defaults in 1575 and at the end of his reign, in 1596.
  27. 27. PHILIP III Duke of Lerma Duke of Uceda He left the government in the hands of two favourites, the dukes of Lerma and Uceda. Main facts of his reign: - TWELVE YEARS TRUCE (1609-1621): war stopped for a while, but the Northern Provinces of the Low Countries became practically independent. - EXPULSION OF THE MOORISH (1609): more than 300,000 people were expelled (20% of the population of the kingdom of Aragón and 33% of the kingdom of Valencia). This strongly affected the Crown of Aragón´s economy. -DEVALUATION OF CURRENCY: gold and silver coins were mixed with copper. Philip III Expulsion of the Moorish from Denia port
  28. 28. PHILIP IV Count-Duke of Olivares The Count-Duke of Olivares was his main valido. His government was characterized by authoritarianism and centralization. His project included: -bigger centralization - reinforcement of the power of the monarchy -fairer contribution of thedifferent parts of the Monarchy to the expenses and the military effort. Philip IV
  29. 29. Reapers´ War in Catalonia -Thirty Years War (1618-1648): although there were some succesful actions, like Breda (1634), the tercios were defeated at the Battle of Rocroi on 1643, which meant the end of the Hispanic hegemony in Europe. In the Peace of Westphalia the United Provinces of the Low Countries became definitely independent. -Olivares’ Project of the Union of Arms provoked uprisings in different kingdoms in 1640: - Catalonia, supported by France, rose up against Philip IV. The conflict ended with the Peace of the Pyrenees(1659): Aragon lost the territories of Rosellón and Cerdaña. - Portugal: the conflict ended with the Treaty of Lisbon and the definitive independence of Portugal (1668) War returned in several fronts: The Surrender of Breda, painted by Velázquez
  30. 30. Inbreeding in the House of Habsburg Called the “Hexed”. Disabled and constantly ill. He ruled with the help of some validos CHARLES III John Joseph of Austria Fernando de Valenzuela
  31. 31. Although the Hispanic Monarchy had lost its supremacy in Europe, Charles II’s heritage was still very important. When Charles II died without direct descendants, a succession war started in Europe
  32. 32. - DEMOGRAPHY: Population decreased due to wars, epidemics, famines , migration to the Indies and the expulsion of the Moorish. - ECONOMY: economic recession due to the expulsion of the Moorish (which strongly damaged agriculture, especially in the Crown of Aragón) and less demand for products as a consequence of demographic crisis. - SOCIETY: nobility was the model, manual work was seen as a shame and everybody aspired to live off rents. There were lots of beggars and rogues, like the one in El Lazarillo de Tormes DEMOGRAPHY, SOCIETY AND ECONOMY IN THE 17th CENTURY Boys eating grapes and mellon, by Murillo Rogue, by Murillo