Charles with his paternal family:Emperor Maximilian of Habsburg,Philip the Handsome and Mary ofBurgundy Joanna the Mad with Charles and one of his sisters
CHARLES I´S HERITAGE BLUE: CASTILE (including the Canary Islands antd the Indies) ORANGE: ARAGON GREEN: HOUSE OF AUSTRIA (HABSBURG TERRITORIES) PURPLE: BURGUNDY
Born in Ghent in 1500, he didn´t arrive in the Iberian Peninsula until 1517He brought many Flemish counselors with him.When his grandfather Maximilian died, he leftCardinal Adrian of Utrecht as regent of Castileand Aragon and went to Germany to beappointed as Emperor of the Holy RomanEmpire.
Emblem of the Holy Roman Empire Charles V´s Empire emblem
INTERNAL PROBLEMS: REVOLTS IN CASTILE AND ARAGON
This revolt started in 1520 and it finishedin 1521.- Many Castilian cities revoltedagainst the king due to the newtaxes they had to pay.- They also protested against theforeigners who held the mostimportant posts in Castile and wantedthese posts for Castilian people.-They asked for protection for Castilianmanufactures-In some places peasants revoltedagaints their lords.The Comuneros visited queen Juana I The leaders of the revolt, Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado, were executedin Tordesillas in order to try to get hersupport, but Charles made an agreementwith the Castilian nobles and theydefeated the Comuneros in Villalar(23th April 1521)
REVOLT OF THE GERMANIAS IN ARAGON- It lasted from 1521 to 1523.- It developed in Valencia and Mallorca-Revolt of peasants and craftsmen whowanted to have access to the governmentof municipalities and an improvementin the renting conditions of land.-The leaders of the revolt were Vicent Perisand Joan Llorenç-The king signed an alliance with thenobles and together they defeated therevolted Agermanats with Adrian of Utrecht
FOREIGN POLICYCharles V´s imperial idea: UNIVERSITAS CHRISTIANA: Supremacy of the Emperorover all the Christian kingdoms and defense of Christianity. DEFENSE OF THE EMPIRE OBJECTIVES DEFENSE OF CATHOLICISM WARS AGAINST FRANCE PROBLEMS WARS AGAINST THE MUSLIMS WARS AGAINST THE PROTESTANTS
WARS AGAINST FRANCEKING FRANCIS IOF FRANCE BATTLE OF PAVIA, 1525 After several wars, the Emperor´s armies conquered Milan.
WARS AGAINST THE MUSLIMS Suleyman the MagnificentIn the Mediterranean Sea, In Eastern Europe, he stopped the Ottomanconquest of Tunis Turks in Vienna
WARS AGAINST THE PROTESTANTS IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Diet of Worms, 1521. Excommunication of the LutheransWar against the Schmalkaldic League,alliance of Lutheran princes.Charles V defeated them at Mühlbergin 1547. Charles V at Mühlberg (1547)
AUGSBURG PEACE, 1555This agreement theoretically consecratedreligious freedom in the Holy Roman Empire:every prince could choose the religion hepreferred, but all the citizens of his state hadto have the same religion of his prince(CUIUS REGIS, EIUS RELIGIO).This agreement meant the end of religion warsin the Empire, but intolerance continued.
Charles V enthroned over his defeated enemies: from left to right, Suleiman,Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and theLandgrave of Hesse.
Different portraits of Charles V. After so many wars, Charles V decided to abdicate in 1556. He divided his heritage between his son Philip and his brother Ferdinand.Charles V´s Abdication
Portrait of Charles V, Isabella of Portugal painted by RubensFerdinand, Charles´s brother,Inherited the Holy Roman Empire. Philip II inherited the rest of the Empire (except Burgundy)
Charles V retired to the Monastery of Yuste,where he died in 1558.
PHILIP II´S EMPIREAlthough Philip II didn´t inherit the Holy Roman Empire, he was the king of ahuge Empire.
In 1565 he annexed the Philippines Islands and in 1580 headded Portugal and its colonies in America, Africa and Asia in1580.
GOVERNMENT- Capital city in Madrid- Personal government. The king washelped by: - a professional bureaucracy - several councils: Council of War, Council of the Indies, Council of State…- Growth of political centralization: theKing didn´t call the Cortes
PHILIP II´S WIVESMaría Manuela Mary I Tudor, Ana of Austria,of Portugal Elisabeth of Valois his aunt his niece
PHILIP II´S MONARCHY DEFENSE OF CATHOLICISM: Religious intolerance caused many problems and warsOBJECTIVES PRESERVATION OF THE EMPIRE Wars against France, the Ottoman Turks and England. These wars ruined the economy: bankruptcy.
DEFENSE OF CATHOLICISM-PROHIBITION OF PROTESTANTISM INHIS KINGDOMS.-REINFORCEMENT OF THEINQUISITION- STUDENTS COULDN´T STUDYABROAD-PROHIBITION OF IMPORTING BOOKS Document of blood cleanliness,FROM EUROPE 18th century- “BLOOD CLEANLINESS” IN THEADMINISTRATION-REPRESSION OF THE MOORISH OFGRANADA: REVOLT OF THEALPUJARRAS AND EXILE OF THEMOORISH TO OTHER PARTS OF THEPENINSULA. Revolt of the Alpujarras, 1567
REVOLT IN THE LOW COUNTRIESThe Northern Provinces of the Low Countries (Holland), revolted against taxationdemands, authoritarianism of the governors (Duke of Alba) and religious intolerance.The revolt started in 1568 and it didn´t finish until 1648 (Independence of Holland)Philip II gave the Low countries to his daughter Isabel Clara Eugenia, but she didn´thave children and the Low Countries came back to the Hispanic Empire in 1621. Flag of the revolt of the Low Countries.Duke of Alba William of Orange, Leader of the revolt Isabel Clara Eugenia and Archduke Albert of Austria
WARS AGAINST FRANCE Engraving of the Battle of Saint QuentinThe French were defeated in Saint Quentin in 1557, but Philip II continued tointervene in France: he supported the Catholics in the religion wars in France,between Huguenots (Calvinists) and Catholics.
CONFLICT WITH ENGLAND- The English supportedthe Protestants in the revoltof the Low Countries.- English privateers attackedthe fleets which came from theIndies (West Indies Fleet).-Philip II supported Mary, theCatholic Queen of Scotland, tothe detriment of the AnglicanElizabeth.Philip II decided to invadeEngland with a big army,called the Invincible Armada.But the Armada sunk beforereaching the English coasts in Invincible Armada1588
WARS AGAINST THE OTTOMAN TURKSThe Holy League, a Catholic coalition led by the Hispanic Monarchy,defeated the Ottoman Turks in Lepanto (near Greece) in 1571.
PHILIP II´S CHILDREN Catalina Micaela Isabel Clara Eugenia,Prince Carlos, son of Duchess of Luxemburg,María Manuela of Portugal Sovereign of the SpanishMentally unstable and Netherlands in the Lowdeformed. Confined by his Countries Philip III, heir of thefather, because he Empireconspired with the Dutch.He died six months later
ECONOMY: THE PRICE REVOLUTIONThe arrival of precious metals from the Indies provoked a huge inflation. Prices increaseda lot, because there was not enough production to satisfy the demand. Many productswere imported from Europe and the wealth of the Indies wasn´t used to develop aproductive economy.The Indies were a Castilian monopoly. The Aragonese economy couldn´t take advantageof the Empire.