The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era


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The French Revoltion and the Napoleonic Rule.

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The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era

  2. 2. - CAUSES - DEVELOPMENT - BEGINNING: Call of the Estates General, Tennis Court Oath, summer of 1789 events and August decrees - CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (1789- 1792) - NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY (1789-1791) - LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (1791-1792) - 1st REPUBLIC (1792-1804) - CONVENTION (1792-1795) - DIRECTORY (1795-1799) - CONSULATE (1799-1804) - GIRONDIST CONVENTION - JACOBIN CONVENTION - THERMIDORIAN CONVENTION - 1st EMPIRE (1804-1815) - LEGACY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1815)
  3. 3. CAUSES - Economic crisis: bad harvests, increase in food prices - Financial crisis: increase in the State deficit due to constant wars and money waste. - Discontent of the bourgeois. - Influence of the ideas of Enlightenment. LOUIS XVI MARIE ANTOINETTE Louis XVI, advised by his finance ministers, started thinking about reforming the tax system and eliminating privileges.
  4. 4. CALL OF THE ESTATES GENERAL The privileged demanded the call of the Estates General to discuss the tax reform The Estates General hadn´t been called since 1614. Before the meeting, the demands of the different estates were collected in books of grievances. The representatives of the Third Estate demanded double representation, collective discussions and per- person voting. The king accepted the double representation, but rejected the vote per person. BOOKS OF GRIEVANCES
  5. 5. MEETING OF THE ESTATES-GENERAL ( May 1789) When the meeting started, the representatives of the Third Estate continued to demand collective meeetings and voting per person. Protests went on and the king closed the Estates-General.
  6. 6. TENNIS COURT OATH (20th June 1789) The representatives of the Third Estate and some nobles and members of the clergy looked for an alternative meeting place: the Tennis Court in Versailles. They formed a National Assembly, declared themselves the legitimate representatives of the nation and promised to stay there until France had a Constitution. The king had to accept the National Assembly and ordered the nobles and the clergy to join the Assembly: the National Constituent Assembly, which started writing a Constitution. TENNIS COURT OATH
  7. 7. POPULAR REACTION (summer of 1789) - Storming of the Bastille (14th July 1789): Fearing a violent reaction from the king against the National Assembly, the people of Paris attacked the Prison of the Bastille, symbol of absolutism - Great Fear: many peasants attacked castles and manors and destroyed the property titles of the lands in the countryside
  8. 8. AUGUST 1789 DECREES: END OF THE ANCIEN RÉGIME The National Constituent Assembly: - published the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen - abolished feudalism (seigneurial rights and tithes) These two documents meant the end of the Ancien Régime in France.
  9. 9. WOMEN’S MARCH ON VERSAILLES (5th-6th OCTOBER 1789) The king showed his reluctancy to sign the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and the Citizen. On the 5th October a demonstration of thousands of women headed to Versailles to protest against the high prices of staples. Once there, the people demanded that the royal family returned to Paris. Fearing a reaction of the protesters, the King signed the Declaration and the royal family moved to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. The National Constituent Assembly also settled down in Paris.
  10. 10. NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY (1789-1791) Constitution of 1791 (1st European Constitution): inspired on the principles of political liberalism: - Constitutional Monarchy - Division of powers - Census suffrage: active citizens, with right to vote, and passive citizens, without right to vote. - Veto power for the king Other decisions: - Nationalization of the properties of the clergy in order to reduce the State debt - Civil Constitution of the Clergy: the clergy members became dependent from the State and had to swear allegiance to the Constitution
  11. 11. FLIGHT TO VARENNES (20th June 1791) Louis XVI didn´t like what the Constituent Assembly was doing and he tried to flee to Austria, but he was caught at Varennes and sent back to Paris.
  12. 12. LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (1791-1792) After the aproval of the Constitution (30th September 1791), the Legislative Assembly was formed with deputies from different ideologies: - 263 deputies, called feuillants, who were in favor of a constitutional monarchy - 136 deputies who preferred the republic, divided into Girondists (more moderate) and Jacobins (more radical) - around 300 deputies with no defined position. The concepts “right and left” come from the places where the different groups of deputies sat down in the Assembly. Medallion of the Legislative Assembly
  14. 14. SANS CULOTTES Groups of workers who supported the most radical reforms. They didn´t wear the fashionable culottes, but pantalons.
  15. 15. The King, backed by the monarchist deputies, went on conspiring against the Assembly: - he used his veto power - he contacted other absolute monarchs to recover his power and end the revolution. Faced with the threats of the absolute powers (Austria and Prussia), the Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria in April 1792. On the 10th August 1792 the people of Paris discovered Louis XVI´s conspiracy and stormed the Tuileries Palace, arrested the royal family and suspended the King’s power. STORMING OF THE TUILERIES PALACE END OF THE MONARCHY Louis XVI declaring the war on Austria
  16. 16. -Creation of a provisional executive council, in charge of the government. -Election of a new assembly by universal suffrage in September 1792: the Convention, in charge of reforming the Constitution. Only 10% of the French men aged 21 voted. - September massacres: fearing a foreign invasion of France, more than 1,000 monarchists and suspected counter- revolutionaries were executed (beginning of the Reign of Terror) - The French revolutionary army could stop the threat of invasion with the victory in the Battle of Valmy against the Prussian army (20th September 1792) - On the 21st September the Convention proclaimed the 1st Republic THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (1792-1794) Battle of Valmy (20th September 1792)
  17. 17. NATIONAL CONVENTION 1792-1793: Controlled by the GIRONDISTS 1793-1794: Controlled by the JACOBINS It concentrated the executive and legislative power and its main task was to write a new Constitution with universal suffrage STAGES 1794-1795: Thermidorian Convention
  18. 18. Controlled by the Girondists. Main problems: - Royalist rebellion in the Vendée región - Trial of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. They were accused of treason and sentenced to die executed by the guillotine The execution provocked the creation of the 1st anti- revolutionary Coalition, led by Great Britain. The Convention ordered a levée en masse (mass conscription) to defend the country GIRONDIST CONVENTION (September 1792- June 1793)
  19. 19. The Girondists started losing influence and the Jacobins, led by Robespierre, became increasingly popular. In April 1793 the Committee of Public Safety was created to hold the executive power and the Committee of General Security was restructured. The Revolutionary Tribunal was also created to keep public order and stop counter-revolution. In June the support of the sans culottes gave the power to the Jacobins. Many Girondists were arrested and the Jacobins got the majority in the Convention Committee of Public Safety Headquarters of te Committee of General Security
  20. 20. JACOBIN CONVENTION (June 1793- July 1794) ROBESPIERRE SAINT JUST COUTHON Urgent decisions were made to save the revolution and improve the lives of the poorest: - New Constitution (June 1793), which included universal suffrage, popular sovereignty, equality and social rights (right of association, public education, right to work and public assistance) - Law of the maximum: control of the prices of staples - Confiscation of the properties of the counter-revolutionaries and distribution among the poor and sale of the properties of the Church in small shares - Dechristianization was one of the most controversial decisions: churches were closed and the cult of Reason was established
  21. 21. Sentence of the Committee of Public Safety ordering Danton’s execution In order to save the revolution, liberties were suspended and the Committee of of General Security was in charge of chasing and judging the suspected counter-revolutionaries and all the people considered a threat to national security. 16,000 people were guillotined in nine months. Some of them were outstanding revolutionaries, like Danton or Desmoulins, for their criticism of the Committee THE REIGN OF TERROR “It is dreadful, but necessary” Journal d´autre monde, 1794) The Radicals’ Arms DANTON
  22. 22. Execution of Robespierre, 28th July 1794 Arrest of Robespierre 27th July 1794 THERMIDORIAN REACTION The last stage of the Convention was controlled by conservative deputies, who revoked the Jacobins’ social measures, like the law of the maximum. When the danger of invasion disappeared and the internal revolts were controlled, terror policy continued. Opposition to the Jacobins increased in the Convention and on the 27th July 1794 (9th Thermidor in the revolutionary calendar) a conservative coup d´État deposed the Jacobins and their leaders were executed the following day.
  23. 23. In their fight against the European powers, the French army got important victories: they invaded the Low Countries, created the Batavian Republic there and defeated the 1st Coalition. Only Great Britain and Austria continued to fight against them.
  24. 24. DIRECTORY (1795-1799) REBWELL BARRAS LA REVEILLÈRE CARNOT LE TOURNEUR A new Constitution was written in 1795 (Constitution of the Year III), which established a new conservative regime: - ejecutive power: government of 5 members (Directory) - legislative power: two chambers, Council of the Five Hundred and Council of the Elders - universal suffrage Problems: Members of the first Directory - Attacks from the absolutists (failed coups d´État) - Popular protests and Jacobin conspiracies - War against the European monarchies - Serious economic crisis (inflation) - Corruption (Barras) and loss of prestige of the Directory General Napoleon Bonaparte´s victories in Italy and Egypt gave him a lot of prestige and many people started thinking in him as a solution against chaos.
  25. 25. 18th BRUMAIRE 1799: BONAPARTE´S COUP D´ÉTAT Pretexting a threat of Jacobin rebellion, Napoleon was charged with the safety of the deputies.Three directors resigned and the deputies, intimidated by the troops, voted the dissolution of the Directory and the constitution of a new government: the Consulate, formed by three members. Bonaparte was one of them. Provisional Consulate SIEYÈSDUCOS Napoleon surrounded by members of the Council of the Five Hundred during the 18th Brumaire coup d´État NAPOLEON
  26. 26. NAPOLEONIC ERA CONSULATE (1799-1804) - TRIUMVIRATE (1800-1802), with Bonaparte as First Consul - NAPOLEON, FIRST AND ONLY CONSUL FOR LIFE (1802-1804) 1st EMPIRE (1804-1815) - April 1804- April 1814 - Hundred Days Empire (March- July 1815)
  27. 27. Napoleon as First Consul The three consuls: Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Napoleon Bonaparte and Charles-François Lebrun CONSULATE (1800-1804) -1800-1802: TRIUMVIRATE: three consuls, with Napoleon as First Consul. In fact he held all the power. -1802-1804: in 1802 Napoleon was proclaimed First and Only Consul for Life - New Constitution (Constitution of the Year VIII) - Restablishment of public order: end of absolutist conspiracies and popular protests - Concordat with the Pope - Administrative reform: prefects, economic reform, educational system, creation of the Bank of France… - Napoleonic Code: Civil Code which consecrated the achievements of the revolution (equality before the law, right of property…)
  28. 28. CORONATION OF NAPOLEON In April 1804 the Senate approved the conversion of France into an Empire. In December 1804 Napoleon crowned himself as Emperor of the French.
  29. 29. THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE The French armies defeated many European countries and made them part of the French Empire. Only Great Britain and Portugal defied Napoleon´s power. In 1806 Napoleon ordered the Continental Blockade against Great Britain.
  30. 30. DECISIONS MADE TO PUNISH THE COUNTRIES THAT DIDN´T OBEY THE CONTINENTAL BLOCKADE INVASION OF PORTUGAL INVASION OF RUSSIA TREATY OF FONTAINEBLEAU (1807) PENINSULAR WAR IN SPAIN (1808-1813) First defeat of the French troops in Bailén(19th July 1808) 1812: Napoleon retired troops from Spain to invade Russia.
  31. 31. NAPOLEON´S RETREAT FROM RUSSIA FRENCH INVASION OF RUSSIA The extreme cold, the scorched-earth tactics and the guerrilla warfare practiced by the Russians obliged Napoleon to order the retreat, after losing 500,000 soldiers (only 120,000 out of 600,000 men came back).
  32. 32. END OF THE NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE After de invasion of France by the enemy troops, Napoleon was obliged to abdicate in April 1814 and banished to the Island of Elba, near the Italian coast. In France the Bourbon dynasy was restored with Louis XVIII, Louis XVI’s brother. The Imperial Army was defeated by the coalition armies of Russia, Prussia, Austria and Sweden in the Battle of Leipzig (16th-19th October 1813). 600,000 soldiers participated in the battle (the largest battle before World War 1). Battle of Leipzig Louis XVIII
  33. 33. THE HUNDRED DAYS EMPIRE THE RISE AND FALL OF NAPOLEON AND MAP OF THE ISLAND OF ELBA NAPOLEON LEAVING ELBA (February 1815) In March 1815 Napoleon came back to France for a short period (100 days). A new coalition was formed to stop him.
  34. 34. BATTLE OF WATERLOO (18th June 1815) Napoleon tried to invade the Low Countries, where the troops of the Seventh Coalition were concentrated. The imperial troops were defeated by a coalition of British, Dutch and Germans led by the Duke of Wellington.
  35. 35. NAPOLEON AT SAINT HELENA Aftrer his defeat Napoleon was exiled in the Island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, where he died in 1821.
  36. 36. LEGACY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION -The French armies spread the ideas of the French Revolution (freedom, equality, end of privileges, absolutism and feudalism, division of powers, right to vote for the citizens) throughout Europe. Although the Napoleonic army was defeated, these ideas remained. -The French occupation gave birth to nationalist feelings against the invaders. Different peoples expressed their will of living together and independently.