RomERomE
LOCATION
- Italian Peninsula, in the middle of the
Mediterranean Sea (strategic location)
- Mediterranean climate: mild wi...
FOUNDING OF ROME
- According to the legend, Rome was founded
by two twins called Romulus and Remus,
saved from dying drown...
STAGES OF ROMAN HISTORY
- MONARCHY: 753 BC-509 BC
- REPUBLIC: 509 BC-27 BC
- EMPIRE: 27 BC-476
- Ruled by a king, chosen by the most
important families in the city, the patricians.
- Kings had a lot of power (politica...
REPUBLIC (509 BC-27 BC)
- Republic comes from RES
PUBLICA (“public matters,
what concerns to
everybody”)
- New government ...
MAGISTRATES
- Consuls: highest
magistrates, commanded
the army and called the
comitia
- Praetors: in charge of
justice
- C...
Political career of the Roman
magistrates: no one could be
consul if he hadn’t been praetor,
aedile and quaestor before.
Rome expanded and controlled all the Italian Peninsula. But in their expansion to the West of
the Mediterranean Sea, their...
In this period the Romans conquered territories in France (Gaul) and the Iberian Peninsula
(Hispania). Later they conquere...
CONFLICTS DURING THE REPUBLIC
- Confrontment between patricians and plebeians. In the 5th century BC the plebeians got equ...
EMPIRE
OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS
In 27 B.C Octavian pacified the situation in
Rome and the Senate gave him full powers
and the tit...
SOME ROMAN EMPERORS
CLAUDIUS CALIGULA NERO VESPASIAN
CARACALLA TRAJAN HADRIAN MARCUS AURELIUS
PAX ROMANA
1s
t and 2nd
century : most splendorous period in the history of Rome. Long period of peace ,
maximum expansion...
CRISIS OF THE 3rd
CENTURY
Big crisis due to different reasons:
-conquests stopped and there were less slaves to work the l...
DIOCLETIAN
reinforced the borders
In the 4th
century some emperors tried to make some reforms to solve the problems:
CONST...
DIVISION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Western Empire (capital city in Rome)
Eastern Empire (capital city in Constantinople)
In 375 the Huns (a tribe from
Central Asia) invaded the
Germanic territories and the
Germanic tribes escaped to the
South ...
Pushed by the Huns , the Germanic peoples migrated to the interior of the Roman Empire,
mainly to the West part, where emp...
In 476 the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, conquered the city of Rome and deposed Romulus
Augustulus ( a 15 year boy), the ...
ROMAN SOCIETY
TWO MAIN
GROUPS
•CITIZENS: they were free and had rights: they could own
property, go to trials, vote and ge...
ECONOMY
TRADE: the Romans developed trade within the Empire, but they
also traded with other parts of the world: They impo...
MODEL OF A ROMAN
MILITARY CAMP
GRID
ROMAN CITIES
Cities followed the model of Roman military
camps., were walled and had t...
BARCINO CITY PLAN CAESAR AUGUSTA CITY PLAN
DECUMANUS
CARDUS
In the centre of the city there was the FORUM, a big square. T...
DOMUS
Houses of the rich people
INSULAE
Blocks of very small apartments that were rented to
poor people. Frequently insulae were built with
bad materials,...
ROMAN VILLAE
RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN VILLA
OF CARRANQUE, TOLEDO
Houses of the rich people in the
countryside. Peasants...
ROMAN RELIGION
The Romans were polytheistic. They worshipped:
-the LARES and PENATES: gods who protected the Roman familie...
http://www.freewebs.com/brown8080/godsandgoddesses.htm
http://wandering39soul.deviantart.com/art/Greek-Roman-gods-and-godd...
CHRISTIANITY
- Monotheistic religion appeared in the 1st
century, founded by the followers of Jesus
of Nazareth
- As the C...
ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS USED BY THE ROMANS
COLUMNS
ROMAN ART
- The Romans drew inspiration from Greece, but
also from other peoples they conquered and
created their own and ...
ARCHITECTURE
- PUBLIC WORKS
- ROADS: to communicate the Empire
- BRIDGES: to cross rivers
- AQUEDUCTS: to transport fresh ...
ROADS
ALCÁNTARA BRIDGE
CANGAS DE ONÍS BRIDGE
PONT DU GARD, FRANCE
SEGOVIA´S AQUEDUCT
LOS MILAGROS AQUEDUCT, MÉRIDA
SEWAGE SYSTEM
CLOACA MAXIMA
RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN THERMAE IN VARNA, BULGARIA
ROMAN THERMAE IN BATH, UNITED KINGDOM
MAISON CARRÉE, NÎMES
ROMAN TEMPLE, VIC
VESTA TEMPLE, ROME
They followed the model of Greek
temples, but in some cases they...
AGRIPPA´S PANTHEON
Temple with a big dome made with
mortar
BASILICA
ROMAN BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE
Buildings for trade and trials. The Christians
copied the structure of this buildin...
THEATER
THEATER IN BOSRA, PRESENT TURKEY
ROMAN THEATER IN EMERITA AUGUSTA
COLOSSEUM
EMERITA AUGUSTA AMPHITHEATRE
AMPHITHEATRE
ARLÉS AMPHITHEATRE, FRANCE
ROMAN CIRCUS
EMERITA AUGUSTA CIRCUS
CONSTANTIN´S ARCH
TITUS ARCH
ARCH OF MEDINACELI, SORIA
ARCH OF BARÀ, TARRAGONA
MARCUS AURELIUS COLUMN
TRAJAN COLUMN
The Trajan Column in Rome, built to commemorate the victory of Emperor Trajan in Daci...
TRAJAN COLUMN
ROMAN SCULPTURE
JULIUS CAESAR CRASUS POMPEY
MARK ANTONY LEPIDUS OCTAVIAN
Roman sculpture
was inspired in
Greek sculpture,
...
OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS,
FIRST ROMAN EMPEROR
SOME ROMAN EMPERORS
CLAUDIUS CALIGULA NERO VESPASIAN
CARACALLA
TRAJAN HADRIAN MARCUS AURELIUS
DIOCLETIAN CONSTANTINE THEODOSIUS
ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS,
LAST EMPEROR OF THE
WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE
As time went by,
sculptures...
ROMAN MOSAICS IN POMPEII
PAINTING
The Romans used paintings to decorate the walls of the houses.
They also used mosaics: p...
ALEXANDER THE GREAT,
MOSAIC IN THE
HOUSE OF THE FAUN
BODIES OF ROMANS PETRIFIED
BY THE ERUPTION OF VESUBIUS
VOLCANO IN THE CITY OF POMPEII (79 AD)
Rome
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Rome

  1. 1. RomERomE
  2. 2. LOCATION - Italian Peninsula, in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea (strategic location) - Mediterranean climate: mild winters and hot summers and low precipitation, good for dry-land crops ( wheat, olive trees and vines) - The city was founded on the banks of River Tiber, surrounded by seven hills.
  3. 3. FOUNDING OF ROME - According to the legend, Rome was founded by two twins called Romulus and Remus, saved from dying drowned by a she-wolf. The name of the city comes from Romulus. - According to historical data, Rome was founded in 753 BC by the Latins, the people who lived in the region called Latium. The city was created near River Tiber and built on seven hills. Romulus was the first king of Rome.
  4. 4. STAGES OF ROMAN HISTORY - MONARCHY: 753 BC-509 BC - REPUBLIC: 509 BC-27 BC - EMPIRE: 27 BC-476
  5. 5. - Ruled by a king, chosen by the most important families in the city, the patricians. - Kings had a lot of power (political, military and judicial) and were also religious leaders. They were helped by the Senate, an assembly formed by senators, who were the heads of the leading families. - In the 6th century BC the Etruscans, a people from the North of the Italian Peninsula, conquered Rome. - Seven kings: four Latin kings and three Etruscan. - Etruscan domination ended in 509 BC, when King Tarquin the Proud was expelled after a revolt. MONARCHY (753 BC-509 BC)
  6. 6. REPUBLIC (509 BC-27 BC) - Republic comes from RES PUBLICA (“public matters, what concerns to everybody”) - New government elected by the citizens, but not all could participate in the same way (the patricians elected the Senate and had privileges of voting in the comitia or assemblies) - Three main institutions: - COMITIA - MAGISTRATES - SENATE COMITIA Elected by all the citizens in theory, but in fact only the patricians participated. They proposed laws, elected the magistrates and decided on matters of war and peace. MAGISTRATES SENATE Formed by 300 former consuls. They gave advice to the magistrates, passed laws and directed foreign policy 6 types of magistrates elected
  7. 7. MAGISTRATES - Consuls: highest magistrates, commanded the army and called the comitia - Praetors: in charge of justice - Censors: in charge of making the census - Quaestors: in charge of collecting taxes - Aediles: in charge of municipal government - Dictators: extraordinary magistrates in periods of crisis. They held all the power for six months - Tribunes of the plebeians: elected by the plebeians to defend their rights after several revolts
  8. 8. Political career of the Roman magistrates: no one could be consul if he hadn’t been praetor, aedile and quaestor before.
  9. 9. Rome expanded and controlled all the Italian Peninsula. But in their expansion to the West of the Mediterranean Sea, their interests came into conflict with the Carthaginian Empire. The Romans and the Carthaginians fought in three wars called the Punic Wars. There were 3 wars between 264-146 BC. Finally the Romans defeated the Carthaginians and extended their power to the west of the Mediterranean Sea. TERRITORIAL EXPANSION DURING THE REPUBLIC
  10. 10. In this period the Romans conquered territories in France (Gaul) and the Iberian Peninsula (Hispania). Later they conquered Greece and Egypt. http://explorethemed.com/RomeMed.asp?c=1
  11. 11. CONFLICTS DURING THE REPUBLIC - Confrontment between patricians and plebeians. In the 5th century BC the plebeians got equal rights with the Law of the Twelve Tables and a tribune to defet their interests (tribune of the plebeians) - 2nd century BC: the Gracchus brothers tried to reform the Republic and reduce the differences of wealth, but they died violently. - 1st century: slave revolt led by Spartacus, corruption, internal problems… - Several dictators were appointed and the generals of the army got more power. There were two triumvirates: - 1st triumvirate: Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey. But a civil war broke out between them. The winner was Julius Caesar. He was proclaimed perpetual dictator, but in 44 B.C he was assassinated by a group of senators and supporters of the Republic. - 2nd triumvirate was formed by Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian. After several wars, Octavian took control. The Senate gave him maximum power.
  12. 12. EMPIRE OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS In 27 B.C Octavian pacified the situation in Rome and the Senate gave him full powers and the title of Augustus (chosen by the gods) He introduced a new form of government called the Empire. The emperor concentrated a lot of power: -head of the army -he presided over the Senate -highest religious leader - in charge of foreign policy -he made laws and decided upon taxes.
  13. 13. SOME ROMAN EMPERORS CLAUDIUS CALIGULA NERO VESPASIAN CARACALLA TRAJAN HADRIAN MARCUS AURELIUS
  14. 14. PAX ROMANA 1s t and 2nd century : most splendorous period in the history of Rome. Long period of peace , maximum expansion and prosperity of the Roman Empire, which extended to the British Isles, the North of Africa and Asia Minor. Trade and the economy grew and Rome became the biggest city in the world.
  15. 15. CRISIS OF THE 3rd CENTURY Big crisis due to different reasons: -conquests stopped and there were less slaves to work the land and less incomes to maintain the State. -pressure of the Barbarians (foreigners) on the borders of the Empire -peasants and soldiers revolted and anarchy spread. -Cities were attacked and many people escaped to the countryside. Consequences: production decreased, trade collapsed, many people moved to the countryside (ruralization process) and the power of the emperors decreased, because they were unable to solve the problems of the people.
  16. 16. DIOCLETIAN reinforced the borders In the 4th century some emperors tried to make some reforms to solve the problems: CONSTANTINE - tolerated Christianity - moved the capital city to Constantinople in the East THEODOSIUS divided the Empire into two parts among his sons Arcadius and Honorius, so that it could be defended more easily
  17. 17. DIVISION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Western Empire (capital city in Rome) Eastern Empire (capital city in Constantinople)
  18. 18. In 375 the Huns (a tribe from Central Asia) invaded the Germanic territories and the Germanic tribes escaped to the South and came into the Roman Empire. The Romans were unable to stop the invasion of the barbarians. THE HUNS
  19. 19. Pushed by the Huns , the Germanic peoples migrated to the interior of the Roman Empire, mainly to the West part, where emperors were weak and couldn’t stop them Main Germanic peoples: Sueves, Vandals, Alans, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Alamanni, Lombards, Franks, Burgundians, Slavs FRANK WARRIORS
  20. 20. In 476 the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, conquered the city of Rome and deposed Romulus Augustulus ( a 15 year boy), the last Roman emperor of the West. The Western Roman Empire disappeared and new Germanic kingdoms appeared in its place. The Eastern Empire survived under a new name, Byzantine Empire, until 1453. OSTROGOTHS CONQUERING ROME FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE http://explorethemed.com/fallrome.asp
  21. 21. ROMAN SOCIETY TWO MAIN GROUPS •CITIZENS: they were free and had rights: they could own property, go to trials, vote and get married. Differences between them according to their wealth. •NON- CITIZENS: they had no rights. -Freedmen: people who were slaves in the past and had been freed by their owners. -Slaves: not free. They could become freedmen if their owners set them free. Women were considered non-citizens. They were always under the rule of a man: first under their fathers and after under their husbands. However, they could do some things: they could own property, manage businesses and go to parties and shows.
  22. 22. ECONOMY TRADE: the Romans developed trade within the Empire, but they also traded with other parts of the world: They imported silk, cotton and spices from China, and they captured slaves in Africa. Trade reached a big development thanks to an important network of roads and ports. The Mediterranean Sea was so important for the Romans that they called it MARE NOSTRUM (“our sea”). MAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURE: main crops: wheat, olives and grapes. The lands were cultivated by small farmers or slaves), CRAFTSMANSHIP: many workshops in the cities, where craftsmen worked MINING: mines of gold, salt, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron in different parts of the Empire. In Hispania they worked the mines of mercury in Almadén and the mines of gold in León and Asturias.
  23. 23. MODEL OF A ROMAN MILITARY CAMP GRID ROMAN CITIES Cities followed the model of Roman military camps., were walled and had two main streets: CARDUS (from North to South) and the DECUMANUS (from East to West). The rest of the streets were built in a grid.
  24. 24. BARCINO CITY PLAN CAESAR AUGUSTA CITY PLAN DECUMANUS CARDUS In the centre of the city there was the FORUM, a big square. The main buildings of the city were situated around the forum: the capitol (the main temple of the city), the curia (the meeting place of the city council), the basilica (building for trade and trials) Roman cities had all kind of facilities: fountains in the streets, sewage systems, buildings for leisure, such as thermal baths, theatres, circus and amphitheatres.
  25. 25. DOMUS Houses of the rich people
  26. 26. INSULAE Blocks of very small apartments that were rented to poor people. Frequently insulae were built with bad materials, there was no running water in them and there was a big risk of fire.
  27. 27. ROMAN VILLAE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN VILLA OF CARRANQUE, TOLEDO Houses of the rich people in the countryside. Peasants and slaves lived in huts.
  28. 28. ROMAN RELIGION The Romans were polytheistic. They worshipped: -the LARES and PENATES: gods who protected the Roman families and their homes. They were worshipped at home in a small altar called LARARIUM -the MANES: the spirits of their ancestors -When they conquered Greece, they became fascinated by Greek culture and adopted the Greek mythology and worshipped the same gods, but changed their names -The EMPEROR LARARIUM
  29. 29. http://www.freewebs.com/brown8080/godsandgoddesses.htm http://wandering39soul.deviantart.com/art/Greek-Roman-gods-and-goddesses-178397605 More information:
  30. 30. CHRISTIANITY - Monotheistic religion appeared in the 1st century, founded by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth - As the Christians refused to worship the Roman Emperor, the Romans started persecuting the Christians. This forced them to practise their religion in secret (ceremonies in catacombs, subterranean galleries in which they also buried their dead). - In 313 Emperor Constantine allowed Christianity in the Roman Empire. The Christians could practise their religion freely. - In 380 Emperor Theodosius declared Christianity the only religion of the Roman Empire. All the other religions were forbidden and their followers were persecuted. The Church was created and the bishop of Rome, called the Pope, became the main authority of Christianity. CATACOMBS
  31. 31. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS USED BY THE ROMANS COLUMNS
  32. 32. ROMAN ART - The Romans drew inspiration from Greece, but also from other peoples they conquered and created their own and unmistakable style - Very practical builders: their buildings were made to last: they used stone and invented mortar (similar to cement) - Simple, but practical architectural elements: columns, pilasters, round arch, vault and dome ROMAN MORTAR COLUMNS DOME ROUND ARCH
  33. 33. ARCHITECTURE - PUBLIC WORKS - ROADS: to communicate the Empire - BRIDGES: to cross rivers - AQUEDUCTS: to transport fresh water to ciyies - SEWAGE SYSTEMS: to eliminate black waters - BUILDINGS - RELIGIOUS: TEMPLES - CIVIL: BASILICAE: for trials and trade - LEISURE - MEMORIALS - TRIUMPHAL ARCH - COMMEMORATIVE COLUMN - THERMAL BATHS: public baths - CIRCUS: for chariot races - THEATRE: for theater plays - AMPHITHEATRE: for fgladiator and animal fights
  34. 34. ROADS
  35. 35. ALCÁNTARA BRIDGE CANGAS DE ONÍS BRIDGE
  36. 36. PONT DU GARD, FRANCE
  37. 37. SEGOVIA´S AQUEDUCT
  38. 38. LOS MILAGROS AQUEDUCT, MÉRIDA
  39. 39. SEWAGE SYSTEM CLOACA MAXIMA
  40. 40. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN THERMAE IN VARNA, BULGARIA
  41. 41. ROMAN THERMAE IN BATH, UNITED KINGDOM
  42. 42. MAISON CARRÉE, NÎMES ROMAN TEMPLE, VIC VESTA TEMPLE, ROME They followed the model of Greek temples, but in some cases they innovated
  43. 43. AGRIPPA´S PANTHEON Temple with a big dome made with mortar
  44. 44. BASILICA ROMAN BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE Buildings for trade and trials. The Christians copied the structure of this building to build their temples (churches)
  45. 45. THEATER
  46. 46. THEATER IN BOSRA, PRESENT TURKEY
  47. 47. ROMAN THEATER IN EMERITA AUGUSTA
  48. 48. COLOSSEUM EMERITA AUGUSTA AMPHITHEATRE AMPHITHEATRE
  49. 49. ARLÉS AMPHITHEATRE, FRANCE
  50. 50. ROMAN CIRCUS EMERITA AUGUSTA CIRCUS
  51. 51. CONSTANTIN´S ARCH TITUS ARCH
  52. 52. ARCH OF MEDINACELI, SORIA ARCH OF BARÀ, TARRAGONA
  53. 53. MARCUS AURELIUS COLUMN TRAJAN COLUMN The Trajan Column in Rome, built to commemorate the victory of Emperor Trajan in Dacia (present Romania) is decorated with reliefs that show the different episodes of Trajan’s military campaign in Dacia.
  54. 54. TRAJAN COLUMN
  55. 55. ROMAN SCULPTURE JULIUS CAESAR CRASUS POMPEY MARK ANTONY LEPIDUS OCTAVIAN Roman sculpture was inspired in Greek sculpture, but the Romans were interested in representing reality. They made realistic portraits that reflected the real features of the people they represented. Only the emperors were idealised.
  56. 56. OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS, FIRST ROMAN EMPEROR
  57. 57. SOME ROMAN EMPERORS CLAUDIUS CALIGULA NERO VESPASIAN CARACALLA TRAJAN HADRIAN MARCUS AURELIUS
  58. 58. DIOCLETIAN CONSTANTINE THEODOSIUS ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS, LAST EMPEROR OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE As time went by, sculptures became less realistic and more expressionist
  59. 59. ROMAN MOSAICS IN POMPEII PAINTING The Romans used paintings to decorate the walls of the houses. They also used mosaics: picture or decorative design made by setting small coloured pieces of stone or tiles into a surface. There are many mosaics in Pompeii, a Roman city that was covered by lava after the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius in 79 AD.
  60. 60. ALEXANDER THE GREAT, MOSAIC IN THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN
  61. 61. BODIES OF ROMANS PETRIFIED BY THE ERUPTION OF VESUBIUS VOLCANO IN THE CITY OF POMPEII (79 AD)

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