• Like
  • Save
Rome
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
Uploaded on

Roman history, culture and art

Roman history, culture and art

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,640
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. RomERomE
  • 2. LOCATION - Italian Peninsula, in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea (strategic location) - Mediterranean climate: mild winters and hot summers and low precipitation, good for dry-land crops ( wheat, olive trees and vines) - The city was founded on the banks of River Tiber, surrounded by seven hills.
  • 3. FOUNDING OF ROME - According to the legend, Rome was founded by two twins called Romulus and Remus, saved from dying drowned by a she-wolf. The name of the city comes from Romulus. - According to historical data, Rome was founded in 753 BC by the Latins, the people who lived in the region called Latium. The city was created near River Tiber and built on seven hills. Romulus was the first king of Rome.
  • 4. STAGES OF ROMAN HISTORY - MONARCHY: 753 BC-509 BC - REPUBLIC: 509 BC-27 BC - EMPIRE: 27 BC-476
  • 5. - Ruled by a king, chosen by the most important families in the city, the patricians. - Kings had a lot of power (political, military and judicial) and were also religious leaders. They were helped by the Senate, an assembly formed by senators, who were the heads of the leading families. - In the 6th century BC the Etruscans, a people from the North of the Italian Peninsula, conquered Rome. - Seven kings: four Latin kings and three Etruscan. - Etruscan domination ended in 509 BC, when King Tarquin the Proud was expelled after a revolt. MONARCHY (753 BC-509 BC)
  • 6. REPUBLIC (509 BC-27 BC) - Republic comes from RES PUBLICA (“public matters, what concerns to everybody”) - New government elected by the citizens, but not all could participate in the same way (the patricians elected the Senate and had privileges of voting in the comitia or assemblies) - Three main institutions: - COMITIA - MAGISTRATES - SENATE COMITIA Elected by all the citizens in theory, but in fact only the patricians participated. They proposed laws, elected the magistrates and decided on matters of war and peace. MAGISTRATES SENATE Formed by 300 former consuls. They gave advice to the magistrates, passed laws and directed foreign policy 6 types of magistrates elected
  • 7. MAGISTRATES - Consuls: highest magistrates, commanded the army and called the comitia - Praetors: in charge of justice - Censors: in charge of making the census - Quaestors: in charge of collecting taxes - Aediles: in charge of municipal government - Dictators: extraordinary magistrates in periods of crisis. They held all the power for six months - Tribunes of the plebeians: elected by the plebeians to defend their rights after several revolts
  • 8. Political career of the Roman magistrates: no one could be consul if he hadn’t been praetor, aedile and quaestor before.
  • 9. Rome expanded and controlled all the Italian Peninsula. But in their expansion to the West of the Mediterranean Sea, their interests came into conflict with the Carthaginian Empire. The Romans and the Carthaginians fought in three wars called the Punic Wars. There were 3 wars between 264-146 BC. Finally the Romans defeated the Carthaginians and extended their power to the west of the Mediterranean Sea. TERRITORIAL EXPANSION DURING THE REPUBLIC
  • 10. In this period the Romans conquered territories in France (Gaul) and the Iberian Peninsula (Hispania). Later they conquered Greece and Egypt. http://explorethemed.com/RomeMed.asp?c=1
  • 11. CONFLICTS DURING THE REPUBLIC - Confrontment between patricians and plebeians. In the 5th century BC the plebeians got equal rights with the Law of the Twelve Tables and a tribune to defet their interests (tribune of the plebeians) - 2nd century BC: the Gracchus brothers tried to reform the Republic and reduce the differences of wealth, but they died violently. - 1st century: slave revolt led by Spartacus, corruption, internal problems… - Several dictators were appointed and the generals of the army got more power. There were two triumvirates: - 1st triumvirate: Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey. But a civil war broke out between them. The winner was Julius Caesar. He was proclaimed perpetual dictator, but in 44 B.C he was assassinated by a group of senators and supporters of the Republic. - 2nd triumvirate was formed by Mark Antony, Lepidus and Octavian. After several wars, Octavian took control. The Senate gave him maximum power.
  • 12. EMPIRE OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS In 27 B.C Octavian pacified the situation in Rome and the Senate gave him full powers and the title of Augustus (chosen by the gods) He introduced a new form of government called the Empire. The emperor concentrated a lot of power: -head of the army -he presided over the Senate -highest religious leader - in charge of foreign policy -he made laws and decided upon taxes.
  • 13. SOME ROMAN EMPERORS CLAUDIUS CALIGULA NERO VESPASIAN CARACALLA TRAJAN HADRIAN MARCUS AURELIUS
  • 14. PAX ROMANA 1s t and 2nd century : most splendorous period in the history of Rome. Long period of peace , maximum expansion and prosperity of the Roman Empire, which extended to the British Isles, the North of Africa and Asia Minor. Trade and the economy grew and Rome became the biggest city in the world.
  • 15. CRISIS OF THE 3rd CENTURY Big crisis due to different reasons: -conquests stopped and there were less slaves to work the land and less incomes to maintain the State. -pressure of the Barbarians (foreigners) on the borders of the Empire -peasants and soldiers revolted and anarchy spread. -Cities were attacked and many people escaped to the countryside. Consequences: production decreased, trade collapsed, many people moved to the countryside (ruralization process) and the power of the emperors decreased, because they were unable to solve the problems of the people.
  • 16. DIOCLETIAN reinforced the borders In the 4th century some emperors tried to make some reforms to solve the problems: CONSTANTINE - tolerated Christianity - moved the capital city to Constantinople in the East THEODOSIUS divided the Empire into two parts among his sons Arcadius and Honorius, so that it could be defended more easily
  • 17. DIVISION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Western Empire (capital city in Rome) Eastern Empire (capital city in Constantinople)
  • 18. In 375 the Huns (a tribe from Central Asia) invaded the Germanic territories and the Germanic tribes escaped to the South and came into the Roman Empire. The Romans were unable to stop the invasion of the barbarians. THE HUNS
  • 19. Pushed by the Huns , the Germanic peoples migrated to the interior of the Roman Empire, mainly to the West part, where emperors were weak and couldn’t stop them Main Germanic peoples: Sueves, Vandals, Alans, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Alamanni, Lombards, Franks, Burgundians, Slavs FRANK WARRIORS
  • 20. In 476 the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, conquered the city of Rome and deposed Romulus Augustulus ( a 15 year boy), the last Roman emperor of the West. The Western Roman Empire disappeared and new Germanic kingdoms appeared in its place. The Eastern Empire survived under a new name, Byzantine Empire, until 1453. OSTROGOTHS CONQUERING ROME FALL OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE http://explorethemed.com/fallrome.asp
  • 21. ROMAN SOCIETY TWO MAIN GROUPS •CITIZENS: they were free and had rights: they could own property, go to trials, vote and get married. Differences between them according to their wealth. •NON- CITIZENS: they had no rights. -Freedmen: people who were slaves in the past and had been freed by their owners. -Slaves: not free. They could become freedmen if their owners set them free. Women were considered non-citizens. They were always under the rule of a man: first under their fathers and after under their husbands. However, they could do some things: they could own property, manage businesses and go to parties and shows.
  • 22. ECONOMY TRADE: the Romans developed trade within the Empire, but they also traded with other parts of the world: They imported silk, cotton and spices from China, and they captured slaves in Africa. Trade reached a big development thanks to an important network of roads and ports. The Mediterranean Sea was so important for the Romans that they called it MARE NOSTRUM (“our sea”). MAIN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AGRICULTURE: main crops: wheat, olives and grapes. The lands were cultivated by small farmers or slaves), CRAFTSMANSHIP: many workshops in the cities, where craftsmen worked MINING: mines of gold, salt, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron in different parts of the Empire. In Hispania they worked the mines of mercury in Almadén and the mines of gold in León and Asturias.
  • 23. MODEL OF A ROMAN MILITARY CAMP GRID ROMAN CITIES Cities followed the model of Roman military camps., were walled and had two main streets: CARDUS (from North to South) and the DECUMANUS (from East to West). The rest of the streets were built in a grid.
  • 24. BARCINO CITY PLAN CAESAR AUGUSTA CITY PLAN DECUMANUS CARDUS In the centre of the city there was the FORUM, a big square. The main buildings of the city were situated around the forum: the capitol (the main temple of the city), the curia (the meeting place of the city council), the basilica (building for trade and trials) Roman cities had all kind of facilities: fountains in the streets, sewage systems, buildings for leisure, such as thermal baths, theatres, circus and amphitheatres.
  • 25. DOMUS Houses of the rich people
  • 26. INSULAE Blocks of very small apartments that were rented to poor people. Frequently insulae were built with bad materials, there was no running water in them and there was a big risk of fire.
  • 27. ROMAN VILLAE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN VILLA OF CARRANQUE, TOLEDO Houses of the rich people in the countryside. Peasants and slaves lived in huts.
  • 28. ROMAN RELIGION The Romans were polytheistic. They worshipped: -the LARES and PENATES: gods who protected the Roman families and their homes. They were worshipped at home in a small altar called LARARIUM -the MANES: the spirits of their ancestors -When they conquered Greece, they became fascinated by Greek culture and adopted the Greek mythology and worshipped the same gods, but changed their names -The EMPEROR LARARIUM
  • 29. http://www.freewebs.com/brown8080/godsandgoddesses.htm http://wandering39soul.deviantart.com/art/Greek-Roman-gods-and-goddesses-178397605 More information:
  • 30. CHRISTIANITY - Monotheistic religion appeared in the 1st century, founded by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth - As the Christians refused to worship the Roman Emperor, the Romans started persecuting the Christians. This forced them to practise their religion in secret (ceremonies in catacombs, subterranean galleries in which they also buried their dead). - In 313 Emperor Constantine allowed Christianity in the Roman Empire. The Christians could practise their religion freely. - In 380 Emperor Theodosius declared Christianity the only religion of the Roman Empire. All the other religions were forbidden and their followers were persecuted. The Church was created and the bishop of Rome, called the Pope, became the main authority of Christianity. CATACOMBS
  • 31. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS USED BY THE ROMANS COLUMNS
  • 32. ROMAN ART - The Romans drew inspiration from Greece, but also from other peoples they conquered and created their own and unmistakable style - Very practical builders: their buildings were made to last: they used stone and invented mortar (similar to cement) - Simple, but practical architectural elements: columns, pilasters, round arch, vault and dome ROMAN MORTAR COLUMNS DOME ROUND ARCH
  • 33. ARCHITECTURE - PUBLIC WORKS - ROADS: to communicate the Empire - BRIDGES: to cross rivers - AQUEDUCTS: to transport fresh water to ciyies - SEWAGE SYSTEMS: to eliminate black waters - BUILDINGS - RELIGIOUS: TEMPLES - CIVIL: BASILICAE: for trials and trade - LEISURE - MEMORIALS - TRIUMPHAL ARCH - COMMEMORATIVE COLUMN - THERMAL BATHS: public baths - CIRCUS: for chariot races - THEATRE: for theater plays - AMPHITHEATRE: for fgladiator and animal fights
  • 34. ROADS
  • 35. ALCÁNTARA BRIDGE CANGAS DE ONÍS BRIDGE
  • 36. PONT DU GARD, FRANCE
  • 37. SEGOVIA´S AQUEDUCT
  • 38. LOS MILAGROS AQUEDUCT, MÉRIDA
  • 39. SEWAGE SYSTEM CLOACA MAXIMA
  • 40. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROMAN THERMAE IN VARNA, BULGARIA
  • 41. ROMAN THERMAE IN BATH, UNITED KINGDOM
  • 42. MAISON CARRÉE, NÎMES ROMAN TEMPLE, VIC VESTA TEMPLE, ROME They followed the model of Greek temples, but in some cases they innovated
  • 43. AGRIPPA´S PANTHEON Temple with a big dome made with mortar
  • 44. BASILICA ROMAN BASILICA OF CONSTANTINE Buildings for trade and trials. The Christians copied the structure of this building to build their temples (churches)
  • 45. THEATER
  • 46. THEATER IN BOSRA, PRESENT TURKEY
  • 47. ROMAN THEATER IN EMERITA AUGUSTA
  • 48. COLOSSEUM EMERITA AUGUSTA AMPHITHEATRE AMPHITHEATRE
  • 49. ARLÉS AMPHITHEATRE, FRANCE
  • 50. ROMAN CIRCUS EMERITA AUGUSTA CIRCUS
  • 51. CONSTANTIN´S ARCH TITUS ARCH
  • 52. ARCH OF MEDINACELI, SORIA ARCH OF BARÀ, TARRAGONA
  • 53. MARCUS AURELIUS COLUMN TRAJAN COLUMN The Trajan Column in Rome, built to commemorate the victory of Emperor Trajan in Dacia (present Romania) is decorated with reliefs that show the different episodes of Trajan’s military campaign in Dacia.
  • 54. TRAJAN COLUMN
  • 55. ROMAN SCULPTURE JULIUS CAESAR CRASUS POMPEY MARK ANTONY LEPIDUS OCTAVIAN Roman sculpture was inspired in Greek sculpture, but the Romans were interested in representing reality. They made realistic portraits that reflected the real features of the people they represented. Only the emperors were idealised.
  • 56. OCTAVIAN AUGUSTUS, FIRST ROMAN EMPEROR
  • 57. SOME ROMAN EMPERORS CLAUDIUS CALIGULA NERO VESPASIAN CARACALLA TRAJAN HADRIAN MARCUS AURELIUS
  • 58. DIOCLETIAN CONSTANTINE THEODOSIUS ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS, LAST EMPEROR OF THE WESTERN ROMAN EMPIRE As time went by, sculptures became less realistic and more expressionist
  • 59. ROMAN MOSAICS IN POMPEII PAINTING The Romans used paintings to decorate the walls of the houses. They also used mosaics: picture or decorative design made by setting small coloured pieces of stone or tiles into a surface. There are many mosaics in Pompeii, a Roman city that was covered by lava after the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius in 79 AD.
  • 60. ALEXANDER THE GREAT, MOSAIC IN THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN
  • 61. BODIES OF ROMANS PETRIFIED BY THE ERUPTION OF VESUBIUS VOLCANO IN THE CITY OF POMPEII (79 AD)