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Islam

Islam

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Islam Islam Presentation Transcript

  • ROCK MOSQUE, JERUSALEM CÓRDOBA MOSQUE, SPAIN ISLAM
  • WHERE DID ISLAM APPEAR? This is a desert area. In the 6th century nomadic tribes lived in the Arabian Peninsula. They lived from caravan trade and camel stockbreeding. The main cities were Mecca and Medina. They were polytheistic and they worshipped a black stone situated in the city of Mecca: the Kaaba.
  • THE SANCTUARY OF KAABA Arabic tribes believed that Abraham had made the sacrifice of a sheep over a black stone (in fact, a meteorite) and afterwards he had built a sanctuary there. The sanctuary of Kaaba was a big business for the Mecca merchants, because many people from other places came on pilgrimage to visit the sanctuary and they spent money in Mecca. BLACK STONE
  • MUHAMMAD Muhammad was born in Mecca. He was a merchant, who studied Judaism and Christianity. He liked to go to the desert to meditate. When he was 40 he received a revelation: angel Gabriel told him that there was an only God, called Allah and Muhammad should dedicate his life to preach this. Muhammad became prophet of a new religion: ISLAM. Islam means “submission to God”. The believers of Islam are called Muslims (“those who submit to God”) ANGEL GABRIEL REVEALS MUHAMMAD THE NEW RELIGION
  • The rich merchants of Mecca thought that Muhammad was a danger for the Kaaba business. Muhammad had to move to Medina in 622. This is called the Hegira (Muhammad´s flight from Mecca to Medina) and it´s the start of the Muslim calendar. Muslims are in year 1434 now. HEGIRA
  • MUHAMMAD AND HIS FOLLOWERS IN MEDINA In Medina Muhammad found many followers of the new religion. He formed a powerful army and he came back to Mecca in 628. He conquered the city and Islam started spreading throughout all the Arabian Peninsula. MUHAMMAD COMING BACK TO MECCA
  • THE EXTENSION OF ISLAM When Muhammad died in 632, Islam had spread to the main part of the Arabian Peninsula
  • These are the five “commandments” of Islam, that is, the obligations every Muslim has
  • SHAHADAH: profession of faith: “There is no other God than Allah and Muhammad is his prophet”.
  • SALAH : To pray five times a day towards Mecca.
  • HAJJ: To go on pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (if it´s possible) PILGRIMS IN MECCA’S GRAND MOSQUE PILGRIMS AROUND KAABA
  • SAWN: To fast during the month of Ramadan (from sunrise to sunset) RAMADAN MEAL AFTER SUNSET
  • ZAKAH: To give alms to poor people. ZAKAH
  • MUSLIMS CAN´T - EAT PORK - DRINK ALCOHOL BUT - MUSLIM MEN CAN HAVE ALL THE WIVES THEY CAN MAINTAIN - IN THE PAST THEY COULD FIGHT TO SPREAD THEIR RELIGION: HOLY WAR OR JIHAD. TODAY JIHAD IS UNDERSTOOD AS AN INDIVIDUAL FIGHT AGAINST TEMPTATIONS AND SINS. ONLY RADICAL MUSLIMS BELIEVE IN JIHAD AS WAR TODAY.
  • SACRED BOOKS OF ISLAM KORAN: holy book for all the Muslims. It was written in Arabic after Muhammad’s death in 652. It contains the words of Allah. Muslims have to memorize verses of Koran, because this is a way of honoring Allah. The Koran contains the stories of Noah and Moses. SUNNA:book that contains the facts of Muhammad´s life and shows how a good Muslim has to behave in everyday life. The followers of Koran and Sunna are called Sunnis. This book is not accepted by the Shiites, who consider that all it contains is an invention. KORAN SUNNA
  • THE DIVISION OF ISLAM The majority of Muslims are Sunnis. They accept both the Koran and the Sunna A minority of Muslims are Shiites. They reject the Sunna and believe that a succesor of Muhammad (some kind of Messiah) will come to the Earth to save them from evil. They call this Messiah the Mahdi. They are majority in Iran and Iraq
  • WHERE DO MUSLIMS PRAY? Muslims can pray everywhere. The only conditions are being clean before praying and praying towards Mecca. The sacred building of Muslims is the mosque. Muslims go to the mosque on Friday.
  • PARTS OF A MOSQUE QIBLA (wall oriented to Mecca) MIHRAB (niche where the Koran, the word of Allah is ) HYPOSTILE HALL (to pray) COURTYARD In the courtyard there is an ABLUTION FOUNTAIN, where Muslims must wash before going into the prayer hall MINARET (Tower to call Muslims to prayer)
  • SPREAD OF ISLAM: THE CALIPHATE All the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula became Muslims very quickly. Religion became quickly related with politics. Muhammad ‘s successors, called caliphs, became both political and religious leaders. The caliph was allpowerful: he had political power, was the chief of the army, ruled the administration and was also the head of Islam. When Islam spread out of the Arabian Peninsula, an Empire was created: the CALIPHATE. ABBASID CALIPH
  • STAGES OF THE ISLAMIC CALIPHATE •MUHAMMAD AND THE FIRST 4 CALIPHS (622- 661): CONQUEST OF ALL THE ARABIAN PENINSULA. CAPITAL CITY: MEDINA. •UMMAYAD DYNASTY (661-750): CONQUEST OF TERRITORIES FROM PERSIA IN THE EAST TO THE IBERIAN PENINSULA IN THE WEST. CAPITAL CITY: DAMASCUS.
  • STAGES OF THE ISLAMIC CALIPHATE • • ABBASID DYNASTY(750-1258): THE EMPIRE BROKE UP INTO DIFFERENT PARTS. CAPITAL CITY: BAGHDAD. OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1258- 1918): THE OTTOMAN TURKS CONQUERED THE ABBASID CALIPHATE AND BECAME THE MOST POWERFUL PEOPLE IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD. CAPITAL CITY FROM 1453: ISTANBUL.
  • ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION Islamic civilization was an urban civilization. Cities flourished in the Caliphate and Muslim cities were larger than the cities of the Germanic Kingdoms or the Byzantine Empire. The most important cities were Damascus, Baghdad, Mecca, Cairo and Córdoba. FARMHOUSE ALCÁZAR MOSQUE ARRABAL MARKET WAREHOUSE BATHS WALLS
  • ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Main economic activities : •Agriculture was very productive. The main crops were cereals, grapes and olives. The Muslims introduced important innovations which increased production: - They developed irrigation techniques: they built mills in rivers and ditches and canals to water the crops. - They also introduced new crops from Asia in the territories they conquered: rice, sugarcane, aubergines, artichokes, oranges and lemons, cotton, date palms and many flowers (roses, tulips, jasmines…) •Craftsmanship in cities: there were many workshops, where different products were made: ceramics, leather goods, silver and gold objects, wooden furniture, carpets, dyes and silk. DITCH MADE BY THE MUSLIMS IN OLMEDA DE LAS FUENTES •Trade: Muslim merchants travelled throughout Asia, Africa and Europe and were very important in the exchange of products from different places. They bought cloth and spices in Asia, gold, ivory and slaves in Africa and metals and cereals in Europe. They used two coins: the dinar (gold coin) and the dirham (silver coin). DIRHAMS OF THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE
  • PRODUCTS INTRODUCED BY THE MUSLIMS IN EUROPE
  • MUSLIM CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE AND CULTURE The Muslims were tolerant to the people from other religions and Islam didn´t forbid scientific research. Caliphs supported research. This is why science and thinking had an extraordinary development in the Muslim territories. The Muslims introduced many Asian inventions in Europe: compass, gunpowder… They also saved many important books from Ancient Greece and translated many important books from different cultures (China, Persia, Greece…) Some important advances in science: -Astronomy: they studied eclipses, the rotation of planets and calculated the diameter of the Earth - Maths: they introduced Arabic numerals, invented the symbol of zero, improved geometry and trigonometry, invented algebra and equations - Medicine: they invented syrups, organized hospitals in different sections, students who wanted to be doctors or pharmacists had to pass an exam and they improved surgery http://www.1001inventions.com/Hospital_Zone
  • ISLAMIC ART - Synthesis of different styles: the Muslims copied different elements from other civilizations, but used them in an original way -Main examples of Islamic art: buildings (mosques and palaces), with flat, wooden roofs -Use of poor building materials: bricks, plaster, tiles -Abundant decoration: buildings were completely decorated with geometrical and plant motifs and calligraphy. CÓRDOBA´S MOSQUE -Light and water had an important role (fountains, pools and waterfalls evoked desert oases) -Sculpture and painting didn´t develop, because Islam forbids the representation of animals and human beings. SAMARRA´S MOSQUE, IRAQ
  • TYPES OF ARCHES USED IN ISLAMIC ART OGEE ARCH POINTED ARCH STALACTITE PATTERN SCALLOPED ARCH HORSESHOE ARCH
  • ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS: DIFFERENT TYPES OF ARCHES
  • DECORATIVE ELEMENTS: STALACTITE PATTERN The stalactite pattern tries to evoke the interior of a cave.
  • DECORATIVE ELEMENTS: PLANTS, CALLIGRAPHY AND GEOMETRIC FORMS
  • DECORATIVE ELEMENTS GEOMETRIC MOTIF PLANT MOTIFS