Ferdinand VII´s and Isabella II´s reign


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From the restoration of absolutism to the consolidation of a liberal State in Spain (1814-1868)

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Ferdinand VII´s and Isabella II´s reign

  2. 2. FERDINAND VII (1814-1833)
  4. 4. REACTION: SEXENIO ABSOLUTISTA (1814-1820) Manifesto of the Persians When Ferdinand VII came back from France, he weighed up the situation and, as he got the support of the absolutists (Manifesto of the Persians), he decided to revoke all the laws passed by the Cortes of Cádiz and restore absolutism.
  5. 5. - Strong repression against the Francophiles and liberals - Serious economic crisis after the Peninsular War - Revolt of the Spanish colonies in America to get the independence. - Several liberal uprisings (pronunciamientos) to end with absolutism and restore the Constitution of 1812: Espoz y Mina (1814) Porlier (1815), Lacy and Milans del Bosch (1817)… All these uprisings failed. ESPOZ Y MINA, escaped to France EL EMPECINADO, exiled to Valladolid LACY, executed
  6. 6. LIBERAL TRIENNIUM (1820-1823) 1st January 1820: Colonel Riego´s uprising in Cabezas de San Juan (Sevilla) in favour of the 1812 Constitution. March 1820: Ferdinand VII reestablished the Constitution and the liberals reached power. Ferdinand VII ´s decree swearing the Constitution COLONEL RIEGO
  7. 7. PROBLEMS DURING THE LIBERAL TRIENNIUM - Disputes between moderate (doceañistas) and radical liberals (veinteañistas) - Peasants´ revolts: they were not happy with the liberal reforms (they had to pay the rents for cultivating the lands in cash) Martínez de la Rosa, moderate liberal - Bankruptcy of the State finances - Continuation of the American colonies’ independence process - Ferdinand VII´s constant conspiracies against the government: he asked the Holy Alliance for help. In the Congress of Verona (1822) the Holy Alliance decided to intervene in Spain to restore absolutism Evaristo San Miguel, radical liberal
  8. 8. The Holy Alliance sent a French army: the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis (127,000 soldiers, commanded by the Duke of Angouleme). The liberal government took refuge in Cádiz. Route followed by the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis Duke of Angouleme, commander in chief of the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis
  9. 9. The French army sieged Cádiz. Ferdinand VII promised to keep the Constitution if the liberals surrendered, but when he met the French army to negotiate, he broke his promise and joined the invaders. The liberals had to surrender. On the 1st October 1823 Ferdinand VII declared null and void all the laws passed by the liberals during the Liberal Triennium and restored absolutism. Ferdinand VII receiving the Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis in Cádiz
  10. 10. DEFINITIVE LOSS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIES - Process started in 1808 due to the power vacuum created by the French invasion and the Peninsular War - First independent republics: Argentina and Paraguay. - From 1814 the independence processs accelerated and generalized - Liberators: San Martín from the South Bolívar from the North. - Process finished in 1824, with the independence of all the colonies except Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingp and the Philippines -Problems of the new republics: ruled by Creole elites and exclusion of the indigenous population. Strong social inequalities.
  11. 11. LIBERATORS SIMÓN BOLÍVAR GUAYAQUIL CONFERENCE (1822), meeting between Bolívar and San Martín to decide the best way of freeing Perú JOSÉ DE SAN MARTÍN
  12. 12. OMINOUS DECADE (1823-1833) -Absolutism was restored, but -the critical situation (loss of the colonies in 1824) led to a more realistic policy. - The small reforms were seen as a weakness symptom by the most intransigent absolutists. Some absolutist revolts: in 1827 Malcontents (Offended) Revolt in Catalonia. Malcontents Revolt (1827) - Liberal uprisings went on, but were strongly repressed (Torrijos) Execution of Torrijos and his companions at Málaga beach (1831)
  13. 13. FERDINAND VII´S LAST YEARS: SUCCESSION PROBLEM Ferdinand VII changed the succession laws, so that his daughter Isabella could become queen: - he issued the Pragmatic Sanction, that revoked the Bourbons´ Salic Law, which excluded women from the throne Ferdinand VII´s death - the most intransigent absolutists put pressure on him in order to convince him to give the throne to his brother Carlos Mª Isidro, but Ferdinand VII finally decided to appoint his wife Mª Cristina regent and his three-year old daughter Isabella as heiress. When Ferdinand VII died, those who supported Carlos Mª Isidro (carlists) revolted against Mª Cristina and Isabella (supported by the isabelinos or cristinos): 1st Carlist War(1833-1840)
  15. 15. Mª CRISTINA´S REGENCY (1833- 1840) MAIN EVENTS: -1st Carlist War - Division of liberalism: progressives and moderates - Liberal Revolution: reforms that established a liberal regime in Spain. Mª Cristina of Borbón-Dos Sicilias Francisco Muñoz, Duke of Riánsares, appointed Lieutenant General and senator for life Morganatic marriage three months after Ferdinand VII´s death.
  16. 16. 1st CARLIST WAR (1833-1840) Not only a dynastic war, but a confrontation between two ways of organizing the country: - CARLISTS: they wanted to come back to the Ancien Régime, recover CARLOS Mª ISIDRO pretender to the throne ISABELLA II when she was a child or preserve the fueros and defended traditional religion. Their motto was: “Dios, patria y rey”. They got the support of the low clergy, rural nobles and some rural areas where small estates predominated (Navarre, Basque Provinces, Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia) and absloutist countries (Austria and Russia) - ISABELINOS OR CRISTINOS: they didn´t want to come back to the Ancien Régime and were supported by the most moderate absolutists, the liberals, the bourgeoisie of the main cities, high clergy and the liberal powers (France and the United Kingdom).
  17. 17. The carlists couldn´t take any important cities, although they sieged Bilbao in 1835. They also failed in their attempt to take Madrid and other cities (General Gómez´s expedition in 1837) Areas controlled by the Carlists at the moment of their maximum expansion
  18. 18. 1839: Vergara Agreement, signed by generals Maroto (carlist) and Espartero (liberal), old comrades-in-arms: the fueros of the Basque Provinces and Navarre would remain and the carlist soldiers could join the liberal army with the same rank they had in the carlist army. Maroto Espartero War continued until 1840 in the Maestrazgo, when the carlist general Cabrera escaped to France. Cabrera Vergara Agreement
  19. 19. FIRST POLITICAL PARTIES More intransigent: CARLISTS ABSOLUTISTS More moderate MODERATES Doceañistas Enlarge the monarch´s power and reduce people´s rights Veinteañistas PROGRESSIVES LIBERALS Restrict the monarch´s powers and enlarge people´s rights LIBERAL TRIENNIUM Mª CRISTINA´S REGENCY
  20. 20. LIBERAL REVOLUTION As Regent, Mª Cristina always preferred the moderates to rule. In 1835 a liberal uprising, supported by popular protests in the main cities,brought the progressives to the government. The progressives started the reforms to end the Ancien Régime in Spain: - Suppression of seigneurial rights (only the jurisdictional, not the territorial ones) and feudalism - Untying (abolition of primogeniture) Mendizábal - Suppression of guilds and interior customs. - Ecclesiastical confiscation of Mendizábal (1835-36): nationalization of the properties of the Church and sell at auction to get money to finance the Carlist War -Constitution of 1837: national sovereignty, division of powers (executive: monarch, with unlimited veto power, who appointed ministers and senators. Legislative: two chambers, Congress and Senate), rights for the citizens, other religions were not forbidden and the State would compensate the clergy for the confiscation of their properties. Census suffrage was later regulated.
  21. 21. GENERAL ESPARTERO´S REGENCY (1840-1843) In 1840 some corruption problems and Mª Cristina´s opposition to reform the municipalities led to her resignation. A new Regent was appointed: general Espartero (progressive) - Authoritarian way of ruling: this created problems with the members of his own party. - The decision of imposing a free-trade tariff damaged the Catalan industry and there were serious revolts in Catalonia. Espartero repressed protests by force (Barcelona was bombed) - In 1843, moderate military uprising, supported by some progressive politicians. Espartero resigned and exiled in the U.K. The Cortes decided to declare Isabella of age and she was proclaimed queen when she was 13 years old. Uprising against Espartero in Barcelona
  22. 22. ISABELLA II (1843-1868)
  23. 23. Satirical drawing of Francisco de Asís of Borbón Isabella II and her husband Francisco de Asís of Borbón
  24. 24. MODERATE DECADE (1844-1854) - Strong man: General Narváez. - Creation of the Guardia Civil (1844) - Municipal law: it reinforced centralism, because the government appointed the mayors. -Constitution of 1845: shared sovereignty between the monarch and the Cortes, the rights of citizens were reduced and the State identified with Catholic religion. - Mon and Santillán´s Tax Reform (1845): it simplified tax collection, by creating direct and indirect taxes - Concordate with the Holy See (1851) - Criminal Code (1851) and project of a Civil Code Narváez - Unified system of weights and measures.
  25. 25. Alejandro Mon Ramón de Santillán RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TAX REFORM Isabella II swearing the 1845 Constitution The consolidation of the Liberal State and administrative centralization took place during the Moderate Decade In 1849 a new political party appeared: Democratic party. Ideology: they wanted to enlarge citizens´rights and universal suffrage. Some of them were republicans.
  26. 26. PROGRESSIVE BIENNIUM (1854-1856) June 1854: uprising led by the moderate general O ´Donnell in Vicálvaro (Vicalvarada) against the moderates authoritarianism and corruption. July: Manzanares Manifesto: Demand for political reforms and Constituent Cortes. The progressives joined the uprising and the popular support to the revolt obliged Isabella II to appoint a new government in October 1854 MANZANARES MANIFESTO Espartero, prime minister O´Donnell, minister of War
  27. 27. - New political party, led by O´Donnell: Liberal Union. Objective: being a center option between moderates and progressives. - Government formed by progressive and Liberal Union members. Main decisions: - Project of new Constitution (Non nata) - Civil confiscation of Madoz: nationalization and sell at auction of the properties of municipalities, military orders, hospitals and hospices. It was made to finance public works. - Construction of railway lines (1855) - Banking laws (creation of the Bank of Spain, banking control and banknotes issue) and creation of public limited companies MADOZ´S CIVIL CONFISCATION
  28. 28. - Railway lines: Radiocentric network, in order to communicate Madrid with the rest of the country. Wider track gauge than the rest of Europe. - Speculative business: more interest in building lines than in their future profitability (railway bubble)
  29. 29. In 1855, general strike in Catalonia. In 1856, increasing workers (Barcelona) and peasants´ protests (Castile), because reforms didn ´t give solution to ordinary problems (unemployment, increase of prices, bad harvests) Espartero refused to use the army against protesters and resigned. The queen appointed O ´Donnell prime minister and he strongly repressed revolts. That was the end of the Progressive Biennium. Destruction of self-acting machines in Barcelona
  30. 30. ALTERNATION BETWEEN THE LIBERAL UNION AND THE MODERATES (1865-1868) In October 1856, the queen called the moderates to power (Narváez). The moderates alternated power with O´Donnell´s Liberal Union. -Return to conservatism and the laws passed during the Moderate Decade (Constitution of 1845, confiscations were paralyzed, press censorship) -Aggressive foreign policy: participation in some international conflicts in Cochinchina (1858-1863), Santo Domingo, Mexico (1862) and Morocco (1859-60). Only the intervention in Morocco got some results: occupation of Sidi Ifni and Ceuta was enlarged. - Opposition parties (progressives and democrats) were excluded from power and obliged to conspire to reach the government. They were strongly repressed by the moderates. NARVÁEZ O´DONNELL Governments 1856-1858: MODERATES 1858-1863: LIBERAL UNION 1863- 1865: MODERATES 1865- 1866: LIBERAL UNION 1866-1868: MODERATES
  31. 31. June 1866: Military uprising at San Gil headquarters (Madrid).O´Donnell, in conflict with the queen, definitely left the government October 1866: Pact of Ostend (Belgium): the progressives and democrats decided to overthrow Isabella II´s monarchy, establish a provisional government and call elections to Constituent Cortes When O´Donnell died in 1867, the Liberal Union joined the conspiracy Only the moderates went on supporting the queen PROGRESSIVES DEMOCRATS LIBERAL UNION OBJECTIVE OVERTROW ISABELLA II´S MONARCHY REVOLUTION OF 1868 (GLORIOUS REVOLUTION)