ITALY AFTER WORLD WAR 1 Although Italy fought with the Allies in WW1, they were not satisfied with the territories they received after the Conference of Paris. There was a general feeling of mutilated victory. The irredentisti claimed for more territories they considered that had to belong to Italy. UNREDEEMED AREAS REGIONS CLAIMED BY THE ITALIAN IRREDENTISTI: -NICE, TICINO AND DALMATIA IN GREEN -MALTA IN RED -CORSICA IN PURPLE
THE TWO RED YEARS (1919-1920) VICTOR EMMANUEL IIIItaly continued to be a liberal monarchy,but the liberal governments were unableto face postwar problems: WORKERS OF FIAT TAKING THE FACTORY OVER-unemployment-inflation-high external debt-influence of the Bolshevik Revolution:seizure of land and factories-political instabilityAll these problems were fertile ground forextremist ideologies SEIZURE OF FACTORIES, 1920
BENITO MUSSOLINI MUSSOLINI IN 1903Mussolini was a former Socialist, who hadbeen expelled from the Socialist Party when hedecided to support the participation of Italy inWW1.He was promoted to corporal during WW1 and MUSSOLINI IN WORLD WAR 1when the war ended he took advantage ofinstability and general discontent to create anextreme right group to confront workers´ andpeasants´protests
FASCI ITALIANI DI COMBATTIMENTO Created by Mussolini in 1919, they were an extreme right group and the germ of the National Fascist Party. They had a paramilitary group called the Blackshirts (Voluntary Militia for National Security). These groups used violence to threaten workers and members of unions and were financed by big landowners and industrialists as shock troops PROGRAMFASCI DI COMBATTIMENTO OF LISSONE BLACKSHIRTS EMBLEM OF THE FASCI
NATIONAL FASCIST PARTY (1921) Created in November 1921. Ideology more characterized for what they rejected than for their proposals: - Anti-communism, anti-socialism, anti-liberalism and against parliamentary democracy -Defense of private property - Strong State EMBLEM OF THE NATIONAL FASCIST PARTY - Exacerbated and aggresive nationalism - Use of violence - Intervention of the State in economy andSUPPORT autarky- Petty bourgeoisie- Big landowners and industrialistsTolerated by the Church and the king Poor results in the 1921 elections: only 22 deputies out of 535.
MARCH ON ROME (28th October 1922) As a demonstration of their power, the Fascists organized a March on Rome with Blackshirts from all over Italy. The Fascists demanded power and threatened the government with the use of violence. MUSSOLINI IN ROME
MUSSOLINI APPOINTED PRIME MINISTER (30th October) Instead of declaring the state of siege, the king, advised by the conservative forces, appointed Mussolini prime minister. His first government included 3 Fascist ministersIn the April 1924 general elections the Fascist Party won the electionsusing intimidation and violence and got 2/3 of the seats of the Parliament
THE MATTEOTTI AFFAIR On the 30th May 1924 the Socialist deputy Matteotti denounced Fascist intimidations and illegal actions in the Parliament. He was kidnapped and killed on the 10th of June. Mussolini assumed the responsibility of this factMATTEOTTI MUSSOLINI OVER MATTEOTTI´S COFFIN
RETIREMENT ON THE AVENTINE MOUNTAll the opposition parties left the Parliament as a protest against theFascists. Their purpose was overthrowing the government and going tonew elections, but this attitude gave the Fascists free rein to impose adictatorship.The government didn´t fall, because the king supported Mussolini.The Fascists intensified their persecution of the opposition: all thepolitical parties (except the Fascist Party) and unions weresuppressed and freedom of speech was restricted. Many oppositionleaders were imprisoned and others had to exile.
TOTALITARIAN STATEItaly became a totalitarian State:- One-single party system- No division of powers: all the institutions were controlled by the Fascist Party- Persecution and repression of the opposition.- All the aspects of the individuals´ life are subordinated to the authority of theState
TOTALITARIANISM “All within the State, none outside the State, none against the State” BELIEVE, OBEY, FIGHTMUSSOLINI IS ALWAYS RIGHT EITHER WITH US OR AGAINST US
OPERA NAZIONALE BALILLA OPERA NAZIONALE MATERNITÀ INFANZIAAll the Italian citizens (children, women, workers) had to belong to Fascistorganizations if the wanted to be “good Italians”.Unions were replaced by corporations, organizations which included workers andpatrons to “solve” labour conflicts
CULT OF MUSSOLINI´S PERSONALITY Mussolini, called “Il Duce”, had full powerand his figure was presented as if he wasa hero FRIEZE OF THE HISTORY OF ITALYUse of propaganda to glorify Mussolini CULMINATING WITH A HEROIC MUSSOLINI
LATERAN PACTS (1929)The Italian State signed peace with the Pope. The Vatican City was createdas a State inside Italy and a Concordat was signed to regulate the relationsbetween the Holy See and Italy. This solved the so called “Roman Question”,in force since the Italian unification.
ECONOMIC POLICY- Autarky: the main objective wasto achieve self- sufficiency, increasinginternal production and reducing imports.- Intervention of the State in economy:public works, rearmament, subsidizedenterprises EAT RICE PROPAGANDA OF A COFFEE SUBSTITUTE BATTLE FOR GRAIN
ITALIAN FOREIGN AGGRESSIVE POLICYMussolini wanted to restore the splendor of the Roman Empire and startedsome wars to conquer territories:-1935: occupation of Ethiopia-1939: occupation of AlbaniaItaly also supported the rebels during the Spanish Civil War, sending more than70,000 soldiers and weapons. ITALIAN EMPIRE IN !939
THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC (1919- 1933) After WW1, the Weimar Republic had to face a lot of problems: -hard sanctions established in the Versailles Treaty -strong economic crisis -poverty -unemployment -hyperinflation and loss of value of the mark in 1923 http://www.flickr.com/photos/papefons/sets/721 -attempts of revolution from the extreme left and coups d´État from the extremeBANKNOTES USED FOR HEATING right and part of the army INSTEAD OF COAL
ADOLF HITLER Born in Linz (Austria), he participated in WW1 and was promoted to corporal. After the war the army infiltrated him as an informant to report on the DAP (German Workers´Party), an extreme right party (antisemitic and nationalist). As he was a skilled speaker, he soonHITLER CELEBRATING THE OUTBREAK OF became one of its leadersTHE WAR IN THE ODEONSPLATZ, MUNICH CORPORAL DURING WW1
NSDAPNational Socialist German Workers´Party,founded by Hitler in 1920. Ideology:-Very similar to Italian fascism (what they rejected,use of violence, extreme nationalism…)-Three specific ideas: -ANTI-SEMITISM: hate for the Jews, considered to be the responsible of all bad things (scapegoat for all the problems Germany had). -SUPERIORITY OF THE ARIAN “RACE” AND NEED FOR A VITAL SPACE (LEBENSRAUM): space the Arians needed to live with dignity, which extended throughout the Great European Plain -DEMAND OF ABROGATION OF VERSAILLES TREATY
NAZI PARAMILITARY GROUPS SA: STURMABTEILUNG SS: SCHUTZSTAFFEL HIMMLER Security Sections, personal Hitler´s guard,Assault Sections, also known directed by Himmler. During WW2 theyas Brownshirts run the concentration and extermination camps
BEER HALL PUTSCH (November 1923) NAZIS TRYING TO SEIZE POWER IN MUNICHIn November 1923 the Nazis tried to seize power with a coup d´État (putsch) inMunich. The Nazis surrounded the Bürgerbraukeller, a beer hall where Bavariapolitical authorities were celebrating a meeting. The putsch failed because thearmy didn´t join the Nazis. 14 Nazis died and their main leaders were arrested
HITLER IN JAILHITLER WITH THE OTHER ARRESTED FOR THE BEER HALL PUTSCH Hitler was sentenced to 5 years, but he only served 8 months. During his imprisonment he wrote Mein Kampf (My struggle/ battle), considered to be the bible of Nazism.
NSDAP RESULTS IN THE GENERAL ELECTIONS Votes, The Nazis´ results in the elections were Total Reichstag Date percentag very poor until the beginning of the 1929 votes seats e crisis. The Great Depression increasedMay 1924 1,918,300 6.5 32 their support among ruined bourgeois, middle and small farmers, industrialistsDecember 1924 907,300 3.0 14 and bankers.May 1928 810,100 2.6 12 In July 1932 the NSDAP reached its peak:September 1930 ,409,600 6 18.3 107 they were the most voted party with more than 13 million votes, but they didn´t haveJuly 1932 13,745,000 37.3 230 majority and the president of the Republic, Marshall Hindenburg, refused to appointNovember 19321,737,000 1 33.1 196 Hitler prime minister. In the following elections in November 1932March 1933 17,277,180 43.9 288 the NSDAP lost 2 million votes. But in January 1933 the conservative forces convinced Hindenburg to appoint Hitler prime minister.
HITLER APPOINTED PRIME MINISTER (30th January 1933)Hitler´s first government included3 Nazis out of 11 ministers. Hitlerconvinced Hindenburg to call newelections for the 5th March NAZI STORMTROOPERS CELEBRATING AT BRANDENBURG GATE
REICHSTAG FIRE (27th February) ACCUSED COMMUNISTSThe Nazis committed arson against theReichstag (Parliament) and accused thecommunists. The government issued anemergency decree restricting liberties.Many opposition leaders were arrestedand sent to detention camps. POLITICAL PRISONERS SENT TO ORIANIENBURG
MARCH 1933 ELECTIONS: CONSEQUENCESUsing intimidation and violence against the opposition, the Nazis won theelections (43% of the votes). Hitler demanded full powers in the Reichstag.The Gestapo (Secret Police) was created and in July the NSDAP becamethe only legal party. 21ST MARCH 1933 23RD MARCH: ENABLING ACT: HITLER GOT FULL POWERS
NAZI BOYCOTT AGAINST THE JEWS (April 1933) I WILL NOT COMPLAIN TO THE POLICE ANYMORE“JEW PERISH” ON A SYNAGOGUE Persecution against the Jews started immediately GERMANS, DEFEND YOURSELVES. DON´T BUY FROM JEWS
BURNING OF BOOKS (10th May 1933) Attack to culture: the Nazis burnt books of authors considered to be against Germany: Einstein, Marx, Hemingway, Proust, Heinrich and Thomas Mann
FORCED LABOUR CAMPS SS GUARDS Members of opposition parties were the first imprisonned in concentration camps, ruled by the SS.DACHAU
NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES (June- July 1934) STRASSER VON SCHLEICHER Cleansing of the opposition inside the Nazi Party. Ernst Röhm, leader of the SA, and other prominent Nazis were killedRÖHM
HITLER APPOINTED FÜHRER (August 1934) When President Hindenburg died in August 1934, Hitler concentrated the post of chancellor and president and the Army swore fielty to him. He was called “Führer” (guide, leader) of the Germans and proclaimed the 3rd Reich (Empire)SEPTEMBER NUREMBERG TRIUMPH OF THE WILL
NUREMBERG LAWS (1935) They excluded the Jews from German nationality and forbade them to work in contact with Germans (“Arians”) or to marry them.JEWS ARE OUR MISFORTUNE The more full-blooded a Jew was, the greater level of discrimination he sufferedJEWS ARE NOT WANTED HERE CHART TO DETERMINE JEWISHNESS
NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS (9th November 1938) Attacks to synagogues and Jewish shops all around Germany. - 90 Jews killed. -more than 30,000 Jews were arrested and sent to camps - Massive emigration of Jews to other countries. NAZI MASS ROUNDUPS OF JEWS
REVISING VERSAILLES SANCTIONS March 1938: Anschluss The Nazis occupied Austria and annexed it to Germany. March 1936Remilitarization of the West bank of Rhineland
MUNICH AGREEMENT (September 1938)Hitler claimed Sudentenland, aCzechoslovakian territory inhabitedby 3 million German speakers.The main European powers met atMunich and signed an agreement tocede Sudentenlandto Germany. They didn´t want toprovoke a war (appeasement policy,led by Neville Chamberlain, the UKprime minister) and saw Hitler as an 30th September 1938important ally to stop Stalin.Hitler promised to stop his territorialdemands, but he didn´t keep hispromise. OCCUPATION OF SUDENTENLAND
INVASION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA (March 1939)The Nazis occupied Bohemia and Moravia and established a protectorate inSlovakia
Hitler demanded the Danzig Corridor to Poland. Poland asked the UK for help.
NAZI- SOVIET PACT (August 1939) Secret agreement signed between Germany and the USSR. Hitler wanted to be sure of the USSR neutrality in the invasion of Poland and Stalin wanted to gain time in order to be ready for a future war against the Nazis.STALIN AND VON RIBENTROPSIGNED THE NAZI-SOVIET PACT THE HARMONY BOYS MUSSOLINI, FRANCO AND STALIN 23th August 1939 SINGING AT HITLER´S TIME Evening Standard, 2nd May 1940
OUTBREAK OF WORLD WAR 2 (SEPTEMBER 1939) 1st September : Invasion of Poland using Thunder War (Blitzkrieg): combined attack of artillery and aircraft. 3rd September: France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. 17th September: The Soviet Union occupied the Eastern part of Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Poland was occupied in four weeks