Europe after the French Revolution: Restoration and the revolutions of 1820, 1830 and 1848

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The Congress of Vienna, the rev

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  • Puedes insertar las presentaciones en tu blog sin necesidad de descargarlas: simplemente haces clic en INSERTAR, copias el código html y lo pegas en tu blog. Saludos.
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  • Igualmente te felicito por tus presentaciones en inglés. Si puedes pasarme alguna la incluiré también en mi blog para los alumnos de 4º de ESO en inglés. Sigo el libro de Oxford, pero es un poco justo y necesito algún material complementario para los alumnos. Mantendré tu autoria. Gracias. mtorrents@lasalle.cat
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  • Ningún problema. Espero que te sea útil. Saludos.
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  • Se nota que la preparaste a través del currículo español, lo cual se agradece mucho, ya que me has ahorrado un montón de trabajo.
    Me gusta mucho el enfoque y la explicación del liberalismo y el nacionalismo, ambos sabemos lo que les cuesta a los alumnos entender este último.
    Espero que no tengas ningún problema con que inserte la presentación en mi blog para mis alumnos de 4º de la ESO y con que la use en clase para completar la explicación.

    Un saludo.
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Europe after the French Revolution: Restoration and the revolutions of 1820, 1830 and 1848

  1. 1. RESTORATION, THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND THE 1820, 1830 AND 1848 REVOLUTIONS
  2. 2. TALLEYRAND represented France METTERNICH represented Austria DUKE OF WELLINGTON represented the United Kingdom MARQUIS OF LABRADOR represented Spain CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1814-1815) Delegates of all the countries that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte met in Vienna between 1814 and 1815. Talleyrand, the French representative, acted skilfully and avoided a more serious punishment for France. Wellington had to leave the Congress when Napoleon came back to France during the Hundred Days Empire. Napoleon was definitely defeated in Waterloo. (1815) Gómez de Labrador, the Spanish representative, didn´t get any of the Spain´s initial demands.
  3. 3. MAIN DECISIONS OF THE CONGRESS RESTORE THE MONARCHS DEPOSED BY NAPOLEON REORGANIZE THE MAP OF EUROPE CREATE THE HOLY ALLIANCE TO STOP REVOLUTION
  4. 4. LOUIS XVIII OF FRANCE FERDINAND VII OF SPAIN SOME OF THE MONARCHS RESTORED
  5. 5. EUROPE IN 1789 REORGANIZATION OF THE MAP OF EUROPE During the French revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic Empire, France had enlarged its territory considerably and new states had been créate, like the Grand Duchy of Warsaw of the Confederation of the Rhine NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE
  6. 6. EUROPE AFTER THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA
  7. 7. MAIN CHANGES IN THE MAP OF EUROPE - FRANCE CAME BACK TO ITS FRONTIERS IN 1791 - TWO BUFFER STATES: UNITED KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS AND PIEDMONT-SARDINIA - GERMAN CONFEDERATION: 39 GERMAN STATES. IT INCLUDED AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA - MOST OF POLAND, BESSARABIA AND FINLAND WERE ANNEXED BY RUSSIA. -SAXONY, RHINELAND, WESTPHALIA AND PART OF POLAND WERE ADDED TO PRUSSIA - LOMBARDY AND VENETIA AND THE ILLYRIAN PROVINCES WERE ANNEXED BY AUSTRIA - DENMARK LOST NORWAY, WHICH WAS ANNEXED BY SWEDEN. - THE UNITED KINGDOM RECEIVED ISLANDS IN DIFFERENT SEAS (MALTA, HELIGOLAND) AND GOT THE CONTROL OF SOME STRATEGIC POINTS OUT OF EUROPE (CAPE COLONY, CEYLON)
  8. 8. ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA FRANCIS II OF AUSTRIA FREDERIC WILLIAM III OF PRUSSIA CREATION OF DEFENSIVE ALLIANCES The Holy Alliance was formed by Austria, Russia and Prussia THE HOLY ALLIANCE WAS CREATED TO PRESERVE ABSOLUTISM AND RELIGION (ALLIANCE OF THE THRONE AND THE ALTAR) AND STOP REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE. THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE INCLUDED THE MEMBERS OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE PLUS THE UNITED KINGDOM. IT WAS CREATED TO KEEP THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AGREEMENTS.
  9. 9. CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA - Consolidation of the big empires of Europe - Balance of powers: in continental Europe Austria and Prussia controlled Central Europe, Russia controlled Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom controlled the sea routes But they couldn´t stop the spread of the revolutionary ideas born with the French Revolution and some years later there were new revolutionary outbreaks in Europe
  10. 10. The ideas born or spread during the French Revolution became newly revolutionary after the Congress of Vienna. They were liberalism and nationalism. REVOLUTIONARY IDEOLOGIES Liberty Guiding the People, painting by Eugène Delacroix which depicted the 1830 revolution in Paris.
  11. 11. LIBERALISM Preamble of the Constitution of the USA Political ideology that defines a political system based on the following ideas: -The human beings are born free and have some inalienable rights -Citizens´rights are reflected on a Constitution -The State has to guarantee citizens´ rights (social contract) -National sovereignty: power belongs to citizens, who exert it through the representatives they choose in the elections. -Division of powers to avoid abuse -Free market economy: the State doesn´t have to intervene in economy.
  12. 12. LIBERAL TRENDS CLASSICAL LIBERALISM: Property is the main right. Only those who have properties (a certain level of wealth) are considered to be citizens and can vote (CENSUS SUFFRAGE) and the role of the State in economy has to be limited to guarantee economic freedom DEMOCRATIC LIBERALISM: Equality before the law is the main right. All citizens are equal and have the right to vote (UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE) and the State has to offer public services to the weakest (healthcare, education, social services…)
  13. 13. Johan Gotlieb Fichte, author of the Address to the German Nation, origin of German nationalism NATIONALISM Political ideology that defends the right of the peoples (nations) to decide by themselves and form independent States (self-determination) Two conceptions of nation: -PROGRESSIVE OR INCLUSIVE: members of the nation are all those who want to belong to it and accept its laws and duties. -CONSERVATIVE OR EXCLUDING: members of the nation are only those who share some common features: language, common past, “race”, traditions… In the 19th century several peoples submitted to the big Empires (Russian, Austrian and Ottoman) tried to form independent States based on the second idea of nation (grouping together all those who shared some common features)
  14. 14. REVOLUTIONARY WAVES IN THE 1st HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 1820 1830 1848
  15. 15. THE 1820 REVOLUTIONS -Liberal uprisings in Naples, Piedmont –Sardinia and Spain, crashed by the Holy Alliance) - In Portugal the liberal uprising was succesful, a Constitution was written, but years later King John VI suspended it and absolutism came back. - In the Russian Empire the Decembrist revolt in 1825 was violently repressed by tsar Nicholas I All these revolutions failed. The only ones to be succesful took place in Greece and the Spanish colonies in America.
  16. 16. The massacre at Chios, painted by Delacroix, represented an episode of Greece´s indepedence war against the Ottoman Empire. -Greece got its independence from the Ottoman Empire with the support of the United Kingdom and France (1829). A monarchy was established in 1832. - Most of the Spanish colonies in america got their independence by 1824 and created liberal republics
  17. 17. THE 1830 REVOLUTIONS The new revolutionary wave started in France again and extended to other countries during the 1830 decade.
  18. 18. 1830 in France: Fight at the Hôtel de Ville - France: the absolute king Charles x was dethroned and the new king, Louis Philip i of Orleans accepted a constitutional monarchy -United Kingdom of Netherlands:the Belgians became independent and established a constitutional monarchy -Poland: nationalist revolt crashed by Russia - The revolts in the Italian Peninsula were crashed by Austria and the ones in the German Confederation were repressed by Austria and Prussia. - Spain: in 1835 the progressive party reached power and a constitutional monarchy was established. The reforms between 1835 and 187 ended with the Ancien Régime. -United Kingdom:as a consequence of the trade unions pressure, Reform Act in 1832 (doubled the number of voters) Belgian Revolution in September 1830
  19. 19. THE 1848 REVOLUTIONS : THE SPRINGTIME OF THE PEOPLES This revolutionary wave started in France again and extended throughout almost all the continent: - In Central and Eastern Europe, fight for the elimination of absolutism and serfdom. - In Western Europe, fight for democratization of the liberal regimes: demand for universal suffrage, social justice and the republic.
  20. 20. Barricade at Soufflot Street, Paris March Revolution in the German States -FRANCE: revolution inspired on democratic liberalism. Louis Philip I was deposed and the 2nd Republic was proclaimed. -There were also revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe: Austrian Empire, Poland, Italian and German states, Denmark…, but the only consequences were the establishment of conservative liberal regimes in Piedmont- Sardinia and Prussia and the Emperor’s abdication and Metternich’s resignation in Austria -- The nationalist revolutions in the Austrian Empire and the German Confederation failed.
  21. 21. Caricature about the defeat of the Revolutions of 1848 Although most of the revolutions failed, there were some changes which would lead to the end of the Congress of Vienna system: -consolidation of the liberal regimes and beginning of a slow democratization with the expansión of universal suffrage in the 2nd half of the 19th century. -Prussia and Piedmont- Sardinia became stronger -and led the unification processes of Germany and Italy in the 2nd half of the century. Only in the Russian and Ottoman Empire the situation continued to be immovable.
  22. 22. FRANCE: FROM THE 2nd REPUBLIC TO THE 2nd EMPIRE Although the 1848 revolution had established a democratic Republic, the first elections, by male universal suffrage, gave the majority to the conservatives. In December 1848 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Republic In December 1851 Louis Napoleon gave a coup d´Etat and his power was later confirmed by a plebiscite. In November 1852 a new plebiscite ended the 2nd Republic and proclaimed the 2nd Empire. Louis Napoleon was called Napoleon III. He had an important role in the unifications of Italy and Germany Napoleon III, Emperor of the French

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