THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND RESTORATION (1814-1815)
TALLEYRAND represented France METTERNICH represented Austria DUKE OF WELLINGTON represented Great Britain MARQUIS OF LABRADOR represented Spain Delegates of all the countries that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte. Talleyrand , the French representative, acted skilfully and avoided a more serious punishment for France. Wellington had to leave the Congress when Napoleon came back to France during the Hundred Days Empire. Napoleon was definitely defeated in Waterlooo. (1815) Gómez de Labrador , the Spanish representative, didn´t get any of the Spain´s initial demands. PARTICIPANTS
DECISIONS OF THE CONGRESS RESTORE THE MONARCHS DEPOSED BY NAPOLEON REORGANIZE THE MAP OF EUROPE CREATE THE HOLY ALLIANCE TO STOP REVOLUTION
LOUIS XVIII OF FRANCE FERDINAND VII OF SPAIN SOME OF THE MONARCHS RESTORED
TWO BUFFER STATES : UNITED KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS AND PIEDMONT-SARDINIA
GERMAN CONFEDERATION : 39 GERMAN STATES. IT INCLUDED AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA
POLAND (THE GRAND DUCHY OF WARSAW), BESSARABIA AND FINLAND WERE ANNEXED BY RUSSIA.
THE UNITED KINGDOM RECEIVED ISLANDS IN DIFFERENT SEAS (MALTA, HELIGOLAND) AND GOT THE CONTROL OF SOME STRATEGIC POINTS OUT OF EUROPE (CAPE COLONY, CEYLON)
ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA FRANCIS II OF AUSTRIA FREDERIC WILLIAM III OF PRUSSIA THE HOLY ALLIANCE Formed by Austria, Russia and Prussia OBJECTIVE : PRESERVE ABSOLUTISM AND RELIGION (ALLIANCE OF THE THRONE AND THE ALTAR) AND STOP REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE. THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE INCLUDED THE MEMBERS OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE PLUS THE UNITED KINGDOM. IT WAS CREATED TO KEEP THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AGREEMENTS.
REVOLUTIONARY IDEOLOGIES LIBERALISM NATIONALISM The ideas born or spread during the French Revolution became newly revolutionary after the Congress of Vienna.
LIBERALISM Preamble of the Constitution of the USA
Political ideology that defines a political system
based on the following ideas:
The human beings are born free and have some inalienable rights
Citizens´rights are reflected on a Constitution
-The State has to guarantee citizens´ rights (social contract)
National sovereignty : power belongs to citizens, who exert it through the representatives they choose in the elections .
Division of powers to avoid abuse
Free market economy : the State doesn´t have to intervene in economy.
LIBERAL TRENDS CLASSICAL LIBERALISM : Property is the main right. Only those who have properties (a certain level of wealth ) are considered to be citizens (can vote): they defended CENSUS SUFFRAGE DEMOCRATIC LIBERALISM : Equality before the law is the main right. All citizens are equal and have the right to vote: UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE
Johan Gotlieb Fichte, author of the Address to the German Nation , origin of German nationalism NATIONALISM
Political ideology that defends the right of the peoples
(nations) to decide by themselves and form independent
Two conceptions of nation:
PROGGRESSIVE OR INCLUSIVE : members of the
nation are all those who want to belong to it and accept
its laws and duties.
CONSERVATIVE OR EXCLUDING : members of the
nation are only those who share some common
features : language, common past, “race”, traditions…
In the 19 th century several peoples submitted to the big Empires (Russian, Austrian and Ottoman) tried to form independent States based on the second idea of nation (grouping together all those who shared some common features)
REVOLUTIONARY WAVES IN THE 1 st HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 1820 1830 1848
Barricade at Soufflot Street, Paris March Revolution in the German States
FRANCE : INSPIRED ON DEMOCRATIC LIBERALISM. LOUIS PHILIP I WAS DEPOSED AND THE 2 nd REPUBLIC WAS PROCLAIMED.
THERE WERE ALSO REVOLUTIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE : AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, POLAND,.ITALIAN AND GERMAN STATES, DENMARK…
THE ONLY CONSEQUENCE WAS
METTERNICH´S DISMISSAL IN AUSTRIA
Caricature about the defeat of the Revolutions of 1848
FRANCE: FROM THE 2 nd REPUBLIC TO THE 2 nd EMPIRE The first elections, by male universal suffrage, gave the majority to the conservatives. In December 1848 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Republic In December 1851 Louis Napoleon gave a coup d´Etat and his power was later confirmed by a plebiscite. In November 1852 a new plebiscite ended the 2 nd Republic and proclaimed the 2 nd Empire . Louis Napoleon was called Napoleon III . He had an important role in the unifications of Italy and Germany Napoleon III, Emperor of the French