Europe after the French Revolution: Restoration and the revolutions of 1820, 1830 and 1848
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AND RESTORATION (1814-1815)
TALLEYRAND represented France METTERNICH represented Austria DUKE OF WELLINGTON represented Great Britain MARQUIS OF LABRADOR represented Spain Delegates of all the countries that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte. Talleyrand , the French representative, acted skilfully and avoided a more serious punishment for France. Wellington had to leave the Congress when Napoleon came back to France during the Hundred Days Empire. Napoleon was definitely defeated in Waterlooo. (1815) Gómez de Labrador , the Spanish representative, didn´t get any of the Spain´s initial demands. PARTICIPANTS
DECISIONS OF THE CONGRESS RESTORE THE MONARCHS DEPOSED BY NAPOLEON REORGANIZE THE MAP OF EUROPE CREATE THE HOLY ALLIANCE TO STOP REVOLUTION
LOUIS XVIII OF FRANCE FERDINAND VII OF SPAIN SOME OF THE MONARCHS RESTORED
MAIN CHANGES IN THE MAP OF EUROPE <ul><li>FRANCE CAME BACK TO ITS FRONTIERS IN 1791 </li></ul><ul><li>TWO BUFFER STATES : UNITED KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS AND PIEDMONT-SARDINIA </li></ul><ul><li>GERMAN CONFEDERATION : 39 GERMAN STATES. IT INCLUDED AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA </li></ul><ul><li>POLAND (THE GRAND DUCHY OF WARSAW), BESSARABIA AND FINLAND WERE ANNEXED BY RUSSIA. </li></ul><ul><li>THE UNITED KINGDOM RECEIVED ISLANDS IN DIFFERENT SEAS (MALTA, HELIGOLAND) AND GOT THE CONTROL OF SOME STRATEGIC POINTS OUT OF EUROPE (CAPE COLONY, CEYLON) </li></ul>
ALEXANDER I OF RUSSIA FRANCIS II OF AUSTRIA FREDERIC WILLIAM III OF PRUSSIA THE HOLY ALLIANCE Formed by Austria, Russia and Prussia OBJECTIVE : PRESERVE ABSOLUTISM AND RELIGION (ALLIANCE OF THE THRONE AND THE ALTAR) AND STOP REVOLUTIONS IN EUROPE. THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE INCLUDED THE MEMBERS OF THE HOLY ALLIANCE PLUS THE UNITED KINGDOM. IT WAS CREATED TO KEEP THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA AGREEMENTS.
CONSEQUENCES OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA <ul><li>Consolidation of the big empires of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of powers : </li></ul><ul><li>in continental Europe Austria and Prussia controlled Central Europe, Russia controlled Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom controlled the sea routes </li></ul>But they couldn´t stop the spread of the revolutionary ideas born with the French Revolution and some years later there were new revolutionary outbreaks in Europe
REVOLUTIONARY IDEOLOGIES LIBERALISM NATIONALISM The ideas born or spread during the French Revolution became newly revolutionary after the Congress of Vienna.
LIBERALISM Preamble of the Constitution of the USA <ul><li>Political ideology that defines a political system </li></ul><ul><li>based on the following ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>The human beings are born free and have some inalienable rights </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens´rights are reflected on a Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>-The State has to guarantee citizens´ rights (social contract) </li></ul><ul><li>National sovereignty : power belongs to citizens, who exert it through the representatives they choose in the elections . </li></ul><ul><li>Division of powers to avoid abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Free market economy : the State doesn´t have to intervene in economy. </li></ul>
LIBERAL TRENDS CLASSICAL LIBERALISM : Property is the main right. Only those who have properties (a certain level of wealth ) are considered to be citizens (can vote): they defended CENSUS SUFFRAGE DEMOCRATIC LIBERALISM : Equality before the law is the main right. All citizens are equal and have the right to vote: UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE
Johan Gotlieb Fichte, author of the Address to the German Nation , origin of German nationalism NATIONALISM <ul><li>Political ideology that defends the right of the peoples </li></ul><ul><li>(nations) to decide by themselves and form independent </li></ul><ul><li>States (self-determination) </li></ul><ul><li>Two conceptions of nation: </li></ul><ul><li>PROGGRESSIVE OR INCLUSIVE : members of the </li></ul><ul><li>nation are all those who want to belong to it and accept </li></ul><ul><li>its laws and duties. </li></ul><ul><li>CONSERVATIVE OR EXCLUDING : members of the </li></ul><ul><li>nation are only those who share some common </li></ul><ul><li>features : language, common past, “race”, traditions… </li></ul>In the 19 th century several peoples submitted to the big Empires (Russian, Austrian and Ottoman) tried to form independent States based on the second idea of nation (grouping together all those who shared some common features)
REVOLUTIONARY WAVES IN THE 1 st HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY 1820 1830 1848
REVOLUTIONS OF 1820 <ul><li>LIBERAL UPRISINGS IN NAPLES </li></ul><ul><li>AND SPAIN (ENDED BY THE HOLY ALLIANCE) </li></ul><ul><li>GREECE GOT ITS INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>FROM THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE WITH </li></ul><ul><li>THE SUPPORT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND FRANCE (1829). A MONARCHY WAS ESTABLISHED IN 1832. </li></ul><ul><li>MOST OF THE SPANISH COLONIES IN AMERICA GOT THEIR INDEPENDENCE </li></ul><ul><li>BY 1824 AND CREATED LIBERAL </li></ul><ul><li>REPUBLICS </li></ul>The massacre at Chios , painted by Géricault, represented an episode of Greece´s indepedence war against the Ottoman Empire.
REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 1830 in France: Fight at the Hôtel de Ville <ul><li>- FRANCE: THE ABSOLUTE KING CHARLES X WAS DETHRONED AND THE NEW KING, LOUIS PHILIP I OF ORLEANS ACCEPTED A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY </li></ul><ul><li>UNITED KINGDOM OF NETHERLANDS : </li></ul><ul><li>THE BELGIANS BECAME INDEPENDENT </li></ul><ul><li>AND ESTABLISHED A CONSTITUTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>MONARCHY </li></ul><ul><li>POLAND : REVOLT REPRESSED BY </li></ul><ul><li>RUSSIA </li></ul><ul><li>SPAIN : REFORMS INTRODUCED BY </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROGRESSIVE PARTY BETWEEN </li></ul><ul><li>1835-37 </li></ul><ul><li>UNITED KINGDOM : REFORM ACT IN 1832 (DOUBLED THE NUMBER OF VOTERS) </li></ul>Belgian Revolution in September 1830
Barricade at Soufflot Street, Paris March Revolution in the German States <ul><li>FRANCE : INSPIRED ON DEMOCRATIC LIBERALISM. LOUIS PHILIP I WAS DEPOSED AND THE 2 nd REPUBLIC WAS PROCLAIMED. </li></ul><ul><li>THERE WERE ALSO REVOLUTIONS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE : AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, POLAND,.ITALIAN AND GERMAN STATES, DENMARK… </li></ul><ul><li>THE ONLY CONSEQUENCE WAS </li></ul><ul><li>METTERNICH´S DISMISSAL IN AUSTRIA </li></ul>
Caricature about the defeat of the Revolutions of 1848
FRANCE: FROM THE 2 nd REPUBLIC TO THE 2 nd EMPIRE The first elections, by male universal suffrage, gave the majority to the conservatives. In December 1848 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected President of the Republic In December 1851 Louis Napoleon gave a coup d´Etat and his power was later confirmed by a plebiscite. In November 1852 a new plebiscite ended the 2 nd Republic and proclaimed the 2 nd Empire . Louis Napoleon was called Napoleon III . He had an important role in the unifications of Italy and Germany Napoleon III, Emperor of the French