- GLORIOUS REVOLUTION: September 1868 - PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (1868-1870)DEMOCRATICSEXENIO - AMADEUS I´S MONARCHY (1871-1873) - 1st REPUBLIC (1873-1874)
THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION (1868)CAUSES- Economic crisis: financial, industrial andsubsistence crisis.- Political crisis: increasing loss of prestigeof the monarchy. Only the moderatessupported Isabella II- Pact of Ostend (1866): progressivesand democrats decided to overthrowIsabella II´s monarchy. After O´Donnell´sdeath, the Liberal Union joined theconspiracy. Allegory of the Glorious Revolution
Cádiz, 19th September 1868:Topete and Prim issued a manifestocalled “España con honra” and theport squadron rose up against IsabellaII´s monarchy. At the same time revolutionary boards were formed in different Spanish cities
Movement of the revolted troops and government troops
28th September 1868: Battle of 29th SeptemberPuente de Alcolea (Córdoba) Isabella II left Spain and exiled in France.The revolted troops commanded byGeneral Serrano defeated thegovernment troops commanded byPavía
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT (1868-1870)The Provisional Government was only formed by progressives and theLiberal Union. It dissolved the boards and the National Militia, calledelections for Constituent Cortes by universal male suffrage and madesome economic decisions.
ECONOMIC DECISIONS Made by Laureano Figuerola, minister of Finance: - Peseta, official currency - Privatization of mines, in order to reduce the State debts. -Free trade tariff, rejected by the Catalan industrialists and the Castilian producers of cereals LAUREANO FIGUEROLA - Failed attempt of tax reformCONSTITUENT CORTESMost of the deputies were progressivesor members of the Liberal Union.There were also democrats (monarchists),republicans (unitarians and federals) andsome carlists.
CONSTITUTION OF 1869 - National sovereignty - Wide declaration of rights - Type of State: Constitutional Monarchy - Division of powers: executive (for the monarch, but exerted by the government), legislative (two chambers and elective Senate) and judicial (courts of justice. Judges selected through public exams. Some crimes judged by jury). - Universal male suffrage - Democratic election in municipalities and Diputaciones Provinciales. - Religious freedom, but the State continued to give money for the Catholic Church
General Juan Prim, president of the government, in charge of looking for aGeneral Francisco Serrano, monarch for Spain, and minister of Temporary regent War, to control the army
Giuseppe Fanelli, anarchist Paul Lafargue, Marx´s son-in-law Founding members of the IWA in Madrid, 1868The recognition of freedoms of assembly and association allowed the arrival ofpropagandists of the IWA and the creation of the first workers´ organizedassociations. Most of the Spanish workers became anarchists.
PROBLEMS- Workers and peasants became quickly deceived with the government decisions,because they mainly favourished the bourgeois.-Ten Years´War in Cuba, also known as Great War or War of ´68 (1868-1878):The creole Céspedes proclaimed Cuba´s independence from Spain (Grito de Yara) Volunteer soldiers embarking to Cuba´s war Céspedes at Barcelona (1870)
PRIM, TOPETE AND SERRANO SELLING THE SPANISH CROWN AT AUCTION
ISABELLA II, WITH HIS SON ALPHONSE, HIS BROTHER IN LAW (THEDUKE OF MONTPENSIER) AND A CARLIST, OBSERVING IN PARISTHE ADVERSTISEMENT OF THE SEARCH OF A MONARCH FOR SPAIN
CANDIDATES TO THE SPANISH THRONEDuke of Montpensier Leopold of Hohenzollern- Baldomero Espartero Sigmaringen The election of a new monarch for Spain was a very controversial matter in Europe and it indirectly provoked the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War.Ferdinand of Coburg Finally, the Cortes chose Amadeus of Savoy, an Italian prince who didn´t bother any European power
Amadeus I before Prim´s coffinAMADEUS I OF SAVOY The day before Amadeus I´s arrival, General Prim was killed. Amadeus I lost his main support.
AMADEUS I´S MONARCHY- Very little support to the king: the moderates,the republicans and the carlists were againsthim. The Church and the high nobility werealso hostile.-Division in the Progressive Party:Constitutionals (Sagasta) and radicals(Ruiz Zorrilla): this led to unstable governments- Carlism became a threat again: Third CarlistWar (1872-1876) Carlists with Charles VII, the pretender to the throne Ruiz Zorrilla Sagasta
“!Ahí queda eso!”, cartoon about Amadeus I´sresignation to the throne, 10th February 1873
I REPUBLIC ( February 1873- January 1874) After Amadeus I´s resignation, the Cortes voted the proclamation of the 1st Republic on the 11th February 1873 Flag of the 1st RepublicAllegory of the 1st Republic
PRESIDENTS OF THE 1st REPUBLIC-Estanislao Figueras (federalist):February- June 1873- Francisco Pi y Margall (federalist):June- July 1873- Nicolás Salmerón (unitarian): JulySeptember 1873- Emilio Castelar (unitarian): September1873- January 1874.
DISCUSSION ABOUT THE TYPE OF STATE - Elections to Constituent Cortes (May 1873): majority of federalist republicans. The non republicans didn´t participate in the elections. - Project for a new Constitution (1873): federal State. States included on the project
PROBLEMS OF THE 1st REPUBLIC- Weakness: voted by deputies who were notrepublicans. Bad international context: only theUSA and Switzerland recognized the Republic.-Continuous conspiracies to overthow thegoverment. Part of the army was involved.-Disputes between federalist and unitarianrepublicans- Continuation of the war in Cuba: although the Internationalist revolt in Alcoygovernment abolished slavery, the Spanish civilservants in Cuba didn´t obey.- Extension of the Carlist problem: thegovernment had troubles to stop the war- Workers´mobilizations and peasants´occupation of lands- Cantonalist insurrection: many citiesdeclared their independence (cantons) Hernani during the 3rd Carlist War
EXTENSION OF THE CANTONALIST INSURRECTION AND THE 3rd CARLIST WAR
Frigate Méndez Núñez in front of Cartagena´sCartagena´s cantonalist insurrection port Cartagena´s canton resisted until January 1874
Public order problems led to a drift to the right:- First with Salmerón- Later with Castelar. His motto was“Order,authority and government”: he got extraordinarypower from the Cortes, closed the Parliament,ruled in an authoritarian way and gave bigpower to the military.In January 1874 a majority of Republicandeputies proposed a motion of confidenceand demanded the reopening of the Cortes EMILIO CASTELAR
On the 3rd January 1874 Castelar´s government lost the vote of confidence (120 votes against 100) In order to avoid a more progressive government, General Pavía, Madrid´s Captain General, burst into the Congress with the Guardia Civil and dissolved the Cortes by force.Entrada de Pavía en las Cortes
A new government was formed, but therewere not republicans in it (onlyconstitutionals and members of the LiberalUnion). The new government was presidedby General Serrano, who established aconservative republican regime.- Repression of workers and federalistrepublicans- End of Cartagena´s canton Serrano, president of the- End of the Bilbao´s carlist siege Executive Power during the last months of the Republic
Cánovas del Castillo (former moderate and member of the Liberal Union) started working for the restauration of the monarchy with Alphonse of Bourbon, Isabella II¨s son: he wrote the Sandhurst Manifesto, a document signed by Alphonse, in which he promised to establish a conservative and Catholic monarchy and to preserve a liberal regime.Antonio Cánovas del Castillo Alphonse of Bourbon
Cánovas wanted a legal restauration of themonarchy, through the vote of the Cortes,but on the 29th December 1874 GeneralMartínez Campos headed apronunciamiento in Sagunto and heproclaimed Alphonso XII king of Spain General Martínez Campos No one defended the Republic. On the 31th December 1874 Cánovas formed a provisional government to prepare Alphonse XII´s comebackMartínez Campos restoring monarchy