Conquest, colonization and administration of the Indies

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The conquest, the colonization, the administration and the exploitation of the Indies.

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Conquest, colonization and administration of the Indies

  1. 1. CONQUEST, COLONIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE INDIES
  2. 2. FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE WORLD Magellan and Elcano expedition found a sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and it proved that the Earth is a sphere.
  3. 3. THE CONQUEST Quick conquest, due to: -Military superiority of the conquistadors: horses, gunpowder, guns… - Ambitions of the conquistadors -Impact of the European diseases over the Amerindians
  4. 4. DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACT OF THE COLONIZATION OF THE INDIES The Europeans spread many diseases that resulted mortal for the Amerindians: -Measles -Smallpox -Flu -Typhus There was a demographic catastrophe, especially in the Caribbean Islands: African slaves were brought to substitute the dead. Smallpox epidemics In many places,the population didn´t recover the Pre-Hispanic levels until the 20th century
  5. 5. STAGES OF THE CONQUEST CONQUEST OF THE ANTILLES1ST STAGE 2ND STAGE 3RD STAGE CONQUEST OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE CONQUEST OF THE INCA EMPIRE
  6. 6. CONQUEST OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE HERNÁN CORTÉS MOCTEZUMA - Led by Hernán Cortés. -Cortés and his men captured Moctezuma, the Aztec Emperor and defeated the Aztecs in the Battle of Otumba (1521) with the cooperation of other indigenous peoples (Toltecs and Olmecs). -Later Cortés conquered Guatemala and Honduras.
  7. 7. CONQUEST OF THE INCA EMPIRE FRANCISCO PIZARRO ATAHUALPA DIEGO DE ALMAGRO PEDRO VALDIVIA - Led by Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro. - They captured and killed Atahualpa, the Inca Emperor in 1533 and occupied Cuzco, the capital city of the Empire. - Later Pedro de Valdivia conquered Chile, fighting against the Araucanians.
  8. 8. PONCE DE LEÓN FLORIDA NÚÑEZ DE BALBOA PACIFIC OCEAN ORELLANA, AMAZON RIVER CABEZA DE VACA, IGUAZÚ FALLS AND GULF OF MEXICO OTHER CONQUESTS AND “DISCOVERIES”
  9. 9. ADMINISTRATION: INSTITUTIONS TO RULE THE INDIES CASA DE LA CONTRATACIÓN (TRADING HOUSE) SEVILLE COUNCIL OF THE INDIES It controlled trade with the Indies and collected the royal fifth (20% of trade transactions) -It made the Laws of the Indies -It appointed the people who had to hold posts in the Indies
  10. 10. INSTITUTIONS IN THE INDIES - TWO VICE-ROYALTIES: - New Spain -Perú In the 18th century two more Vice-royalties were created: New Granada and Río de la Plata. -CABILDOS to rule municipalities -AUDIENCIAS (Courts of Justice)
  11. 11. EXPLOITATION OF THE INDIES ENCOMIENDA MITA Every colonist received a plot of land and a number of Amerindians to work in them. The only obligation of the colonist with the Amerindians was to teach them the Catholic religion and to protect them. Forced work in the mines. The natives received a salary in exchange for their work, but they were forced to buy all they needed in the colonists´ shops. The kings forbade indigenous slavery and considered the Amerindias to be their subjects. But many colonists abused the Amerindians.
  12. 12. BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS DEFENSE OF THE NATIVES The Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas, a former encomendero denounced the explotation of the Amerindians and defended them from the brutality of the colonists. He wrote A short account of the destruction of the Indies. His fight led to the passing of the New Laws of the Indies, which ordered the dissolution of the encomienda system and forbade indigenous slavery. He was appointed “Protector of the Indians”, although he never rejected black slavery.
  13. 13. POPULATION OF THE INDIES MESTIZO SLAVES FROM AFRICAAMERINDIANS CREOLESPENINSULARS
  14. 14. PRODUCTS FROM AMERICAN ORIGIN Some of them. like corn and potato, were basic to reduce hunger and improve the Europeans´ diet.

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