ALPHONSE XIII ´S REIGN (1902- 1931): CRISIS OF THE RESTORATION SYSTEMAND PRIMO DE RIVERA´S DICTATORSHIP
ALPHONSE XIII (1902- 1931) Alphonse XIII was declared of legal age in 1902. The political system of the Restoration continued to exist until 1923: -pacific alternation of the dynastic parties (Liberal and Conservative) -Constitution of 1876 -manipulation of the elections with the local political bosses´ help (caciques) ALPHONSE XIII AND HIS But opposition grew, the attempts of WIFE VICTORIA EUGENIE reforming the system from inside failed and OF BATTEMBERG difficulties for the survival of the regime increasedAlphonse XIII not always respectedhis constitutional role and he sometimesintervened in politics much more thannecessary. This put the institution of themonarchy in danger and finally led him toexile.
ATTEMPTS OF POLITICAL REGENERATION (1902-1914)CRISIS OF THE PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM (1914-1923) PRIMO DE RIVERA´S DICTATORSHIP AND THE END OF THE MONARCHY (1923-1931)
Conservative Party Dynastic parties Liberal PartyPOLITICALPARTIES Republicans Opposition parties Nationalists and regionalists Workers´parties: PSOE Carlists
DYNASTIC PARTIES Some leaders of the dynastic parties tried to make reforms from above to avoid revolution from below (following regeneration ideas):- Conservative Party: Antonio Maura, between 1904-1905 and ANTONIO MAURA 1907-1909, frustrated by the Tragic Week (1909)- Liberal Party: José Canalejas, between 1910 and1912, frustrated by his assassination in1912 JOSÉ CANALEJAS
OPPOSITION PARTIES NICOLÁS ALEJANDRO PABLO FRANCESC VÁZQUEZ SALMERÓN LERROUX IGLESIAS CAMBÓ DE MELLA- Republicans: Unión Republicana (Salmerón). After the Tragic Week other Republican parties appeared: Radical Party (Lerroux) and Reformist Party (Melquíades Álvarez)- PSOE (Pablo Iglesias)- Lliga Regionalista de Catalunya (Cambó, Prat de la Riba) and PNV- Carlists (Vázquez de Mella) The opposition parties broke up the dynastic alternation in the big cities, where manipulating the electionsv was more difficult, .
CU-CUT! INCIDENT (November 1905)After the 1898 Disaster commotion, theArmy was very sensitive to thecritiques.A cartoon published in Cu-Cut!, aCatalan satirical magazine, provokedan angry reaction of the army: 300officers stormed the editorial offices ofthe Cu-Cut! and La Veu de Catalunya.- the Catalan opposition parties formeda coalition called Solidaritat Catalana,which won the elections in 1907 inCatalonia(41 out of the 44 seats)- The liberal government tried to punishthe officers, but the king refused to doit. The government resigned and a newgovernment, headed by Segismundo CARTOON WHICH PROVOKEDMoret passed the Jurisdictions Law, THE REACTION OF THE ARMYwhich gave the Army the right to judgeoffenses to the Army, the flag oragainst the integrity of the nation
MAURA´S REGENERATION REFORMS He tried to create a strong and efficient State to content people´s participation in politics: a “revolution from above” to stop revolution from below During his rule many laws were passed:- Laws to protect and promote national industry- Law of Colonization, to put more land in cultivation- Creation of the Instituto Nacional de Previsión (first Social Security institution in Spain, to provide retirement pensions for workers)- Electoral Law (1907)- Sunday Rest Law(1904) But he didn´t get enough support for other laws (for example, to give more power to municipalities). His regeneration project was frustrated by the Tragic Week events repression.
1st BIG CRISIS: THE TRAGIC WEEK (1909)The North of Morocco (Rif) was aSpanish protectorate since 1906. In July 1909 the Rif tribes attackedthe railway line works. The Spanishtroops launched an attack todefend them, but were defeated ina place called Wolf´s Gully(Barranco del Lobo): around 1,300dead soldiers and more than600 wounded. The government decided to sendmore troops to Morocco and calledreservists from Barcelona (1903draft). CORPSES COLLECTION IN WOLF¨S GULLY
TRAGIC WEEK (24th July-2th August)The conscription provoked:- a general strike- popular uprisings- barricades in the streets - anticlerical violence (religiousbuildings were burnt)The government sent the army tosuffocate the revolt. After a weekthere were:- 78 dead - more than 500 wounded- more than 2,000 arrested- more than 100 buildings burned- 17 sentenced to death. Five wereexecuted (among them, theanarchist pedagogue FranciscoFerrer y Guardia)
TRAGIC WEEK: CONSEQUENCES Ferrer y Guardia´s execution provoked: - generalized protests in Europe - a campaign of the liberal press against Maura (“!Maura no!”). Alphonse XIII dismissed Maura and the liberals came back to government.Consequences:- end of Maura´s regeneration project FRANCISCO FERRER Y GUARDIA- Lerroux´s Radical Party lost prestige among the workers- electoral coalition of the left parties (Conjunción Republicano-Socialista): in 1910, Pablo Iglesias was elected deputy.- creation of CNT (anarchist union) in 1910 CNT FOUNDATIONAL CONGRESS , 1910
JOSÉ CANALEJAS´S LIBERAL GOVERNMENT (1910-1912)2nd attempt of regeneration of the system:- reduction of the power of the Church. The government passed the Padlock Law: new religious orders were prohibited from settling down in Spain.- Conscription Law: more equalitarian conscription (minimum 5-month military service)- Law to forbide night work to women JOSÉ CANALEJAS- Project of Commonwealth (Mancomunidad) for Catalonia (union of the Diputaciones Provinciales to render some public services): rejected by the Cortes. Canalejas´s regeneration project was frustrated when he was killed by an anarchist (Pardiñas) in November 1912
SPAIN DURING WORLD WAR 1 The conservatives came back to power between 1913 and 1915: - The Commonwealth Law was passed and the Commonwealth of Catalonia was EDUARDO DATO created. - Spain´s neutrality during WW1 (although the public opinion divided in Alliadophiles and Germanophiles). Spain supplied products to both sides.Consequences: - Industrial development - reduction of the State debt - prices increased a lot (inflation) due to the lack of supply. But salaries didn´t increase and population´s purchasing power decreased and protests increased. WW1 TRENCHES
2nd BIG CRISIS: 1917 CRISIS Triple protest, but the protesters were not coordinated and had different objectives:- military protest: due to the promotion system (which privileged mentions in dispatches) and loss of purchasing power: the military created the Defense Boards (similar to unions). The government ordered their dissolution, but they didn´t obey and the king supported them.- political protest: the government closed WORKERS´ STRIKE the Cortes and the Catalan deputies defied the government and called a meeting in Barcelona: Parliamentary Assembly. But only 10% of the deputies participated and the government dissolved the meeting pacifically.- Workers´protest: UGT and CNT called a general strike in August. But the government controlled the situation with the army and the strike committee was arrested. The protests didn´t provoke any significant STRIKE COMMITTEE (INCLUDING JULIÁN BESTEIRO change in the system. AND FRANCISCO LARGO CABALLERO, PSOE MEMBERS)
CRISIS OF THE PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM (1918-1923)The political system of Restoration survived to the 1917 crisis, but instability was constant,the governments were shorter and peasants and workers´protests intensified. - governments of national unity or very short dynastic governments. - assassination of Eduardo Dato in 1921 by 3 anarchist gunmen - increasing protests, especially in Andalusia and Catalonia, during the so called Bolshevik Triennium(1918- 1921): - in Andalusia, laboueres revolted and seized lands - in Catalonia, industrial workers went on strike. Patrons answered with lock NUMBER OF STRIKES IN SPAIN out s and hired gunmen to threat the members of the unions. Tension increased and street confrontments became usual in Barcelona The government used the army to repress protests: assassination of workers “trying to escape” (Ley de Fugas)
DISASTER OF ANNUAL (1921) New disaster for the Spanish army in Morocco against Abd-el Krim troops: more than 12, 000 soldiers died (including their commander in chief, general Fernández Silvestre) Although the lost territory was soon recovered, this disaster caused a strong impact in Spain and a parliamentary investigation started to determine the responsibilities (Picasso Report). The conclusions of the report showed Alphonse XIII´s implication in the disaster.
PRIMO DE RIVERA ´S COUP D´ÉTAT (September 1923)Partly to avoid the publication of the Picassoreport, in September 1923 the CaptainGeneral of Catalonia, Miguel Primo deRivera, rose up against the government. Justifications he gave: - Need to re-establish public order - Need to end with corrupt politicians - Recover the lost honour in Morocco. The government demanded the king to disavow Primo de Rivera, but Alphonse XIII supported the coup d ´État. The Constitution was suspended and a dictatorship was established. In this way, the survival of the monarchy was united to the duration of the dictatorship. PRIMO DE RIVERA USED A REGENERATION LANGUAGE TO JUSTIFY HIS ACTION..
MILITARY DIRECTORY (1923-1925) - Government only formed by military men (well received by most people. Only the anarchists and communists opposed to dictatorship) - Objectives: - restoring public order: rigid control of the opposition parties and unions - ending with caciquismo: no significant results - solving the problem in Morocco: achieved with France´s help: Landing of Alhucemas (1925)THE MILITARY DIRECTORY WITH THE KING
CIVIL DIRECTORY (1926-1930) Primo de Rivera tried to perpetuate the dictatorship and included some civilians in the government: - creation of the Patriotic Union (government party to support the regime) - economic policy similar to Fascist Italy: public works, corporations, national monopolies - increasing loss of prestige of the dictator and opposition protests - first symptoms of the economic crisis In January 1930 Primo de Rivera resigned and the king appointed another military: general Dámaso Berenguer.PRIMO DE RIVERA AFTER HIS RESIGNATION
BERENGUER´S “DICTABLANDA”Short period of “soft dictatorship”.The opposition startedreorganizing without much trouble.Pact of San Sebastián ( August1930): agreement betweenrepublicans, regionalists andsocialists to overthrow Alphonse GENERAL BERENGUER WITH ALPHONSE XIIIXIII´s monarchy, proclaim aRepublic, form a ProvisionalGovernment and call ConstituentCortes to write a Constitution MEMBERS OF THE REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEE SIGNATORIES OF THE PACT OF SAN SEBASTIÁN
LAST GOVERNMENT OF THE MONARCHY January 1931: Berenguer resigned. The king appointed admiral Aznar, who decided to call for general elections to come back to the constitutional order, but the opposition parties demanded local elections first (the republicans had more support in cities) ADMIRAL JUAN BAUTISTA AZNAR 12th April: local elections. The republican parties won in the most important cities (41 out of 50 provincial capital cities). 13th Abril: the Republic was proclaimed in different cities : Éibar, Sahagún and Jaca.PROCLAMATION OF THE REPUBLIC IN ÉIBAR
PROCLAMATION OF THE 2nd REPUBLIC (14th APRIL 1931)14th April 1931: proclamation of the Republic in the main cities.In Madrid, the Revolutionary Committee proclaimed the Republic in the Puerta del Sol and formed a Provisional Government.Alphonse XIII suspended his powers and exiled in Italy