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The Long Road to Tobacco Control KwekuNyinaku April 5, 2011
STATISTICS AFTER THE SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING IN 1964: 400,000 Americans die from tobacco related illness 440,000 die prematurely from smoking each year 49,000 deaths due to 2nd hand smoking Tobacco-related health care cost: $100 billion yearly Smoking caused Medicaid payments: $30.9 billion $27.4 billion in Medicare expenses yearly SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(2010)
STRATEGIES USED BY TOBACCO COMPANIES Uses its own line of research to undermine tobacco research of WHO and others that reveal findings counter to the industry (WHO Committee of Experts on Tobacco Industry Documents, 2000). Lobby politicians at all levels of governance. For example, they lobby the World Bank, congressAnnual $12.8 billion ($35+ million each day) as of October 2010. Annual tobacco industry contributions to federal candidates, political parties, and Political Action Campaigns is over $2 million and expenditures lobbying Congress in 2009 was $24.6 million
STRATEGIES USED BY TOBACCO COMPANIES (cont.) Infiltrate into the camps of anti-tobacco groups (e.g., infiltrated into the organization of the World Conference on Tobacco and Health in Tokyo, Japan). Adversarial relations with WHO and other anti-tobacco groups (e.g., WHO and other pro-tobacco control groups, limited role in the negotiation of the FCTC; Ahmad, 2000). Spending on marketing its products nationwide amounted to $12.8 billion ($35+ million each day) as of October 2010.
EFFORTS TO CONTROL TOBACCO President Clinton (1996): Approved the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's jurisdiction over tobacco products and its related control. President Clinton (1997): Executive Order banning smoking in all federal buildings to protect the public and the public workforce from exposure to tobacco smoke.
EFFORTS TO CONTROL TOBACCO (cont.) President Obama (2009): Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the landmark legislation that gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco prevents tobacco companies from advertising and promoting, especially to children; replaces colorful advertisements and store displays with black and white only text; stops illegal sales of tobacco products to children;
Labor Market Effects of Smoking Health problems with potentially important socioeconomic consequences, including lost productivity, work absence, unemployment, social penalties and discrimination (Harwood, 2000; Sturm, 2002). Prejudice by employers, employees, or customers reflecting their distaste or negative preferences for workers with health risk behaviors, particularly against smokers (Becker, 1971; Moon & McLean, 1980). Documented experimental studies show thatsmokersare discriminated at every stage of employment, from the hiring decision through wage-setting and promotion (Puhl & Brownell, 2001).
Labor Market Effects of Smoking (cont.) Highhealth care/insurance. Economic theory implies that higher health care costs would lead to lower wages if employers provide health insurance benefits. Leigh and Berger (1989) and Viscusi & Hersh (2001) found that labor market effects on smoking include wage penalty for smokers in all subgroups. Another effect of smoke free laws at workplaces pertains to the issue of turnover. This can be explained by the fact that a worker’s separation from their jobs falls with tenure on the job. Employee dissatisfaction from working in a smoking environment affects performance. Employees who worked next to smokers reported annoyance and dissatisfaction working in an environment with secondhand smoke.