The Long Road to Tobacco Control<br />KwekuNyinaku<br />April 5, 2011<br />
STATISTICS<br />AFTER THE SURGEON GENERAL'S WARNING IN 1964:<br />400,000 Americans die from tobacco related illness<br />440,000 die prematurely from smoking each year<br />49,000 deaths due to 2nd hand smoking<br />Tobacco-related health care cost: $100 billion yearly<br />Smoking caused Medicaid payments: $30.9 billion<br />$27.4 billion in Medicare expenses yearly <br />SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(2010)<br />
STRATEGIES USED BY TOBACCO COMPANIES<br />Uses its own line of research to undermine tobacco research of WHO and others that reveal findings counter to the industry (WHO Committee of Experts on Tobacco Industry Documents, 2000).<br />Lobby politicians at all levels of governance. For example, they lobby the World Bank, congressAnnual $12.8 billion ($35+ million each day) as of October 2010. Annual tobacco industry contributions to federal candidates, political parties, and Political Action Campaigns is over $2 million and expenditures lobbying Congress in 2009 was $24.6 million <br />
STRATEGIES USED BY TOBACCO COMPANIES (cont.)<br />Infiltrate into the camps of anti-tobacco groups (e.g., infiltrated into the organization of the World Conference on Tobacco and Health in Tokyo, Japan).<br />Adversarial relations with WHO and other anti-tobacco groups (e.g., WHO and other pro-tobacco control groups, limited role in the negotiation of the FCTC; Ahmad, 2000).<br />Spending on marketing its products nationwide amounted to $12.8 billion ($35+ million each day) as of October 2010.<br />
EFFORTS TO CONTROL TOBACCO<br />President Clinton (1996): Approved the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's jurisdiction over tobacco products and its related control.<br />President Clinton (1997): Executive Order banning smoking in all federal buildings to protect the public and the public workforce from exposure to tobacco smoke.<br />
EFFORTS TO CONTROL TOBACCO (cont.)<br />President Obama (2009): Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the landmark legislation that gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco<br />prevents tobacco companies from advertising and promoting, especially to children;<br />replaces colorful advertisements and store displays with black and white only text;<br />stops illegal sales of tobacco products to children; <br />
Labor Market Effects of Smoking<br />Health problems with potentially important socioeconomic consequences, including lost productivity, work absence, unemployment, social penalties and discrimination (Harwood, 2000; Sturm, 2002).<br />Prejudice by employers, employees, or customers reflecting their distaste or negative preferences for workers with health risk behaviors, particularly against smokers (Becker, 1971; Moon & McLean, 1980).<br />Documented experimental studies show thatsmokersare discriminated at every stage of employment, from the hiring decision through wage-setting and promotion (Puhl & Brownell, 2001).<br />
Labor Market Effects of Smoking (cont.)<br />Highhealth care/insurance. Economic theory implies that higher health care costs would lead to lower wages if employers provide health insurance benefits.<br />Leigh and Berger (1989) and Viscusi & Hersh (2001) found that labor market effects on smoking include wage penalty for smokers in all subgroups. <br />Another effect of smoke free laws at workplaces pertains to the issue of turnover. This can be explained by the fact that a worker’s separation from their jobs falls with tenure on the job.<br />Employee dissatisfaction from working in a smoking environment affects performance. Employees who worked next to smokers reported annoyance and dissatisfaction working in an environment with secondhand smoke.<br />
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