Institutional Services and Tools for Content, Metadata and IPR Management

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Ingest a large range metadata formats (XML based or Dublin Core, METS, MPEG-21, etc.) coming from different channels (http, ftp, oai-pmh, etc.) and content files >500 ff.
Perform human content enrichment, translations, validation; comments; social media, rating; promoting; publication; corrections; assessment, etc.
Perform automated activities, technical parameters (duration, size, etc.), descriptors, indexing, translations, VIP names, geonames, LOD, assessment, IPR , verification
IPR modelling, assignment and verification.
Harmonising the activities of human and automated processing
Scale up of the back office architecture to cope with a large number of transactions
Support and model one or more workflows

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Institutional Services and Tools for Content, Metadata and IPR Management

  1. 1. Institutional Services and Tools for Content, Metadata and IPR Management Pierfrancesco Bellini, Ivan Bruno, Paolo Nesi, Michela Paolucci DISIT, Distributed Systems and Internet Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italy {pbellini,ivanb,paolucci}@dsi.unifi.it, paolo.nesi@unifi.it Abstract — Multimedia services need to be supported by content, metadata and workflow management systems to efficiently manage huge amount of content items and metadata production as in the case of cultural institutions. Online digital libraries and cultural heritage institutions and the other portals of publishers need an integrated multimedia back office in order to aggregate content and provide them to national and international aggregators. Different technologies need to be integrated to improve existing content management and workflow systems in order to efficiently organize and manage large amount of data and processes to cope with them. The aim of this paper is to formalise and discuss about requirements, design and validation of an institutional aggregator for metadata and content, coping with IPR models for providing content towards Europeana, the European international aggregator. ECLAP, the European Collected Library of Artistic Performance, has been realised respecting all these features and taking into account the problems connected to the cultural heritage cross media content on Performing Arts domain. In order to establish the quality of the institutional services and tools for content described, a set of measures have been made and reported. Keywords: institutional archive; content aggregator; grid computing; workflow; metadata enrichment; metadata validation; semantic computing; IPR management. I. INTRODUCTION Multimedia services need to be supported by content, metadata and workflow management systems to efficiently manage huge amount of content items and metadata production. With the introduction of web 2.0/3.0, and thus of data mining and semantic computing, including social media and mobile technologies most of the digital libraries and museum services became rapidly obsolete and were constrained to rapidly change. In most cases, the cultural institutions see their content ingested, promoted, distributed and exploited by final users via online commercial partners (e.g., Google, Amazon, YouTube), that may take benefits to commercial resell and/or via advertising. Thus the online digital libraries and cultural heritage institutions such as ACM, PubMed and IEEE and the other portals of publishers need an integrated multimedia back office. In Europe and in US, most of the cultural heritage institutions aggregate content and provide them to national and international aggregators such as Europeana in Europe [1], Library of Congress in US [2]. Europeana has more than 24 million of contents coming from about 2200 different content Providers, and about 100 content aggregators. Specific workflow and metadata processing, enrichment (name resolving, date analysis, linking with open data, creation of relationships, etc.) are needed to cope with the content aggregation and publication. To this end, specific solutions and architectures are needed that present some aspects or can be integrated with traditional workflow management systems [3], [4]. In [15] a visual tool for defining authorization workflow models for e-commerce application has been proposed. In this paper, the requirements, the design and the results of the ECLAP aggregator of Europeana are reported. ECLAP stands for European Collected Library of Artistic Performance, [10]. It has been started as an European Commission project CIP-ICT-PSP.2009.2.2, Grant Agreement N°250481. ECLAP has been designed and developed to ingest content coming from 35 different cultural international institutions in 13 languages thus creating a considerable online archive for all the performing arts in Europe [12]. Until now, it has ingested and processed about 180.000 objects (images, document, video, audio, 3D, Braille, e-books, etc.) with 940.000 items (pages, images, video, audio). The paper is organized as follows. In section II, general requirements of the back office and tools for cultural heritage content aggregator are reported. Section III provides ECLAP overview describing the architecture and ECLAP institutional services and tools, while a report on tools usage is shown in Section IV. Conclusions are drawn in section V. II. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The main requirements of the back office tool for cultural heritage content aggregator are reported as follows. The back office has to be capable to: 1) Ingest a large range metadata formats (XML based or Dublin Core, METS, MPEG-21, etc.) coming from different channels (http, ftp, oai-pmh, etc.). To ingest implies to get the metadata and content, link them together, collect them on a suitable storage, and ingest IPR information. The ingestion may be performed from web pages uploads, and/or from batch processing and/or crawling. 2) Perform human content enrichment, such as metadata translations, validation; addition of comments; social media promotion; voting/rating; promoting; publication to other portals; editing and performing corrections; quality assessment, etc. Multiple activities for users imply to have the possibility of granting different authorizations.
  2. 2. 3) Perform automated activities, such as: estimation of technical parameters (duration, size, etc.), extraction of descriptors, indexing, automated translations, searching for VIP names, geonames resolutions, linking with LOD, metadata assessment (completeness and consistency [6], [14]), IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) verification. Among these activities, it has to be included the content adaptation and repurpose according to a large set of the distribution channels. For example, ingesting video in any format and producing the multiple formats for distribution on different devices. 4) Harmonising the activities of human and automated processing among the above mentioned. For example, identifying when the human actions are needed, taking trace of the performed manual activities, blocking the humans when the automated elaboration has locked the resource. 5) Scale up of the back office architecture to cope with large number of transactions on metadata information and activities in the back office. In most cases, the back office has to be capable to process large data sets per day, and thus the execution of massive processing on distributed resources as GRID is needed [7]. 6) Support and model one or more workflows according to each specific content life cycle. Workflow management also means to have different user roles for different activities. For example, not all ingested content is ready to be published at the same time. Thus, some users may be entitled to move forward the status of their content, while other may need approval. 7) Cope with the IPR modelling, assignment and verification. It also implies that the IPR model may regulate uses/accesses to the digital content, and the exploitation of rights about the content manipulation and reuse according to the owner rights [11]. Moreover, a large number of detailed requirements have been identified as reported in [8]. Among the additional requirements, we noticed the need of (i) logging and keeping trace of metadata versioning: to keep trace of the work done and changes performed, (ii) formalizing and managing a number of different roles / capabilities to be assigned to the ECLAP users (i.e., enricher, publisher and validator), (iii) providing user accessible tools for: multilingual metadata editing, IPR managements, massive content editing of some specific object status associated with metadata (workflow status, IPR, public/non-public, tags, groups, etc.). III. ECLAP OVERVIEW The ECLAP architecture for content and metadata management (see Figure 1) consists of three main areas: Metadata Ingestion Server, ACXP back office services [7] and ECLAP Portal. The Metadata Ingestion Server, which collects metadata provided by digital archives and libraries (realised by using MINT metadata mapping tool, [8]). There the metadata coming in different schemas are mapped according to the ECLAP semantic model and are made available through the OAI-PMH protocol. ACXP back office services provide automated procedures for content and metadata processing (harvesting, ingestion, analysis, production, adaptation, validation, publishing, etc.). The ECLAP portal is the Drupal based front end, which provides front-office tools to work on content and metadata, IPR models definition, content management and Europeana publishing. ECLAP provides a social media style front end service (BPN, Best Practice Network) with more than 2200 users; directly linked via service oriented interface to the more complex back office (based on AXCP) capable to really cope with the complexity of managing a complex workflow and content processing and ingestion. The most important activities addressed by ECLAP are performed in the automated back office. Figure 1 - ECLAP architecture In order to better understand the content and metadata management, it is useful to describe the ECLAP Overall Scenario in terms of workflow, rules, procedures, etc., which each Content Provider follows to publish content on ECLAP and then provide it to Europeana (see Figure 2). All content managed in the ECLAP are associated with a specific workflow. In event of Europeana based ECLAP workflow, content has to be: (i) uploaded/ingested; (ii) enriched through metadata (some metadata must be sent to Europeana and others are necessary to describe and manage the content in the ECLAP); (iii) associated with an IPR Model (through the IPR Wizard, as described in next sections) [9]. The content uploaded/ingested is initially available on the ECLAP BPN with maximum restrictions, while metadata are immediately available for indexing and searching for all kind of ECLAP users. Only content presenting a (i) sufficient set of metadata (e.g., Europeana mandatory metadata) and (ii) IPR information license defined (one from the set admitted by “europeana:rights” in [13]), can be published on Europeana, [1]. Front office and back office tools of ECLAP allow covering the whole content life-cycle. The AXCP grid solution adopted provides a scalable back office capable to cope with a huge amount of content and metadata processing capabilities and features [7]. Ingestion and Harvesting ECLAP Metadata Ingestion Server O A I P M H Resource Injection Content Retrieval Database + semantic database Library partnerLibrary partner Archive partnerArchive partnerArchive partner ECLAP Social Service Portal IPR Wizard/CAS AXCP back office services Content Analysis Content Indexing and Search Metadata Editor Content Aggregation and Play Content Processing Metadata Export Semantic Computing and Sugg. Content Upload Management Content Upload Content Management Social Network connections Metadata E-Learning Support
  3. 3. Figure 2 - ECLAP Flow Overall Scenario A. Front office tools The ECLAP front office allow users covering the whole content life-cycle: content upload, enrichment, validation, IPR modelling and editing, content and metadata assessment and management, publication, etc. WEB based content upload allows users uploading content on the portal through the Upload web page. The page shows a form where users input: DCMI metadata consisting of a set of Dublin Core fields; Taxonomy as multiple classification terms selection; Groups assignment (ECLAP Groups); Resource data by selecting one or multiple files from user’s HD device or a valid URL (via http or ftp); Workflow type associated with the life-cycle of content and IPR model, if accessible. Metadata Editor is the tool for editing, enriching and validating metadata. According to the user role, the editor works in the “enrichment mode” or in “validation mode”, respectively for those enabled users. Metadata editor allows editing any kind of metadata organized in specific panels to work on. All changes made on metadata are tracked to maintain the history of changes and who made it and when. IPR wizard tool allows creating IPR Models that formalize the owner rights related to publishing content online in the ECLAP context. The IPR Logic Model implemented takes decisions for the IPR Managers according to the relationships: among user roles and among permissions [9]. The IPR manager has just to select one or more permissions for a user role that he/she wants to associate with an IPR Model (and therefore to a set of contents) and the wizard automatically selects also the permissions implied by those chosen (e.g. download imply play, see Figure 3 for the list of permissions). When some restrictions are applied Creative Commons Licenses [10] cannot be associated with the IPR Model, so the user can choose the license from one of the restricted licenses allowed by Europeana (“Unknown copyright status” or “Right Reserved – Restricted access”). In ECLAP, many different set of content permissions (rights) can be imposed by the content owners, which are the ECLAP Content Providers. For example: content and metadata upload methods; metadata standards and formats; IPR on content (licenses, permissions, etc.); collection topics; etc. Permissions managed on the ECLAP Portal can be referred to the following aspects:  access to the content (e.g., the content can be accessible via progressive download and/or download)  user device (e.g., the content can be played via a PC and/or a mobile device, iPad, etc.)  content resolution (e.g., the content can be accessible only in a reduced Low Resolution and/or in High resolution). Figure 3 - ECLAP Permissions Content Management tool allows users to manage contents and publish them to Europeana and to perform massive editing on large set of content elements. B. Back office services The ECLAP back-office services consists of a set of grid processes that run automated workflow processes both on a single and on multiple contents. Automated ingestion – It ingests metadata and content coming from ECLAP partners and Digital Archives and from the external metadata mapping tool MINT. The process allows ingesting both massively and singularly metadata and digital resources. When resources are big file, they are provided by using physical device. In this case, ECLAP just starts with metadata ingestion and when the digital resources are available, the joining is performed. Content production and adaptation - This process works with the digital resource and metadata uploaded via web or ingested. Metadata and digital resource are retrieved from the CMS or the storage area or downloaded from the provided URL. Incoming metadata (Dublin Core, Taxonomy, Groups, Performing Arts metadata, workflow type, user) are enriched with technical metadata built by analysing the digital resource: (i) content format (document, audio, video, image, crossmedia), (ii) content type (file format), (iii) structural information (size, duration, number of pages). The produced enriched metadata and digital resource are aggregated and published in the publication database. Metadata are indexed to make the content ready for access on the portal. The production process works also when the digital resource has to be replaced with a new one (Update). To make the incoming digital resource accessible by different devices Content Adaptation processes are exploited: (i) Content adaptation to different resolutions produces content accessible by different devices (iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows Phone, etc. and on
  4. 4. the ECLAP portal, any browser.); (ii) Video adaptation produces the Low, Medium and High Definition versions of a video; (iii) Metadata Translation translates Dublin Core metadata and missing metadata in different languages by using tool or web service for text translation. Content management - During the life-cycle of content, massive actions on content could be needed: changes in the workflow status, changes in the metadata, addition of details in the metadata sets, etc. Specific actions are also needed to maintain and manage the content and work both on single content and multiple such as: delete content, update metadata, and publish content uploaded by common users. ECLAP back-office services and front-office tools work both on content and metadata. However, such processes have to work in concurrency: back-office services could access and process content in parallel to the user activities on the front- end. Activities of translation, enrichment, validation, IPR definition and assessment cannot be performed by more than one process at time on the same content. On the other hand, sequential processing is too expensive and time consuming to sustain the content workflow and ingestion. In ECLAP, several thousands of new content per day have to be processed. To this end, a workflow state diagram has been modelled, formalized and implemented. Therefore, to manage the concurrency and to guarantee a safety access to the content a mechanism of lock-unlock access has been defined. The general workflow state diagram is coded as described in Figure 4. Figure 4 - ECLAP Workflow diagram C. User Roles and Workflow Model The front-office tools have to allow working on metadata in different ways. In order to implement am high quality content enrichment process, each specific activity has to be granted to specific people according to their skill, language and the identification of the institutional Content Provider (CPID). Moreover, the solution has to keep trace of each single metadata change to have the evidence of the work performed and eventually recover wrong situations. To this end, the following user roles have been defined with their parameters:  WFIPR (CPID): authorizes the definition and validation of IPR models, and IPR assignment to the content of the CPID; by using the IPR Wizard and during the Upload for the IPR Model Assignment.  WFENRICHER (CPID, {languages}): authorizes the metadata enrichment and changes in the specified languages (add, edit metadata).  WFVALIDATOR (CPID, {languages}): authorizes the validation of the metadata for the identified language. The metadata fields can be singularly validated until the object may pass the whole approval phase.  WFPUBLISHER (CPID): to take the final decision for publishing on ECLAP and on Europeana. The publishing of single or groups of content can be performed by using the Content Management Tool and AXCP, together with much other functionalities, plus eventual new actions to be programmed on the same tools. Back-office services are not associated with a specific user role since they are performed as root user by rules on AXCP computing grid background automated processes on content and metadata. IV. REPORT ON TOOLS USAGE In this section, the results about the ECLAP back office activities performed on the content, metadata and IPR until April 2013 is reported. This service allows users and automated workflow processes to interoperate securely and to increase the quality and accessibility of content and metadata, without any creation of conflicts each other. It is currently in use by 31 institutions. The number of state transitions and their distribution in the time period put in evidence the whole activity of the portal on content and metadata and allow analysing singularly both the back-office and the user activities. Some results are reported in the temporal domain considering the “month” as a time period unit. A. Workflow Users Actually, there are 29 workflow qualified users. Each user may have single or multiple user roles (grant authorization). The workflow user roles are distributed as: 24 enrichers (WFENRICHER), 6 validators (WFVALIDATOR), 23 IPR users (WFIPR) and 9 publishers (WFPUBLISHER). B. Workflow Transitions At current date, 706,052 workflow transitions have been handled for 117,861 content items with an average of 6 transitions per content and a maximum of 104 transitions for a single content. These transitions were performed in 653 days with an average of 1,014 transitions per day and a maximum of 13,162 transitions in one day, with a maximum of 14 different virtual nodes in the AXCP grid, on DISIT Cloud. TABLE I. DISTRIBUTION OF WORKFLOW TRANSITIONS From To Number of Transitions 'Uploaded' 'Under-AXCP' 179912 'Under-AXCP' 'Uploaded' 179912 'Proposed (creation)' 'Uploaded' 117861 UNDER-AXCP UPLOADED UNDER-IPR UNDER- ENRICH UNDER- VALIDATION UNDER- APPROVAL PUBLISHED WFIPR By IPR wizard IPR edit IPR done Upload rule Metadata edit Automated enrich rule Assessment rule Final publication rule WFENRICHER By Metadata Editor Translations, Content update/adaptation, Metadata analysis & validation By AXCP Backoffice WFVALIDATOR By Metadata Editor WFPUBLISHER Manually or by AXCP Backoffice Validation request PROPOSED Validation done not approved Upload via form Ingestion rule Administrative database Publishing database Publish to Europeana Enrichment done Enrichment done By AXCP Backoffice Moderated Upload Professional & Institutions Upload
  5. 5. 'Uploaded' 'Under-Approval' 113549 'Under-Approval' 'Published' 111362 'Uploaded' 'Under-IPR' 929 'Under-IPR' 'Uploaded' 929 'Uploaded' 'Under-Enrichment' 611 'Under-Enrichment' 'Uploaded' 611 'Under-Approval' 'Uploaded' 212 'Uploaded' 'Under-Validation' 38 'Under-Validation' 'Uploaded' 38 'Published' 'Uploaded' 3 C. Back-Office services The back-office services consist of a set of grid processes that run periodically automated workflow processes both on a single and on multiple contents. 1) Content and Metadata Ingestion The number of content ingested and processed by the back- office has been 106,525 corresponding to the UPLOADED workflow state of content. 2) Metadata Analysis Metadata analysis for assessment or automated translation performs a transition to the UNDER-AXCP in order to lock the content and avoid that a user could be access to it for manual editing or validation. In total, 179,912 of these transitions were performed. 3) Metadata Validation Every time content passed the metadata analysis the back- office performs a transition to the UNDER-APPROVAL. In total, 113,549 of these transitions were performed. 4) Content Publication Every time the back-office performs the publication of content in the UNDER-APPROVAL workflow state it performs a new transition to the final state: PUBLISHED In total, 107,598 of these transitions were performed. D. Front-Office tools In this section the analysis of the activity performed by users via front-office tools is reported. 1) Web Page Upload 11336 content has been manually uploaded by users via the Web Page Upload. Once uploaded the process is passed to the back-office. 2) Metadata Editor In order to evaluate the usage of Metadata Editor for the enrichment and validation activities, both the number of workflow transitions from UPLOADED to UNDER-ENRICH and from UPLOADED to UNDER-VALIDATION have been considered. The former transition gives a measure of manual enrichment activity, while the latter of the manual validation activity. The transitions related to enrichment were 611, and 38 for validation. Figure 5 reports the distribution in time of the enrichment activity. 3) IPR Wizard, IPR definition model ECLAP IPR Wizard is largely used by more than 35 partners in Europe. To evaluate the usage of IPR Wizard, the number of workflow transitions from UPLOADED to UNDER-IPR over time have been tracked. The transitions were 929, and their distribution is reported in the Figure 6. Comparing Figures 5 and 6, it is evident that the IPR tool has been much more used than the metadata editing tool. This is due to the fact that, in most cases the content metadata where ingested by stable institutional databases and archives, while the IPR model was missing on those archives; and Europeana constrained them to formalized the IPR aspect before the content submission. Figure 5 - Enrichment Activities Figure 6 - IPR Wizard Activities For the IPR aspects, 67 different IPR models/licenses have been used. 40 of them are restrictive not public models, while 27 are public models allowing the full content access. Most content providers used 1, 2 or 3 different IPR models/licenses for their content, while a few partners used 4, 8 or 12 models. Figure 7 reports he number of files used per IPR model. It can be seen that the most diffuse two models cover more than the one half of the whole content collection. On the other hand, the semantic flexibility of the IPR model proposed allowed to cope with many different needs of the content owners that impose the IPR according to legal rights they can really provide. Figure 7 - Statistics on IPR Models. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 50 100 150 200 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 Public Not Public
  6. 6. The 68% of content is associated with a public IPR model. Regarding the 30 restrictive IPR models defined by a Content Provider, in 11 cases they restricted the access to only educational group users and in 6 cases restricted the access to group users only (educational and not educational). Moreover, 23 models have been used to not allow the download of the digital resource for some kind of resource type (regardless of the user type). TABLE II. IPR MODELS ALLOWING PERMISSIONS BY USER TYPE Permission User type public group educ./research only play/access 11 13 19 download & play 3 8 11 no permission 19 12 4 Table II reports, for the three user types (public, group and educational), how many IPR models allow only play/access of the digital resource or allow the download and play of it or no permission are provided. It can be seen that in most cases the models are used to restrict access from the public users (19 over 30) and to limit the download of the resource. 4) Content Management Tool To evaluate the usage of Content Management tool for publication activity we measured the number of workflow transitions from UNDER-APPROVAL to PUBLISHED made by partners. The transitions were 3764 and distributed by month as reported in Figure 8. Figure 8 - Publication Activities. V. CONCLUSION The paper discussed about requirements, design and validation of ECLAP which is an institutional aggregator for metadata and content coping with IPR models for providing metadata towards Europeana, the European international aggregator. The proposed solution takes into account issues connected to the cultural heritage cross media content on Performing Arts domain and integrates front office tools and an automated back-office based on a Grid. The solution allows to cope with high quality and provides large scale multimedia services to manage huge amount of content and metadata, coming in turn from several national and local institutions: museum, archives, content providers. Finally, the usage analysis puts in evidence the whole activities of ECLAP on content, metadata and IPR until April 2013. It underlines that the huge activity on content and metadata aggregation, analysis and validation to match the Europeana requirements has been mainly automated and performed by the back-office, thus allowing to keep content processing cheap and sustainable. Regarding the front office side, the most used tools by content providers have been associated with IPR, namely IPR Wizard and the Content Management since they allow users to finalise the rights and to provide a connection of the content versus Europeana. Most of the metadata provided were already in a good shape and less than the 1% of content has been corrected from that point of view. On the other hand, the IPR details requested by Europeana constrained the content provider to associate to the100% of the content a new IPR model. This huge effort has been kept under control by exploiting the IPR Model, and applying only 67 models to the whole set of more than 120.000 different content coming from more than 35 different collections and institutions. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors want to thank all the partners involved in ECLAP, and the European Commission for funding ECLAP in the Theme CIP-ICT-PSP.2009.2.2, Grant Agreement No. 250481. REFERENCES [1] Europeana, http://www.europeana.eu [2] The Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov [3] Yu, J., & Buyya, R.. A taxonomy of workflow management systems for grid computing. Journal of Grid Computing, 3(3-4), 171-200, 2005 [4] W.M.P. van der Aalst and K.M. van Hee. Workflow Management: Models, Methods, and Systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2002. [5] European Library of Artistic Performance, ECLAP, http://www.eclap.eu/ [6] Bellini E., Nesi P. "Metadata Quality assessment tool for Open Access Cultural Heritage institutional repositories", Proc. of the ECLAP 2013 conference, 2nd Int. Conf. on Information Technologies for Performing Arts, Media Access and Entertainment, Springer Verlag LNCS, 2013. [7] Bellini P., Bruno I., Cenni D., Nesi P., "Micro grids for scalable media computing and intelligence on distributed scenarious", IEEE Multimedia, 18 Aug. 2011, IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, ISSN: 1070-986X. [8] “ECLAP DE3.1 infrastructure: ingestion and processing content and metadata”, 2011, ECLAP Project, http://www.eclap.eu/urn:axmedis:00000:obj:a345a84f-6fdf-4f84-a412- 88094ce363e2 [9] Bellini P., Nesi P., Paolucci M. (2013). IPR Management Models for Cultural Heritage on ECLAP Best Practice Network, IEEE International Conference on Communications, 9-13 June, Budapest, Hungary. [10] Creative Commons, http://creativecommons.org [11] Wang X., “MPEG ‐ 21 rights expression language: Enabling interoperable digital rights management,” IEEE Multimedia, 11(4):84– 87, 2004 [12] ECLAP Partners. List and information on ECLAP Partners available at: http://www.eclap.eu/drupal/?q=node/3578 [13] ‘Guidelines for the europeana:rights metadata element’, v4.0 – 20, 9 February 2012, http://pro.europeana.eu/documents/900548/0d423921- 23e0-45fa-82a4-2ac72b3e6f38 [14] Park Jung-Ran, Metadata quality in digital repositories: A survey of the current state of the art, “Cataloging & classification quarterly”, vol. 47, nos. 3-4 (April 2009), p. 213-228 [15] S.K. Chang et al, “Visual Authorization Modeling with Applications to Electronic Commerce”, IEEE Multimedia, (2003), Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 44-54. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

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