Presentazione italia preromana Presentation Transcript
The name "Italy", derived from Vitalia, originally pointed to the lower part of the country of the Bruzi, that today's Calabrian peninsula .
In Italy the first men were present in the Paleolithic. Between the fifth and third millennium BC, the animals were domesticated and were introduced elementary forms of agriculture. The man abandoned the nomadic life and began to cultivate the fields, raise animals, learned to use stones to make tools and polished pottery.
MANY DIFFERENT CIVILIZATIONS
In Italy four types of civilizations developed: lake dwelling civilization, terramaricola civilization, appennine civilization, villanoviana civilization .
LAKE DWELLING AND TERRAMARICOLA CIVILIZATION
The dwelling is skilled in construction on the water, the diversion of rivers and construction of canals to drain water and dry land. They practised agriculture, metallurgy, ceramics and tessitura. Il trade was based on the various exchanges with other popoli. In the 1200 BC, and the pile terramaricoli, almost suddenly disappear.
The civilization was common in the Apennine peninsula. The habitants lived on sheep farming and lived in huts. The dead were cremated. The term "Apennine" is now reserved for style ceramic advanced stage of the Middle Bronze Age. The stage at which manifests decorative style is so contemporary to the period Apennine central civilization of Earthsea in northern Italy, and the cultures of Thapsos Milazzase in Sicily and is included in the period characterized by Nuraghic in Sardinia.
In the mid-Iron Age civilization develops in the Villanova Bologna. This civilization reached its height in the mid-eighth century BC. The people worked ceramics and metals. After Villanoviani used the rich iron ore deposits in Tuscany, for tools of everyday use. The bronze was used for decorations. Villanoviana culture is diffused throughout the east coast of Italy to Rimini, and went to Tuscany and Lazio. They are identify in two different types of civilization: the south Villanoviana and the north Villanoviana The location of the ancient villages were united in the city.
The Camuni were a people of ancient Italy. They are best remembered for paintings. Subjected to Rome Camuni were progressively integrated into social and political structures of the Roman Empire were granted citizenship of Rome, then experiencing a rapid process of romanization linguistic, cultural, and religious.
THE ANCIENT ITALIC PEOPLE
The people who lived in Italy before the Roman conquest were numerous:
The Ligurian, Iberian origin, occupied the territory corresponding to today's regions of Liguria and Piedmont .
Lucani, settled in Campania and Basilicata, gave birth to a rich, powerful, prosperous and sophisticated civilization.
Piceni were a population pre-Indo, that developed in central Italy. They gave life to a military-aristocratic civilization.
Sanniti and Bruzi were pre-Indo. They belonged to the Appennine civilization.
Around 1000 BC settled in three populations of the Illyrian Italy: the Veneti (North.Est of the peninsula), the Japigi (Puglia) and Daun (Northern Puglia).
The rest of the peninsula was inhabited by different groups of Indo-European complex called Italici or Italioti. They were divided into two branches: in the west the Latin, in the east Umbrian Sabellic.
The Nuraghic born and developed in Sardinia. It owes its name to Nuraghi which are the traces of the most eloquent. This civilization used a lot of the dolmens and menhirs. In addition to the development nuragiche, the civilization of the ancient Sardinian also produced the enigmatic water sacred temples, tombs of the giants and the particular statues in bronze.
Their buildings had a defensive purpose: there was a tower at the center circuit.
In the case of leachate, the warriors were hiding in the tower and the people around.
There were also Greek, Phoenician, Celtic and Etruscan.
The Magna Graecia is the name of the geographical area located in the southern Italian peninsula that was once colonized by the Greeks. After colonization of the Aegean Sea, between the eighth and seventh centuries BC, people of Greek civilization appeared in southern Italy. These people, arrived on the coasts of Italy founded several cities which Rhegion, Kyma, Metapontion, and Taras. By tradition, the place where to live was detected following the sign that gave the Oracle of the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. During this time they reached the peak economic, cultural and artistic. Around the third century BC, people began to define the Greek colonies of southern Italy as part of Magna Graecia. Also saw several Greek colonies in Sicily, but were not part of Magna Graecia.
They founded Ischia, Cuma, Reggio and Messina In subsequent years, they founded Sibari, Crotone. Some Spartans founded the city of Taranto. Over time, new cities expanded their presence in Italy, spreading Greek civilization. The Reggini founded Pyxus; the Locri founded Medma and Hipponion. The sybaritic revitalize indigenous centers of Laos and Skydros and founded Poseidon. The Crotoniati founded Terina and Skylletion and participated in the founding of Kaulon. Zanclei and Reggini founded the Reggio Metauros.
The administrative organization was based according to aristocracy. The cities of Magna Graecia were independent, possessed of an army and there was a regent who ruled or a system of democratic government. The fleet was a deadly weapon that the settlers of Magna Graecia utilized. In the cities of Magna Graecia, was developed just trade, agriculture and handicraft. The settlers came in contact with the Carthaginians, but soon proved the formidable enemies. Art, literature and philosophy decisively influenced the life of the colonies. The colonies sent athletes of all disciplines at the games which were held periodically at Olympia and Delphi.
After the Greek, Phoenician were located in peninsula.
They colonized Sicily, and founded Palermo, Solunto e Mozia.
Golden tablets found in the temple of Pyrgi demonstrates the importance of Phoenicia in Italy.
They settled around the Caspian Sea.
They pass through France, Spain, England, Ireland. They arrived in the Po Valley and Rome.
They were called Gauls by Romans.
They practised trade with more different populations
One of the most important pre-Roman peoples were the Etruscans.
The Etruscan civilization joined the Villanova.
The Etruria was organized as the Greek poleis and the cities most important were:
Veii, Populonia, Perugia, Chiusi, Tarquinia, Arezzo, Cortona, Volterra and Fiesole.
The Etruscans developed both north and south and develop naval fleets.
They became good traders.
In the fifth century, the Etruscans were going into decline again in the third millennium Rome subdued.
The reports and Etruscan inscriptions mainly concern the everyday life.
Religion is based on a child named Tages, released in the wake of a plow and other anthropomorphic deities. The Etruscans were entrusted to nature and animal entrails to predict the future. In the funeral rites the corpse was lying on a bed and honored with banquets and entertainment. Death by the Etruscans was considered a good thing, but with the decline of society as a bad thing. The Etruscans and drew on the plaster in low relief. The woman was treated very well, could own slaves, naming their children and participate in banquets in fact probably in Etruria ruled the matriarchy. When the Romans subdued the Etruscans joined their cultures and be enriched.