Conflict Management
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Conflict Management Conflict Management Presentation Transcript

  • Project Management Managing Project Conflict
    • Q
    • Why is learning about conflict management relevant?
    • A
    • To help develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in an IT environment
    • Nature of Conflict
    • Responding to Conflict
    • Handling Grievances
    • Emotional Stress
    • Nature of Conflict
    • Responding to Conflict
    • Handling Grievances
    • Emotional Stress
    4 4
    • Conflict is a form of relating or interacting where we find ourselves (either as individuals or groups) under some sort of perceived threat to our personal or collective goals.
    • These goals are usually to do with our interpersonal wants. These perceived threats may be either real or imagined (Condliffe, 1991, p3).
    Conflict
    • Sources of Conflict
    • (Bisno)
    • Project Sources of Conflict
    • (Thamhain & Wilemon)
    • Sources of Conflict
    • (Bisno)
    • Biosocial
    • Personality and interactional
    • Structural
    • Cultural and ideological
    • Convergence
  • Bisno’s Sources of Conflict ( Condliffe, 1991 , p6)
    • Sources of Conflict
    • (Bisno)
    • Biosocial
    • Personality and interactional
    • Structural
    • Cultural and ideological
    • Convergence
    • Project Sources of Conflict
    • (Thamhain & Wilemon)
    • Project schedules
    • Project priorities
    • Workforce
  • ( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
  • ( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
    • Components of Conflict
    • Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve)
    Components of Conflict
    • Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests
    Components of Conflict
    • Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss
    Components of Conflict
    • Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss
    • Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests
    • Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve)
    Components of Conflict When you have to deal with conflict tackle the emotional issues first then address values and interests
  • Consequences of conflict
    • Good Consequences of Conflict
    • increased creativity
    • It forces people to clarify their views
    • It can produce constructive social change
    • It gives people the opportunity to test their capacities
    • development of group and organization cohesion
    • Bad Consequences of Conflict
  • Violence
  • breakdown of relationships
  • polarization of views into static positions
  • A breakdown of collaborative ventures
  • destruction of communication
    • Groupthink is a tendency for strong conformity pressures within groups to lead to the breakdown of critical thinking and encourage premature acceptance of questionable decisions
    Groupthink
    • Lack of conflict is a sign of over conformity.
    • It is unhealthy when there is no conflict
    • You need diversity of opinion
  •  
  • Consequences of conflict
    • Nature of Conflict
    • Responding to Conflict
    • Handling Grievances
    • Emotional Stress
    3 3
    • Conflict Handling Styles
      • Avoiding
      • Compromise
      • Competition
      • Accommodation
      • Collaboration
    • Which conflict handling style will you use?
    • Which conflict handling style will you use?
    • Project Managers may have a preferred style for managing conflict
    • Which conflict handling style will you use?
    • Project Managers may have a preferred style for managing conflict
    • You should use different styles depending on the problem – and get there by using your ability to read situation
  • avoiding accommodation competition compromise collaboration
    • Characteristics
    • ignoring conflicts and hoping they’ll go away
    • putting problems under consideration or on hold
    • use of secrecy to avoid confrontation
    • appeal to bureaucratic rules
    Avoiding
    • When to use
    • Trivial, small/unimportant issue
    • no perceived chance of resolution
    • To allow a cool down period
    • To allow others to resolve the situation
    • Characteristics
    • negotiation
    • looking for deals and trade-offs
    • finding satisfactory or acceptable solutions
    • When to use
    • goals are important, but not worth effort
    • opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals
    • achieve temporary settlements to issues
    • arrive at solutions under time pressure
    • back-up to collaboration or competition
    Compromise
    • Characteristics
    • create win-lose situations
    • use of power plays
    • forcing submission
    • When to use
    • quick, decisive action is vital, very important
    • unpopular actions eg. cost cutting
    • issues are vital to company welfare
    • against people who take advantage of non-competitive behavior
    Competition
    • Characteristics
    • giving way
    • submission and fulfillment
    • When to use
    • find you are wrong
    • issues more important to others than yourself
    • maintain cooperation
    • build social credits for later on
    • minimize loss
    • harmony and stability are important
    • allow team members to learn from their mistakes
    Accommodation
    • Characteristics
    • problem-solving carriage
    • tackle differences
    • sharing ideas and information
    • seeing problems and conflicts as challenges
    • When to use
    • find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are important
    • objective is to learn
    Collaboration
    • 2 Methods for Resolving Conflict in a team
    • Role Clarification Technique (RAT)
    • Intergroup Conflict Resolution
    • Role Clarification Technique (RAT)
    • This is a systematic procedure which involves all team members understanding the requirements of their of own and everyone else's position, duties and expectations
    • You’ll need to clarify roles for team and individuals; for example via questionnaires (or for project teams - RAM matrices!)
    • Intergroup Conflict Resolution
    • Each group should prepare list of what they would like the other groups to start doing, stop doing, and continue to do.
    • This list narrows he scope of the dispute and makes it easier to work on the core problems.
    • Nature of Conflict
    • Responding to Conflict
    • Handling Grievances
    • Emotional Stress
    2 2
    • What is a Grievance?
    • A grievance is any behaviour or action of another member or members of a team, which has or is likely to have an unreasonable negative impact on the ability of a team member to undertake their duties
    • Most grievances are never raised with management
    • Why?
  • Lack of trust Our complaints are trivialized No action gets taken! They only take defensive action
    • What you should do?
    • Listen
    • Discuss
    • Plan
    • Nature of Conflict
    • Responding to Conflict
    • Handling Grievances
    • Emotional Stress
    1 1
    • Stress
    • What is Stress?
    • A pattern of emotional states and physiological reactions occurring in situations where individuals perceive threats to their important goals that they feel unable to meet
    • (Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p257).
  •  
    • Effects of Stress
    • Physical illness
    • Lack of sleep
    • Reduction in task performance
    • Poor quality decision making
    • Causes of Stress in Projects
    Long hours Tight schedules Transient work force High risks Work overload Role uncertainty Social relations
  • A Stress Survey
    • How many of these for you
    • in the last year?
  • ( Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p238 )
    • Stress Management
    1. Organizational Level 2. Individual Level
    • Stress Management at the Organizational Level
    • setting reasonable work plans and schedules
    • delegating responsibility and increasing independence
    • clarifying responsibilities, authority, and performance criteria
    • clarifying goals, procedures, and decision criteria
    • giving consideration and support in leadership
    • Stress Management for the Individual
    • stress management program
    • relaxation training
    • diversions from work-related problems
  • Review
    • Conflict is the opposition of people or forces that develops into an aggressive state or action.
    • Sources of IT project conflict includes; schedules, priorities and workforce issues.
    • Conflict can be good and bad.
    • Conflict handling styles include; avoiding, compromise, competition, accommodation, and collaboration.
    • Grievance handling strategies include; listen, discuss, and plan. Not dealing with grievances can be harmful to projects.
    • Work environment improvements and reducing stress is essential to a team’s health and the success of the project.
  • References
    • Condliffe, P. (1991). Conflict management – A practical guide . Collingwood, Vic.: RMIT.
    • Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4 th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon.
    • Nicholas, J. (2001). Project management for business technology – Principles and practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.