• Like
  • Save


Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

E leader Conference 2013 Ljubljana

Uploaded on

The Chinese American Scholar Association organized the E-Leader Conference in Ljubljana, 2013 June. …

The Chinese American Scholar Association organized the E-Leader Conference in Ljubljana, 2013 June.
My speech on change and transformation process

More in: Business , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Disruptive Innovation and Memetics!how to accelerate change andtransformation in business modeling,organization and development!E-Leader Conference 2013Ljubljana, 3-5 June
  • 2. Outline!•  Part One – Overview of Theories–  Disruptive Innovation: scope, definition, examples.–  Memetics: scope, definition, examples.–  Why do we create an interdependence between these twodisciplines?•  Part Two – Evidence of Practices–  What kind of benefits for business ‘to use’ memetics?–  Disruptive projects: what kind of innovations?•  Summary2!
  • 4. Disruptive Innovation!4!Source: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/Disruptive innovation, is a term coined by Clayton Christensen, anddescribes a process by which a product or service takes root initially insimple applications at the bottom of a market and then moves upmarket, eventually displacing established competitors.As companies tend to innovatefaster than their customers’ needsevolve, most organizations end upproducing products or services thatare too sophisticated, tooexpensive, and too complicated formany customers in their market.MarketCustomers:products & servicesneedsCompanies:products & servicesfeaturesthe gap betweendemand and offeringis widening wheninnovation drivesthe market changes.
  • 5. Disruptive Innovation!5!Companies pursue these “sustaininginnovations” at the higher tiers oftheir markets because this is whathas historically helped themsucceed.By charging the highest prices totheir most demanding andsophisticated customers at the topof the market, companies willachieve the greatest profitability.Source: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/
  • 6. Disruptive Innovation!6!However, by doing so, companiesopen the door to “disruptiveinnovations” at the bottom of themarket.An innovation that is disruptiveallows a whole new population ofconsumers at the bottom of amarket access to a product orservice that was historically onlyaccessible to consumers with a lotof money or a lot of skills.Source: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/MarketCustomers:products & servicesneedsCompanies:products & servicesfeaturesDisruptive InnovationsGreatestProfitability
  • 7. Disruptive Innovation!7!Characteristics of disruptivebusinesses, at least in their initialstages, can include: lower grossmargins, smaller target markets, andsimpler products and services thatmay not appear as attractive asexisting solutions when comparedagainst traditional performancemetrics.Source: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/Because these lower tiers of themarket offer lower gross margins,they are unattractive to other firmsmoving upward in the market,creating space at the bottom of themarket for new disruptivecompetitors to emerge.Profitability(traditional performance metrics)SustainingInnovationsDisruptiveInnovationsDisruptiveInnovationsSofisticatedCustomersCustomersCustomers… …
  • 8. Disruptive Innovation!•  When and Where is possible to see disruptive innovation?8!Source: http://www.provenmodels.com/595If we look at innovations’ trend intime and space (i.e. penetrationin given and/or new markets) wecan see that the growthopportunities for disruptiveinnovations are greater than forsustaining innovations.Sustaining innovations are closed in acustomers range: rich, skilled andsophisticated ones.Disruptive innovations can expandthemselves in new markets andsuggest new measures ofperformances.
  • 9. Disruptive Innovation!9!Source: http://www.claytonchristensen.com/key-concepts/DisruptiveInnovationin ProductsDisruptiveInnovationin Services’AccessHARDWARE
  • 10. 10!The structure of objects that we use and thestructure of the places that we frequent have beenchanged in a disruptive way...does it influence our thoughts, our behaviors andour actions?we will try to answer this question introducingMemetics…
  • 11. What is Memetics!•  Memetics can be simply understood as a method forscientific analysis of cultural evolution.•  Proponents of memetics suggest that memetics has thepotential to be an important and promising analysis of cultureusing the framework of evolutionary concepts.11!Source: Journal of Memetics – Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission
  • 12. Memetics!Richard Dawkins (1976, The Selfish Gene):“…Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, waysof making pots or of building arches. Just as genes propagate themselves in thegene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memespropagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via aprocess which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation”…12!Source: http://www.phoenix5.org/glossary/gene.htmlBrainNeuronsMemeplex MemesPoolMemeby analogy
  • 13. Memetics!Richard Dawkins (1976, The Selfish Gene):“If a scientist hears, or reads about, a good idea, he passed it on to his colleaguesand students. He mentions it in his articles and his lectures. If the idea catcheson, it can be said to propagate itself, spreading from brain to brain…When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain,turning it into a vehicle for the memes propagation in just the way that a virusmay parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell…”13!
  • 14. Memetics!Susan Blackmore (1999, The Meme Machine):“Memetics has been used to provide new explanations of human evolution,including theories of altruism, the origins of language and consciousness, and theevolution of the large human brain. The Internet can be seen as a vast realm ofmemes, growing rapidly by the process of memetic evolution and not underhuman control…”14!Source: http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/memetics/about%20memes.htmhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLp-edwiGUUThe memesin my mindThe worldwide memes
  • 15. Memetics!Susan Blackmore (1999, The Meme Machine):“Our minds and cultures are designed by natural selection acting on memes,just as organisms are designed by natural selection acting on genes. A centralquestion for memetics is therefore ‘why has this meme survived?’. Some succeedbecause they are genuinely useful to us, while others use a variety of tricks to getthemselves copied. From the point of view of the “selfish memes” all thatmatters is replication, regardless of the effect on either us or our genes”…15!Source: http://www.susanblackmore.co.uk/memetics/about%20memes.htmhttp://freethinkerperspective.blogspot.it/2012/07/how-natural-selection-selects.htmlAs well as the genesneed of vehicles tosurvive and evolve,so even memes needof vehicles tosurvive and evolve...The Cells are thegenes vehicles, theSolutions are thememes’ vehicles.
  • 16. Why do we create ainterdependence between thesetwo disciplines?!•  Because “disruptive innovation” in the “market” has the samecharacteristics of a “disruptive evolution” in the “businesseco-system”.•  Because we can apply memetics & D.I. rules and models togive an acceleration to the change and transformationsolutions in many fields of human activities.•  At school•  In business•  In politics•  In lifestyle16!
  • 18. What kind of benefits forbusiness ‘to use’ memetics?!18!“Lets turn our gaze to the everydaypractices and we will demonstrate thatthe Memetic Time is much fasterthan Genetic Time.When a practice takes place every day(like brushing your teeth or going towork), the time of a generation ofeach daily practice is 1 day. In thisrange this practice is born, lives, dies…it can change, and can test itseffectiveness, and therefore, ensures itsdescendants…”MemeticTimescale1day 1day 1day 1day 1day 1daySource: http://prezi.com/luqxz4kcofve/catalysez-la-metamorphose/Pascal Jouxtel (2012, Effectiveness of Living):
  • 19. What kind of benefits forbusiness ‘to use’ memetics?!19!“The average length between humangenerations is 10,000 days (≈ 27 years).We can therefore say that memeticevolution is 10,000 times fasterthan the genetic evolution of ahuman being.This means that in 3 years we havegone through more than 1,000generations of daily practices… and3yrs to achieve the evolution ofa company starts to become areasonable time…”GeneticTimescale27 yrs 27 yrs 27 yrs 27 yrs 27 yrs 27 yrsSource: http://prezi.com/luqxz4kcofve/catalysez-la-metamorphose/Pascal Jouxtel (2012, Effectiveness of Living):3 yrs
  • 20. 20!•  We analyzed the following Solutions:–  Kickstarter, My Morpholio, Rolling Jubilee, Connected the Film.•  In these practices we can see different ways to achieve changes andtransformations in modeling, organization and development.•  These projects requested from 1 to 3 years to “disrupt” theirmarket boundaries… and innovate the customers’ relationship withproducts and services.The evidences!
  • 21. 21!“Kickstarter is a new way to fund creative projects.The filmmakers, musicians, artists, and designers you see on Kickstarter have completecontrol over and responsibility for their projects. Kickstarter is a platform and aresource: anyone can launch a project on Kickstarter as long as it meets the guidelines.”Market:Fund Rising, Start-UpsServices, ProductDevelopmentCustomers:Designers,Musicians,…Companies:Law Firms, Banks ofInvestments, etc.Customers:entrepreneursCustomers:investorsSustaininginnovations aretoo expensive.Available forcustomers with alot of money.saverscraftsmenunemployeesDISRUPTION OF START-UP ANDFUND RAISING MARKET:Since launch in 2009 till 2012,more than 4.1 million peoplehave pledged over $625million, funding more than41,000 creative projects.
  • 22. 22!“The Morpholio Project is a group of applications that reinvent creative processes fordesigners, artists, photographers and any imaginative individual…The Morpholio Project is both a set of utilities as well as a vibrant community.”Market:Platforms and Services forDESIGN & DEVELOPMENTCustomers:Designers,Architects,…Companies:Firms in CAD/CAM/PDM software, Firmsin HW and Servicesfor Design andDevelopmentCustomers:Sw developersCustomers:EngineersInnovativepackages andservices are tooexpensive,available forsophisticatedand richcustomers.New talentsCommunitymembersDISRUPTION of TOOLS andSERVICES for DESIGN &DEVELOPMENT:From the market bottom linethe new ideas, newprototypes can emerge…young artists, designers anddevelopers have a freechance to show theirabilities, through:- free APPs for drawing andreviewing projects;- free cloud services for sharetechnical solutions andsuggestions with a skilledcommunity.Crowd sourcing
  • 23. 23!Market: Debts & Loans.“The Rolling Jubilee intervenes by buying debt, keeping it out of the hands of collectors,and then abolishing it. They are going into this market not to make a profit but to helpeach other out and highlight how the predatory debt system affects our families andcommunities. Think of it as a bailout of the 99% by the 99%.”DISRUPTION of TOOLS andSERVICES for DEBTS &LOANS:Started in November 2012,Rolling Jubilee abolishedmore than $1,119,209.20of medical debts, makingfree 1064 Debtors… peopleby people bailout isspreading, in order toabolish the other debtspending on students andhouses.InsuranceCompanies BanksCompanies:Customers:CitizensInnovativeservices aren’tavailable toabolish debtsand give nonrepayablecredits.
  • 24. 24!“Connected is not just a movie, its a community that grows around the concept ofinterconnection between people and things ... through cloud computing, mobiledevice, it involves users in generating contents, based on collaboration andknowledge sharing. It moves people imagination and brings a chance to independentmovies production and distribution.”Market: “Movies”Production housesDistributorsMajorsDISRUPTION of MOVIESPRODUCTION & DISTRIBUTION:In just a few clicks, you canshare the film through yournetworks (Twitter, FB, site,blog, email) and if someonedownloads it, you earn tenpercent of the revenue.It could be the future ofindependent film…UGCCloud film makingIndependentartistsSustaininginnovations areavailable forskilled and richcustomers only.Customers:ActorsDirectorsProducersWritersCompanies:
  • 26. Summary!•  Making disruptive innovation means widening the scope of ourproducts and services and thus explore new needs and new demandsfrom market and society.Staying in our box we cannot see and then adapt our box toenvironment.•  Not all the disruptive actions are innovative, but their solutions posea basis in order to rework theories and practices in a memeticperspective.If we think about our box like a living entity, it will seem easier toguess that its mutations are closely linked to the surroundingenvironment.26!
  • 27. Summary!•  Disruptive Innovation is like a new reference system to convey energyand skills to adapt our eco-cultural system (schools, companies,public offices) to following disruptions:–  crisis of capitalism,–  slowness of bureaucratic engine,–  waste of financial systems,–  high unemployment at all levels of professional.•  Memetics helps us to see ourselves as “observable entities” in a eco-cultural system. We can think about the evolution of human being asthe evolution of the solutions we put in place in the past and we willtry to implement in the future, looking to distinguish the toxic memesand encouraging the spread of useful memes.27!
  • 28. Thank you!28!