Paola De Castro. The formats of scientific papers

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NECOBELAC training course in Dublin 2012

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  • Non è una associazione cui possono aderire liberamente i membri
    Caso mai su invito
  • FINALITÀ E OBIETTIVI
    CONSIDERAZIONI ETICHE su come riferire i risultati di una ricerca (authorship, conflitti d’interesse, privacy, protezione di animali, ecc.)
    PROBLEMATICHE EDITORIALI (obbligo di pubblicare risultati negativi, correzioni, copyright, editoria elettronica, pubblicità, rapporto con i media, ecc.)
    PREPARAZIONE E PRESENTAZIONE DEL MANOSCRITTO (struttura, tabelle, figure, illustrazioni, riferimenti bibliografici, modalità di trasmissione del manoscritto, ecc.)
  • Nei Ringraziamenti possono essere citati tutti coloro che hanno dato un aiuto puramente tecnico, assistenza editoriale, capo dipartimento che ha dato supporto generale
  • Gli autori dovrebbero saper spiegare le ragioni della propria scelta (ordine degli autori nella byline)
  • CN Collective name in Pubmed
  • Nella byline solo gli autori che soddisfano i criteri
  • Prolungamento del processo scientifico
  • Dati personali non rilevanti dovrebbero essere omessi
    Il consenso informato va previsto nelle istruzioni agli autori e se viene utilizzato va indicato all’articolo
  • La Cochrane Library potrebbe essere interessata a pubblicarle dati inconclusive
  • E importante che gli autori capiscano pienamente in cosa consiste questo trasferimento anche per eventuali riproduzioni di tabelle o figure da essi stessi già pubblicate ma che non possono ripubblicare senza avere il consenso della rivista.
    Annali frase
    “nel firmare il visto si stampi si intende che gli autori cedono all’ISS I diritti d’autore del lavoro in pubblicazione”
  • Politiche editoriali di tutte le riviste.
    Institutional Repositorial
  • Citare C7: requirements and preferences for the first pages of journal articles
    IMRaD ???????????????????????????????????????
  • Recentemente aggiornate
    Randomized Clinical Trials
    Contengono checklist
    The Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, and the Journal of the American Medical Association aderiscono a questo Consort
  • Gli abstracts vengono ripresi dalle basi di dati
  • Per come citare una “retracted publication” si rimanda al Pubmed.
    Dà esempi “Retraction in”
  • Quali sono gli elementi identificativi
    Quale ordine? Autore, titolo, ecc
    Unpublished material = in press
    Electronic material; unpublished material
  • Elementi essenziali che vanno diversamente organizzati a seconda della tipologia dei documenti
  • Doppio spazio per le tabelle
    Verificare la quALITà delle fotografie, soggetti umani, ecc
  • Paola De Castro. The formats of scientific papers

    1. 1. NECOBELAC Module The formats of scientific articles How to write a scientific paper Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    2. 2. FIRST STEPS: basic questions WHY shall I write an article? (select target) WHICH information will I share? (select information) WHERE shall I publish it? (select journal) WHOM shall I write it with? (select co-authors) WHAT are my resources? (budget and time) HOW shall I write an article? 2 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    3. 3. SELECTION Scientific content, authors, target… Track the latest results Publication types •Journals (national, international, high IF, online, high rejection rate…) •Books or chapters therein •Technical reports, conference proceedings •Leaflets •Posters •Conference papers/communications, PPTs •Web “documents” (blogs, wikis, answers, etc.) 3 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 BE FAMILIAR WITH RULES Basic editorial rules and best practices applying to all publications Specific rules per publication type or discipline Editorial style of the journal
    4. 4. Contributions within a journal • • • • • • • • Editorials Comments Correspondence Viewpoints Original, research articles Review articles Case histories Book reviews REFER TO THE JOURNAL Instructions to authors Table of contents Published articles 4 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    5. 5. NECOBELAC Topic maps 5 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    6. 6. WRITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE… TECHNICAL ISSUES Title Abstract Key words Structure Illustrations References ETHICAL ISSUES ROLE S 6 Authorship Conflicts of interest Copyright Privacy Be aware of the responsibilities of editors, authors, referees, editorial staff P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    7. 7. Instructions to authors for over 6,000 journals in the health and life sciences INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS First and last step for article writing. Submit to the right journal! 7
    8. 8. Authors’ guides within the journal What can I deposit in a repository? 8 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    9. 9. BASIC SOURCES NECOBELAC pre-course reading “Vancouver style” EASE guidelines for Authors Last up-dating April 2010 9 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 in 19 languages WHY? Concise Comple te Easy
    10. 10. “ICMJE and Vancouver style” In Vancouver a SMALL GRUOP OF EDITORS (NEJM, BMJ, Ann Int Med, Lancet, etc.) met in 1978 INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF MEDICAL JOURNAL EDITORS (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Medical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication “Vancouver style” 10 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    11. 11. What is the “Vancouver style”? INITIALLY… Guidelines on standard formats of manuscripts and, in particular, bibliographic references TODAY “de facto” standard shared by the most prestigious medical journals (700)… It includes both manuscript preparation, and ethical issues 11 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    12. 12. Instructions for authors refer to the Uniform requirements (ICMJE) or “Vancouver style” 12 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    13. 13. Contents of “Vancouver style” I. Statement of Purpose II. Ethical Considerations in the Conduct and Reporting of Research III. Publishing and Editorial Issues related to Publication in Biomedical Journals IV. 13 Manuscript preparation and submission P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    14. 14. II. Ethical considerations A. Authorship B. Editorship C. Peer-review D. Conflict of interest E. Privacy F. Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 14
    15. 15. II. Ethical considerations A. Authorship Who can be defined as author in the by-line? Authorship credit should be based on 1) Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data 2) Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content 3) Final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3. Funding , data collection or supervision does not allow authorship 15 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    16. 16. II. Ethical considerations A. Authorship WHICH ORDER for authors? There must be agreement among authors • • • • Alphabetic order First, the project leader or person in charge of the Dpt Last , the person in charge Other order Guest, ghost, gift authors 16 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    17. 17. PubMED - Advanced search allows search for last author 17
    18. 18. II. Considerazioni etiche. A. Authorship Examples of “Group Authorship” Name, surname, on behalf of the HPV Pathogen-ISS Study Group* Indicate ALL names of the group members in the Footnote or Appendix 18 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 On behalf of the... Study group XXXX Study group
    19. 19. II. Ethical considerations. A. Authorship Domino effect in error duplication If group author is not clearly defined • wrong publication • wrong indexing • wrong citation CREATE AWARENESS AMONG • authors • editors • indexers 19 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    20. 20. II. Ethical considerations. A. Authorship Searching Group authors in PubMed Insert CN (collective name) In your query for group author 20 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    21. 21. II. Ethical considerations B. Editorship Editor (editor in chief) Person responsible for its entire content Editorial Freedom– The editor in chief has full authority of the editorial content Editorial Board – Advisory Board Collaborate with editors to establish and maintain the journal editorial policy Referees 21 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    22. 22. II. Ethical considerations C. Peer Review DEFINITION Unbiased and independent assessment of manuscripts submitted to journals by experts (peers) who are not part of the editorial staff “Extention” of the scientific proces It applies to both traditional and OA journals TYPES Blinded double blinded open VARIABLES No. of referees Times Procedures (online) Peer review is widely debated topic, BUT there is no doubt that it helps editors deciding which manuscripts are suitable for the journals -improving the quality of reporting 22 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    23. 23. Pre-publication history of an article in BMC Public Health Submission Review report Re-submissions Note on PRIVACY Reviewers’ comments should not be published without authors’, reviewers’ and editor’s consent 23 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    24. 24. REVISION: different levels of responsibility 1. AUTHORS’ REVISION before submission read instructions to authors read again after some time (one-two days) use check lists 2. INITIAL EDITORIAL REVIEW after submission (before peer review) A paper may be rejected if it is not compliant with journal scope and formats it has poor English 3. PEER REVIEW after submission Minor revisions Major revisions Authors! Take it seriously! Be prepared to answer all points raised by reviewers 4. TECHNICAL EDITING after acceptance Journal editorial staff Revision improves quality and guarantees a learning opportunity 24 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    25. 25. II. Ethical considerations D. Conflicts of interest Conflicts of interests exist when • an author • his/her institution • an editor • a reviewer • members of the editorial staff have financial or personal relations that inappropriately influence their actions and decisions (bias) These can have a negative influence on scientific judgement 25 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 EXAMPLE of “Disclosure of Conflicts”
    26. 26. Ethical considerations E. Privacy and confidentiality It not only applies to PATIENTS and study participants Written informed consent but also to AUTHORS, EDITORS and REVIEWERS This picture would not be suitable for publication 26 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    27. 27. III. Publishing and Editorial issues Obligation to publish negative studies provided that they are statistically significant Corrections, Retractions and Expressions of Concern Editors-authors and scientific fraud (COPE) The number of Retractions is dramatically increasing (PubMed) 27 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    28. 28. III. Editorial issues COPYRIGHT • • • Most scientific journals still ask for copyright transfer OA journals follow a different policy Authors should be able to negotiate their rights Creative Commons Licenses Copyright agreements strongly affects deposit in OA repositories 28 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    29. 29. USEFUL TOOLS to manage copyright SHERPA/ROMEO publishers’ copyright policies & selfarchiving 29 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012 SPARC Author Addendum to secure your rights
    30. 30. IV. Manuscript preparation STRUCTURE of a scientific article title abstract introduction materials and methods results discussion conclusions plus 30 ATTENTION! Do not exceed the required number of words acknowledgements, if any references appendices, if any P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    31. 31. THE IMRAD STRUCTURE Introduction Background information State specific purpose of the study Limit references Do not include data or conclusions Material and methods Describe (patients, animals, etc.) Define material and equipment Illustrate procedures Compare with other methods 31 Results Show results in logical order Point out only relevant data And Discussion and conclusions Stress only new aspects Do not repeat what was written in the methods Avoid conclusions which are not associated to reliable data P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    32. 32. IV. Manuscript preparation Guidelines for the transparent reporting of health research It includes the major reporting guidelines for scientific research and guides for authors 32 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    33. 33. IV. MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION Abstract and key words ALWAYS FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS ABSTRACT Be carefully that it reflects the content of the article Report background, basic procedures , main findings in logical way TYPES: Descriptive, informative, structured, graphical KEY WORDS Use MESH terms (MEdical Subject Headings) 33 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    34. 34. MESH terms from the NLM MESH terms MEdical Subject Headings (NLM) 34 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    35. 35. IV. Manuscript preparation Bibliographic references GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Include only essential references, “in press “papers may be accepted, but avoid “personal communications REFERENCE STYLE AND FORMAT Authors should consult NLM Citing in medicine References should be numbered consecutively in the text Only some Journals check accuracy of the references Authors are responsible for their correctness 35 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    36. 36. NLM – Citing in Medicine EXAMPLES for •Articles in journals •Books •Other published material •Unpublished material •Electronic material 36 P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    37. 37. Basic elements of citation • • Title of the cited document • Container (journal, book, etc.) • • 37 Author (personal or group) Year of publication Other data publisher, city for books vol. and pages for journals P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    38. 38. Tables and figures WHEN AND HOW TO USE THEM? Tables  details Graphs  trends Include only necessary data A figure is worth 1000 words FOR ALL IMAGES • • • • • • • • 38 Comply with instructions to authors Verify that they are mentioned in the text Check consistency of data with text Include them in separate files Number them consecutively Make captions self sufficient Check copyright …. Units of measurement (IS) Abbreviations and Symbols P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    39. 39. Last, but not least… The cover letter your chance to speak to the editor BASIC INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED Editor name(s) Originality of submission No competing financial interests Desired reviewers Corresponding author 39 Do not summarize the paper, but say why it is special for the journal P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012
    40. 40. Any Question? Thank you Paola De Castro Paola.decastro@iss.it P. De Castro • The formats of scientific articles • NECOBELAC T1 Course. Dublin - May, 9, 2012

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