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Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process
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Paola De Castro. Critical introduction to scientific journals and the editorial process

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Introduction to scientific publishing and open access models

Introduction to scientific publishing and open access models

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  • Per rompere il ghiaccio vorrei citare due contributi recentemente apparsi su Nature
    che ben rappresentano lo spirito in un intendiamo impostare queste ore di lezione:
    Communication should not be left to scientists, 4 aprile 2002 Chi fa comunicazione deve farlo professionalmente
    Better communication is in everyone’s interests Importanza della cooperazione a tutti i livelli perché in ultima analisi l’obiettivo è comune: il successo del prodotto
    Volenti o nolenti siamo tutti coinvolti nell’attività di comunicare
    e se siete qui anche in quella di pubblicare.
    Sappiamo tutti che a volte la cosa può non sembrare facile
    e spesso chi non lo fa di mestiere si trincera dietro la considerazione
    in fondo NON E’ IL MIO lavoro IO SONO BIOLOGO….
    Che cos’è il formato elettronico?
    Esistono ovunque difficoltà
    -amministrative (mancanza di strumentazione, carenza di personale,
    - tempo a disposizione…
    -di accesso alle fonti, in altri casi incapacità di reperimento
    TUTTO QUESTO genera FRUSTRAZIONE
    L’obiettivo del corso è sollevarvi da questa frustrazione introducendovi all’editoria scientifica e raccontandovi la nostra esperienza (SAE), che spero vi sarà utile per capire cosa succede in una redazione e affrontare consapevoli i problemi editoriali
  • Quale sintonia?
  • LA pubblicazione, inoltre è la prima manifestazione della paternità di un’opera, di un’idea, di un progetto
    Pubblicare = rendere di pubblico dominio
  • AL di là della comunicazione orale
    I greci nell’8 secolo furono i primi ad utilizzare l’alfabeto
    La bibbia è il primo libro stampato 180 copie
    Dai codici copiati a mano dagli amanuensi già dal 2 secolo (codici manoscritti), già innovativi rispetto ai papiri e alle tavolette
  • Cambia musica!
  • In 1662, the newly formed 'Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge' was granted a charter to publish by King Charles II and on 6 March 1665, the first issue of Philosophical Transactions was published under the visionary editorship of Henry Oldenburg, who was also the Secretary of the Society. The first volumes of what was the world's first scientific journal were very different from today's journal, but in essence it served the same function; namely to inform the Fellows of the Society and other interested readers of the latest scientific discoveries. As such, Philosophical Transactions established the important principles of scientific priority and peer review, which have become the central foundations of scientific journals ever since. In 1886, the breadth and scope of scientific discovery had increased to such an extent that it became necessary to divide the journal into two, Philosophical Transactions A and B, covering the physical sciences and the life sciences respectively
  • Prima del 1600 scambio epistolare (dissertazioni accademiche, lente e rivolte ad amici (non per critica)
    Journal de scavan 1665
    Philosophoical transactions 1666
    Lenti e costosa, non raggiungevno tutti gli interessati
    JAMA, Nature, Science, PNAS, BMJ, New Engl J Med, Epidemiol Prev, Tumori, Blood, Lancet
    Responsabilità editoriali
  • Gli scopi di tali entità editoriali sono diversi tra loro,
    d'altra parte, il "business" legato all'editoria era ben noto anche ai tempi di Gutenberg, poiché sia gli stampatori, sia gli editori che intraprendevano la nuova attività, avevano
    come obiettivo la realizzazione di un certo guadagno, inizialmente se non altro per bilanciare gli investimenti fatti per l'acquisto degli impianti e dei materiali per la stampa.
    Per le società scientifiche, invece, l’obiettivo non era e non è il guadagno, ma semplicemente
    il recupero delle spese di produzione e stampa.
    Negli ultimi anni le cose sono cambiate molto velocemente, lo sviluppo della tecnologia ha facilitato un certo tipo di produzione e sicuramente la diffusione dei documenti
    e allora…
  • Gli scopi di tali entità editoriali sono diversi tra loro,
    d'altra parte, il "business" legato all'editoria era ben noto anche ai tempi di Gutenberg, poiché sia gli stampatori, sia gli editori che intraprendevano la nuova attività, avevano
    come obiettivo la realizzazione di un certo guadagno, inizialmente se non altro per bilanciare gli investimenti fatti per l'acquisto degli impianti e dei materiali per la stampa.
    Per le società scientifiche, invece, l’obiettivo non era e non è il guadagno, ma semplicemente
    il recupero delle spese di produzione e stampa.
    Negli ultimi anni le cose sono cambiate molto velocemente, lo sviluppo della tecnologia ha facilitato un certo tipo di produzione e sicuramente la diffusione dei documenti
    e allora…
  • China està a punto de superar EEUU y EU
  • Una citazione d’obbligo prima di cominciare riguarda la responsabilità del ricercatore nel processo di trasferimento delle informazioni
  • The logo of Open Access Now is a caged bird, which bursts into color as it flies out through the cage door to freedom. This is a metaphor for the current state of the scientific research literature. Today, scientific information is imprisoned behind the many closed doors of the traditional journals that allow access only to those who have paid their subscription. Like the caged bird, it can be admired only from afar, but it cannot go anywhere, it cannot spread its wings and fly. We believe it is time to open the cage door.
    When scientific results and data are released from the cage they will take on a new life and a beauty that we could never have dreamed of. When we can all find, read, and use any information we need, and communicate it to others without hindrance, the value of research findings will increase enormously. Imagine what would have happened if DNA sequences had been similarly imprisoned, rather then being available freely to all through GenBank. The same freedom must be granted to research findings if biomedical research is to function efficiently and flourish.
    Many in the scientific community feel strongly that there is a need to change the way that scientific results are reported and disseminated. Many feel that the transition to Open Access is inevitable. Some passionate pioneers have begun to seek alternative ways to publish their research findings. The debate has been heated at times, and there has been much confusion, as well as many good ideas. We hope to clarify some of these issues and provide a forum for constructive debate about the best way to serve the scientific community - authors, publishers and readers.
    The technology now exists to open the cage door. There are sustainable Open Access business models for publishers. What is needed is for the scientific community of authors to adopt Open Access as the default mode of publishing their research articles. The time has come to open the cage door and make the scientific research literature "Free at last!".
  • 1.092.944 ISS Testate totali correnti e non
    ISI Web of Science
    ISI Web of Science provides seamless access to  Science Citation Expanded®, Social Sciences Citation Index®, Arts & Humanities Citation Index™ -- and now also to in-depth chemistry information via Index Chemicus, and Current Chemical Reactions.
    It enables users to search current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,500 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides a unique search method, cited reference searching. With it, users can navigate forward, backward, and through the literature, searching all disciplines and time spans to uncover all the information relevant to their research. Users can also navigate to electronic full-text journal articles.
  • BioMed Central is an independent publishing house committed to providing immediate free access to peer-reviewed biomedical research
    Who, What and Why?
    Each issue of Open Access Now will contain a short guide to the players, stakeholders and technical terms relevant to Open Access publishing."WHAT, WHO and WHY" will help readers to become informed about the world of Open Access.
    WHAT is BioMed Central?BioMed Central is an independent publisher of biomedical and clinical journals and information services. It publishes more than 90 peer-reviewed Open Access journals.
    Its first entirely Open Access journals were the BMC series100 titles that cover all of the major biomedical disciplines.
    BioMed Central also has a growing list of specialist Open Access journals edited by academic scientists. These journals are editorially independent, but BioMed Central provides the publishing system and technical expertise.
    Journal of Biology is BioMed Central's flagship title. Edited by Martin Raff, it publishes biological research articles of exceptional interest and importance, with associated commentary. Genome Biology, Arthritis Research & Therapy, Critical Care and Breast Cancer Research publish Open Access research articles together with subscription-access reviews and comment. BioMedCentral is also the publisher of Faculty of 1000, a literature awareness service.
    WHO is behind BioMed Central?BioMed Central is part of the Current Science Group - a group of independent companies. Current Science Group Chairman Vitek Tracz has a long history in publishing, having started the Current Opinion journals, Current Biology and BioMedNet, for example. BioMed Central's senior management team also has substantial expertise. Publisher Jan Velterop and Editorial Director Peter Newmark have between them worked in senior roles for Academic Press, Nature and Current Biology. An Editorial Directorate of some of the world's most respected scientists and clinicians, including Steven Hyman, Sir Paul Nurse and Harold Varmus, oversee the editorial and scientific integrity of BioMed Central.
    WHY does BioMed Central exist?BioMed Central was established as an online Open Access publisher in May 2000 in response to the opportunities offered by new technologies, and to a strong feeling among scientists that the way research results are published must change. It was felt that open access to research is central to rapid and efficient progress in science. Harold Varmus had proposed a central full-text repository that evolved into PubMed Central. Many other researchers joined his attempt to redefine the economics of publishing - leading to the formation of the Public Library of Science and inspiring BioMed Central.
    www.biomedcentral.com
  • What is SPARC?The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, commonly known as SPARC, describes itself as a "catalyst for action". A nonprofit organization, its overall mission is to make scholarly journals affordable. SPARC primarily operates in the science, technology and medicine (STM) arena. The European arm, SPARC Europe, is directly affiliated with SPARC but has a European remit and focus.
    SPARC currently operates three main programs. The Alternatives Program provides lower cost, direct competitors to highly priced journals. The Leading Edge Program sponsors projects developing technological use or innovative business models. And the Scientific Communities Program supports the development of portals for distinct academic communities.
    SPARC is also heavily involved in encouraging action from librarians and researchers. The Create Change campaign encourages advocacy, while Declaring Independence provides a guide to running academic journals that are controlled by the community, rather than by commercial publishers.
    Who is behind SPARC?SPARC was created with the support of the US-based Association of Research Libraries (ARL). SPARC is open to institutions from the US, as well as the international academic and research community, and currently has about 200 members in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. SPARC members - primarily universities and libraries - support SPARC through annual membership fees.
    The umbrella organization for SPARC Europe is the Ligue des Bibliothèques Européennes de Recherche (LIBER), with additional support from organizations including JISC, a joint committee of UK further and higher education funding bodies.
    Why does SPARC exist?SPARC was launched in June 1998 by a group of libraries frustrated at high journal prices and the rapid rises in subscription costs. The founders established SPARC to promote competition in the scholarly publishing marketplace. The idea was to use libraries’ combined buying power to aid the creation and growth of high quality, low-priced peer-reviewed journals.
    SPARC publishes the monthly Open Access Newsletter, edited by Peter Suber, which includes news and analysis about the Open Access movement. SPARC also hosts the Open Access Forum, an online discussion forum.
    PLoS has created a 30-second television message called "Wings". The short piece humorously provides a glimpse to the scientific progress that could be made if research and discoveries were openly and freely shared (read the June 26, 2003 press release). We encourage you to openly and freely share the link to this video with your friends and colleagues (http://www.plos.org/video.html)!
    "Wings" aired June 23rd - July 3rd in strategic U.S. markets on primetime cable and network tv stations.
    Bill by MArtun Sabo per conto dell’OPPEN ACCESS
    Nel 1996 FOA (freedom of information act firmato nel 1996 da Bill Clinton Oggi presso la NLM c’è un FOIA Office
    Nel settembre 2003 BIOMED CENTRAL lettera all’NIH to support open access
  • Tante domande, poche risposta
    Vitiello The Journal of Electronic Publishing March, 2001   Volume 6, Issue 3
    The Economist, a British magazine, offered a bottle of good wine to all those who would admit to having made wrong forecasts. If The Economist kept its promises, there are a good number of drunk information economists, information specialists, and information providers around Europe
  • Semplificando al massimo….
    I principali attori del processo editoriale possono essere ridotti
    a quattro grandi categorie. Anche se in realtà il processo è molto complesso e la catena editoriale vede la compartecipazione di numerose professionalità
    - Autori quali produttori di informazioni (come farsi pubblicare un lavoro)
    - Case editrici (publisher) quali manager dell’informazione che hanno un posto molto rilevante nella catena documentaria (sarà accolto favorevolmente dal mercato?)
    - Editori quali organizzatori e “tailors” dell’informazione (il lavoro è adatto agli scopi del giornale e al suo target?
    - Lettori quali utenti e futuri produttori dell’inf (dove posso trovare questa informazione? Mi è utile?)
    Nell’attività editoriale
    Non esiste un modello unico che sia valido in ogni circostanza,
    ogni strategia va adattata al caso particolare,
    MA se non c’è una regola standard,
    non è detto che la regola o le regole non siano necessarie,
    anzi tutt’altro, perché il processo funzioni la regola è fondamentale.
    OGNUNO DEVE BEN CONOSCERE
    IL PROPRIO RUOLO E LE PROPRIE RESPONSABILITA’
    AUTORI -LETTORI Dr Jeckill, Mr Hyde
  • TUTTI POSSONO CONTRIBUIRE nei temi della sanità pubblica
    Breve nota 3000
    Articolo 6000
    Rassegna 10 000
    Lavori sciolti
    Monografie
  • Publishing empowerment, comunicazione via e-mail
    Request for comments (RTF)
    Intelligenza distribuita – open archive initiative
    Biomed Central (L’autore tiene il copyright, ha visibilità perché gli articoli sono in pubmed, long term archiving
    Highwire press
    Open Archive initiative
  • Transcript

    • 1. NECOBELAC Training Module Critical introduction to SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND THE EDITORIAL PROCESS Paola De Castro Istituto Superiore di Sanità 1 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 2. Objective of the module REFLECT ON 1. 2. “Sea change” in knowledge dissemination 3. 2 Knowledge and responsibilities to communicate results of scientific reseach Rules and best practice for publication in scientific journals P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 3. Knowledge today… learning education communication representation mental stimula environment 1. 2. 3. COMPLEXITY COMPLEXITY It can assume different meanings (contest) It is not only information (which exists regardless of its use) It requires a user able to link available knowledge to his/her personal experience Today information is available (or potentially available) for all, provided that you have proper skills and technical devices to use it and adquire knowlege 3 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 4. INTERNET PROVIDES TOOLS BUT you should know • where to find • how to recognize quality • how to use these tools A cultural change is still required which should not only be associated to the development and availability of new technologies BUT to the capacity to use resources provided by such technologies 4 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 5. Online resources DOAJ DOAJ OpenAIRE OpenAIRE OA OA WIKI WIKI OA OA Directory Directory 5 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 OASIS OASIS
    • 6. Knowledge as a SOCIAL VALUE Learning is not a private enterprise Privatization of knowledge generates damage particularly in the case of research financed with public funds, and even more in the health sector J. Willinsky. The Properties of Locke’s Common-wealth of Learning. Policy Futures in Education Volume 4 Number 4 2006 Knowledge dissemination becomes a CIVIL COMMITMENT Scientists must play an active role in the public debate on health issues K. Carr, Liberating the voices of science, The Australian, January 16, 2008.  Senator Carr is Australia - Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. (http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23057489-25192,00.html) 6 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 7. Responsibility of science communication For all people working in Research and Development Information transfer is an ESSENTIAL part of their work It is a responsiblitity that must be recognised and undertaken with the same commitment and professionality as for all the other science-related activities 7 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 8. TO WHOM and HOW to communicate? WHOM? HOW? 8 Peer General public Policy makers Patients Clients Etc. Etc. Oral Written Non verbal Identify the most appropriate way of communicating according to target P. De Castro - NECOBELACyour • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 T1 Course
    • 9. WHERE does responsibility lay? • • • • • • Scientists Institutions where they work Editors (reviewers, technical editors, etc.) Publishers Librarians, information specialists, web-masters Etc. They all contribute to create (quality) information, BUT they have different interests in the publishing enterprise 9 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 10. VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS For the target (readers) WRITE A USEFUL ARTICLE to contribute to the progress of science CONSIDER Which needs shall I meet? Are there other publications on the same topic? Are they up-dated? Are they useful? Are they easily available? Are they free on the Internet? 10 • • • • • P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 Why write an article? Where to publish it? With whom? How much time? Which budget? In some cases, national journals or books may be more appropriate
    • 11. VALUE OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS For the author (writer) PUBLISH IN QUALITY JOURNALS to obtain the highest evaluation (grants, career advancement) HOW TO SELECT THE JOURNAL? WHAT TO CONSIDER? • • • • • • • Indexed journals (IF) Journals where important authors publish High reject rate journals Journals which I read for updating • • • 11 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 Where is the journal indexed Editorial committee Editorial organization (policy) (peer review, time) Online availability Copyright issues …
    • 12. AUTHORSHIP & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 1953 Watson e Crick published an article on DNA which is very famous and well known all over the world … and what about Rosalind Franklin? Watson J D, Crick FHC. Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleid acid. Nature 1953; 171: 737-738.c 12 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 13. How does knowledge transmission change through the centuries? The big revolutions Orality Writing Oral memory within a community Fist graffiti Hieroglyphs Alphabeth 35.000 years ago 3.200 BC 1.000 BC Symbols = concepts syllables Printing Internet 13 China 1050, Gutenberg 1450 Internet 1974 – 1990 Web – Google 1995 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 14. The Bible, 1456 First book printed in Magonza by Gutenberg The Comedy by Dante Alighieri, 1491 180 copies 36 x 29 cm Print diffusion Millions of copies printed in few years Texts have already a defined structure (commentaries by Cristoforo Landino) Page numbering and italic 14 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 were introduced by Aldo Manunzio in 1501
    • 15. SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS rise in the 17th century in the academies Before, philosophers communicated through philosophical dissertations and letters Journal des Scavans Philosophical Transactions First journal, published in Paris 1665 Royal Society of London, 1666 OBJECTIVE Present the most relevant European scientific papers OBJECTIVES Inform the Royal Society members and other readers about scientific discoveries Establish principles scientific priority and peer review 15 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 16. Scientific journals develop since the 18 th century still today they represent the preferred channel to disseminate scientific research results WHO IS THE PUBLISHER? • Scientific societies • Universities • Governmental agencies • Scientific institutions • Profesional associations In the centuries, science becomes more specialized The publishing enterprise develops Journal “shape” keeps unchanged until the Internet revolution 16 • Sequential reading • Texts and illustrations • Text structure • Paratextual elements The book shape has an influence on the way of thinking P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 17. Scientific journals Chronological development and figures 1660 1700 Internet revolution Rise (academies) Development (100) 1850 1900 1950 1990 Development (1000) Sectorial specialization ( 10 000) Further specialization (100 000) Exponencial development (300 000) 2000 2003 2004 2005 17 Gutemberg revolution Open Access Berlin Declaration Permission crisis Development of OA policies … P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 2012 ?
    • 18. TODAY INTERNET allows new ways of communication Journals (and books) change their shape New ways are developed • Blogs • • • • • Discussion lists Wikis Online answers Social networks Collective conversations All this deeply affects scientific communication 18 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 19. The article of the future 5 minute video by Elsevier It shows the advantages of enriched articles Supplementary information interactive content It provides true immersion in the contest of the subject matter Data are linked to databases providing the most updated information It proves a positive correlation between data sharing, citations and impact 19
    • 20. OPEN SCIENCE “UNJOURNAL” Proposal for an “UNJOURNAL” Active participation of the research community Two months for open peer review, and then the articles gets scores and citations 20 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 21. INTERNET CHANGES ECONOMIC MODELS AND ALLOWS NEW METRICS Publishers are looking for new opportunities Journal prices grow exponentially Authors become aware of the new opportunities provided by ICT and start negotiate their rights (self archiving is now recognised by most publishers) Online free full text is generally required and also the availability of research data is desired New evaluation metrics are introduced as alternative to IF, e.g. H index (individual research output) OA journals utilizing free software are developed PS PIC MA mes TO BELAC s and sche NECO le e mo d u u e s includ se iss e or all th f There is confusion on the roles of the actors of the editorial process and some contraddictions 21 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 22. SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD (UNESCO, Science reports) 1800 1850 1900 1950 2007 Increased investment in research 1000 10 000 100 000 1 000 000 7 000 000 specialization increased scientific output Development in technologies indexing systems circulation/citations metrics 22 NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS now doubles every two years P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 23. SCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD TODAY 7,200.000 UNESCO, Science report 2010 United States European Union China 21.0 % 20.0 % 19.7 % Japon Russia 11.0 % 7.0 % 75% researchers in the world work in the above countries representing only 35% of the world population 23 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012 India 2.0 % Latin America 3.5% Africa 2.2%
    • 24. Publications in the world (2008=986.099) UNESCO, Science report 2010 – Based on ISI data United States European Union China 28% 37% 10% USA and EU are still the world leaders as for the absolute number of scientific publications. Yet, their percentage share of publications decreased much more then any other country in the last 6 years. On the other hand, China doubled its publications (10%) Japon Russia 8% 7% Considering the size of Asian population it is envisaged that it will become the leader continent as for publication output in the coming years Latin America 4.9% Africa 2.2% due primarily to Brasil with 25% increase in the last 6 years Data refer to 2008, now the situation is rapidly changing 24 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 25. Citation increase in OA journals Open access citation average. A. Swan 25 http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/2/Citation_advantage_paper.pdf P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 26. OPEN ACCESS: a new paradigm of communication Basic concepts from the Berlin Declaration (2003) Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. We define open access as a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community. In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable, interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be openly accessible and compatible. 26 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 27. Open Access: aprire la gabbia … it requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material. 27 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 28. Open Journal Systems Free software for online journal management About 11,500 journals 28 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 29. Development of OA policies ISS OA policy was signed in 2007 ISS represented the first health research institute in Italy having an OA policy 29 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 30. Internet revolution adds complexity to the publishing process Death of metamorphis of scientific journals? We are now in search of a new balance… Ronald La Port. BMJ 1995, 2002 30 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 31. The European Commission supports OA Besides OA specific projects, the EU requires that all articles resulting from EU funded projects be deposited and preserved in digital archives (Special clause 39 on OA, 7FP) 31 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 32. OA is a philosophy and not an archive OA routes 7646 OA 7646 OA OA journals (gold) Digital archives (green) CREATE AWARENESS among all stakeholders 32 2000 listings 2000 listings P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 33. HOW MANY journals today? ISSN all disciplines (aprox.1.500.000 ) 900.000 current (15% online) 25.000 PEER REVIEWED 15-20% OA DOAJ: ISI WEB OF SCIENCE 7600 (800 health) 30% have publicaton fees 9000 “HIGH IMPACT” SCI 6500 SSCI 1800 AHCI 1140 MEDLARS (biomedicine) 5000 journals (21 million articles, some with links to full-text) 33 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 34. Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO a model for cooperative electronic publishing in LA Born in 1998 in Brasil, now it includes 940 Journals for all disciplines 294 Health sciences 98 Biological sciences ISI formula for IF Quality criteria NECOBELAC - SciELO Workshop in Rome, 21 June 2012 34
    • 35. RESEARCHERS’ ATTITUDE ON OA Survey of the Project SOAP (Study on OA Publishing, 2009-2010 ) ONLINE SURVEY 40.000 scientists 90% declare that OA is a benefit MAIN OBSTACLES 5.000 scientists Financial barriers OA (39%) No quality OA journals (30%) NEED TO CREATE AWARENESS ON OA MODELS 35 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 36. BIOMED CENTRAL OA publisher for biomedicine Today 320 peer reviewed journals, most with IF Author keeps copyright Articles have high visibility (indexed in PubMed) Preservation is guaranteed PAGES CHARGES 36 BMC Medicine (IF 5.75)  P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 37. PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE www.plos.org OPEN LETTER Free circulation of research results In October 2000 Free access to publicly funded research results 7 6 4 2 Journals Currents Blog Network Hubs Publication fee 1350 $ per article 37 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 38. THE HYBRID MODEL AUTHOR PAYS to have his article OA Peer review is the same in OA and non OA articles SPRINGER OPEN CHOICE (Euros 2000) 38 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 39. NEW MODELS ARE TESTED Articles are published online after revision : “ahead of publication” but public debate was allowed even before the review process Atmospheric chemistry and physics discussions 39 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 40. Nature Precedings A persistent and citable archive of preliminary results Voting is intended to be an informal way of showing support for a researcher's work Nature journals will consider manuscripts that have already been circulated as preprints, but some other publishers will not 40 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 41. EDITORIAL PROCESS. Basic elements The editorial process is a communication process: an agreement among sender and and receiver having the objective of transmitting knowledge CHANNELL Code Sender MESSAGE Feedback 41 Receiver noise
    • 42. Actors of the EDITORIAL PROCESS authors editors publishers readers • Referees • Technical editors • Translators • Graphic designers • Photographers • Printers • Web masters • Librarians • Information specialists Be aware of the role of each actor in the process to be able to understand and comply with their requirements 42 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 43. RESPONSIBILITIES To be pointed out in T2 courses AUTHORS •Develop useful contents •Select the appropriate document type •Read instructions to authors •Provide all information required by editors •Do not cheat Etc. EDITORS •Organize and validate information •Garantee publication integrity •Create useful journals •Write instructions for authors •Specify steps of the editorial process Etc. 43 REFEREES •Guarantee quality of published papers •Declare conflicts of interest •Comply with schedules •Respect privacy and confidentiality Etc.
    • 44. SCIENTIFIC EDITING inside an editorial office Receiving manuscripts First evaluation by editor in chief Peer review (reviewers/authors, reviewers, editor) Editor in chief (acceptance/modification/ rejection) Scientific editing – graphics (correction of drafts) Receiving proofs Article final copy Complete issue (including all articles) oda T 44 ll th ya is is line on Blueprint Online dissemination Print
    • 45. WRITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE a challange between tradition and innovation WARNING! BE AWARE OF EDITORIAL RULES AND BEST PRACTICES 1. 2. 3. evaluate scientific content and target be familiar with technical requirements be familiar with the publication ethics FORMATS OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES 45 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012
    • 46. SUMMARY of the main points Publication of scientific output is part of the research process and plays a basic role for science development Scientific communication has a direct influence of science policies which, in turn, have a direct impact on public health and population well-being Thanks to Internet, wide dissemination of scientific information (incluging data) is possible, economic models are changing, new metrics are possible Progress is reached through a mix of REALISM and IDEALISM: consider tradition and test new models NECOBELAC can contribute to develop scientific communication through new collaborations between Europe and Latin America 46 P. De Castro - NECOBELAC T1 Course • Scientific journals - Dublin, May 9, 2012

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