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Communication protocols

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Communication protocols,Embedded communication Protocols

Communication protocols,Embedded communication Protocols


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  • 1. Communication Protocols www.pantechsolutions.net
  • 2. Communication ProtocolsOutline RS232/422/485 1-wire, I2C, SPI, Microwire Bluetooth, Zigbee RFid Ethernet
  • 3. Communication ProtocolsParallel Bus.. Advantages • High speed • High throughput: Several bits are transmitted • on one clock transition • Low cost Disadvantages • Large number of microcontroller pins that needed for implementing the parallel bus Consists of multiple digital inputs/outputs.  4-bit  8-bit ( e.g. Centronics )  16-bit ( e.g. ISA )  32-bit ( e.g. PCI )
  • 4. Communication ProtocolsParallel Bus Example LCD Interface – 4-bit Example LCD Interface – 8-bit
  • 5. Communication Protocols Asynchronous • 1-wire • RS232 • RS422/485 • Ethernet Synchronous • 2-wire(I2C • 4-wire(SPI, Microwire) Serial Bus
  • 6. Communication Protocols1-Wire Originated by Dallas Semiconductor ( now part of MAXIM ) to address a variety of peripherals, sensors, and memory chips from a single wire interface ( DATA and Ground ). One signal wire carries both operating power and signal. Usually the network is built using a wire pair where one wire carries the signal and power and the other wire is ground. The system is sensitive to the right timing to operate well.
  • 7. Communication Protocols1-wire Advantages • Multiple slave devices can be accessed with only 2 wires • Low-cost • Implemented in hardware or software • Ease to implement, many examples • Relatively long distance. Theoretically 300 meters • but this is limited in practice due to noise and cable capacitance Disadvantages • Slow speed • 1-wire slave devices typically has to come from one source: Dallas Semiconductor
  • 8. Communication ProtocolsRS-232 Advantages • Popular interface with many examples • Many compatible legacy devices • Relatively long distance, 50 feet maximum for low baud rates although longer distances work in practice, with low baud rates and error correction • Immune to noise due to +/-5 Volts or higher voltage levels for logic “0” and “1”
  • 9. Communication ProtocolsRS-232 Disadvantages • More suitable for system to system communications, not so much for chip to chip or chip to sensor • Low speed for long distance, 115200 baud can be achieved with small microcontrollers using short distances • Requires transceiver chips which add to system cost ( TTL/CMOS level RS232 can be used without transceiver chips ). • Single master/single slave
  • 10. Communication ProtocolsUART – ARM7(LPC21xx) RxDn UART n Interface Maximum possible speed of the UART 3.75 Mbps CTS RTS UART 1 Interface DTR DCD DTR RI TxD1 Modem Interface signals RxD1 UART 3 on LPC2300/2400 has IrDA mode
  • 11. Communication ProtocolsRS-232
  • 12. Communication Protocols Advantages • Very long distance, thousands of feet • Widely used in industrial automation • Higher speeds beyond 115200 baud Disadvantages • More suitable for system to system communications, not so much for chip to chip or chip to sensor • Requires transceiver chips and twisted pair cable with terminating resistors which add to system cost. RS 485 Any station can communicate with any other station, but not at the same time.
  • 13. Communication ProtocolsEthernet Advantages • Very high speed ( 10Mbit to 100Mbit/s ) • Very long distance, hundreds of feet can be achieved, more with hubs and switches, Immune to noise • Widely used in industrial automation due to noise immunity Disadvantages • Cost • More suitable for system to system comm.,, not so much for chip to chip/sensor • Requires Ethernet chipset, transformer, jack, special cabling that add to system cost. • Complicated to implement • High code footprint
  • 14. Communication ProtocolsEthernet – 10 Mbit Networking
  • 15. Communication Protocols 4-wire interface with one master and multiple slaves. Signals: DATA IN, DATA OUT, CLOCK, CS( Chip Select ) Originated by Motorola, SPI bus is a relatively simple synchronous serial interface for connecting low speed external devices using minimal number of wires. SPI is full duplex: Data is simultaneously transmitted and received. SPI
  • 16. Communication ProtocolsSPI Advantages • Multiple slave devices can be accessed with only few wires • Low-cost • Implemented in hardware or software • Ease to implement, many examples • Can be high speed (e.g.4MHz or higher if implemented in hardware) Disadvantages • Short distance • Data and clock lines can be shared but each device requires a separate Chip Select • Signal, limiting the number of devices in • limited I/O systems
  • 17. Communication ProtocolsSPI
  • 18. Communication Protocols MISO MOSI SPICLK SS SPI Interface Maximum possible speed of the SPI 7.5 Mbits/sec SPI – ARM7(LPC21xx)
  • 19. Communication ProtocolsI2C 2-wire interface with one master and multiple slaves ( multi- master configurations possible ). Originated by Philips Semiconductor in the early 80’s to connect a microcontroller to peripheral devices in TV sets.
  • 20. Communication ProtocolsI2C Advantages • Multiple slave devices can be accessed with only 3 wires • Low-cost to implement • Implemented in hardware or software • Ease to implement, many examples • Supports multi-master configuration Disadvantages • Short distance • Slow speed: 100 KHz although 400 KHz and 1 MHz slave devise exist. These can not coexist with slower devices. • Limited device addresses
  • 21. Communication Protocols SDA SCL I2C Interface1 Maximum possible speed of the I2C 400Kbits/sec SDA SCL I2C Interface n Some devices have multiple I2C interfaces IIC Interfaces
  • 22. Communication Protocols