Basics of embedded systems

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Basics of embedded systems

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  • © 2001 United Technologies
  • © 2001 United Technologies
  • © 2001 United Technologies
  • © 2001 United Technologies One of the areas Wind River has seen tremendous growth is in the area of the build-out of the Internet infrastructure and consumer appliances. Everything is getting connected . But this requirement is not unique to just the commercial industry. We know that one of the challenges within the military is to have all the platforms connected as well. Looking at this diagram, we can see that the Pentagon acts as a backend and command control that some of the data acquisition and platforms such as AWACS (Air Warning and Control System) connect to. Then on the periphery we have all our platforms, such as submarines in the Navy, land vehicles in the Army, and various avionics platforms for the Air Force, to name a few.
  • © 2001 United Technologies In addition – just as in the commercial space – the military/aerospace community is increasingly challenged by the amount of software complexity that is being built into their platforms. For example, in 1980, there might have been a single kernel device running on an F16 or F4 aircraft. In the early ‘90’s we saw things like file systems and networks being built, and today we see all kinds of interconnectivity, advanced networking stacks, browsers, and capability being built into the platforms.
  • Basics of embedded systems

    1. 1. An Insight into Embedded System Design www.pantechsolutions.net
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Application Areas </li></ul><ul><li>ESD Development Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    3. 3. Intelligent Systems <ul><li>What is Embedded System in General? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a combination of Computer Hardware, Software and perhaps additional Mechanical Parts, designed to perform a Specific Function. </li></ul><ul><li>Gadgets are increasingly becoming Intelligent and Autonomous. </li></ul><ul><li>The Intelligence of these Smart Devices resides in Embedded Systems. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Desktop Vs Embedded System <ul><li>In contrast to Desktops that performs a Variety of Tasks, an Embedded System performs a Single, Well-Defined Task. </li></ul><ul><li>The System has a Processor, Associated Peripherals, and Software for a Specific Purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, in a Mobile Phone the Embedded Processor needs to Process Voice (to Send and Receive Speech Signals) as well as implement Communication Protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hardware is Custom Built for the Specific Purpose. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Application Areas </li></ul><ul><li>ESD Development Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    6. 6. 5 Key Markets Network Infrastructure Digital Consumer Aerospace & Defense Industrial Automotive © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved Reliability Development Tools Core OS Middleware Communications Security Management Services
    7. 7. Generalization of Application Areas <ul><li>Embedded Systems cover such a broad range of products that generalization is difficult. Here are some broad categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerospace and Defense Electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast and Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer and Internet Appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Measurement and Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Data Infrastructures etc. </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    8. 8. Digital Consumer Markets <ul><li>Broadband Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable, xDSL modems, Home Gateways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home Media Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Digital TV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable, Satellite and Terrestrial STBs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HDTVs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Imaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Cameras, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers, MFPs, Scanners, Fax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile & Handheld </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio/Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web-Tablets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen phones </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    9. 9. In The Connected Home Media Server Gateway © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved Apple Airport II with iMac Sharp NC20 Internet Screen Phone Sony AirBoard IDT-LF1 Wireless Internet TV CMI Digital IceBox Kitchen Appliance Polaroid Ceiva Internet Picture Frame Toshiba SD-9200 DVD Player Fuji Film FinePix 40i Digital Camera Compaq iPaq Music Center Digital Jukebox Sony NW-E3 Network Walkman B&O HDTV
    10. 10. Industrial Market and Applications <ul><li>Industrial Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconductor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steel production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste & water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper & pulp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Building Automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved <ul><li>Power Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load Balancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart transducers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oscilloscopes </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Market Trends <ul><li>Emissions Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization (smart cards) </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    12. 12. Automotive Electronics <ul><li>Infotainment </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>CD </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Toll payment </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite radio </li></ul><ul><li>Telematic transceiver </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved <ul><li>Consumer Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone/pager </li></ul><ul><li>PDA </li></ul><ul><li>Headset </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Hood </li></ul><ul><li>Engine </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>ABS, VSC, TC </li></ul><ul><li>Airbags </li></ul><ul><li>Cruise control </li></ul><ul><li>HVAC </li></ul><ul><li>Security and entry </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic tolls </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular (2G,2.5G,3G) </li></ul><ul><li>Transponders (to the roadside & home) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Market Structure © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved <ul><li>Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li>OnStar </li></ul><ul><li>Wingcast </li></ul><ul><li>TeleAid </li></ul><ul><li>Targa </li></ul><ul><li>Vodofone </li></ul><ul><li>DoCoMo </li></ul><ul><li>Tier-1 Auto Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi, Bosch, Visteon, Denso, Siemens, Becker,… </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Product Co’s </li></ul><ul><li>Sony, Pioneer, Alpine, Clarion, Thales,… </li></ul>Suppliers <ul><li>Vehicle OEM’s </li></ul><ul><li>GM, Ford, Daimler, BMW, Toyota,… </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Radio </li></ul><ul><li>XM Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Sirius </li></ul>
    14. 14. Fiat Research Center <ul><li>Fiat CRF Sysnet: Driver and passenger multimedia services </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    15. 15. Example Application: Fuel Cell Engine Controller <ul><li>Company: XCellsis Fuel Cell Engines </li></ul><ul><li>Application: Fuel Cell Engine Controller (heavy-duty transit bus) </li></ul><ul><li>Description: Fuel cell engine controller regulates power output from hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>fuel cells to drive train for a heavy-duty bus application. </li></ul><ul><li>Target CPU: MPC555 </li></ul><ul><li>Memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26KB RAM (internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>448 KB flash (internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devices Used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QADC (A/D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QSPI (on-board serial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCI (RS232) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIOS </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    16. 16. Aerospace and Defense Everything is Getting Connected © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    17. 17. Increased Software Complexity Browser/GUI Java Advanced Interconnect Advanced Networking High Availability Memory Management Multiprocessing File System Network Kernel X Windows WindNet Memory Management Multiprocessing File System Network Kernel File System Network Kernel Kernel Application and Kernel 100 000 lines of code Application and Kernel 1 000 000+ lines of code © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved 1980 1990 1996 1999
    18. 18. The Top Architectures © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    19. 19. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Application Areas </li></ul><ul><li>ESD Development Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    20. 20. The embedded development SW DEVELOPMENT HW DEVELOPMENT SW SELECTION HW SELECTION INTEGRATION TESTING & TUNING DEPLOYMENT Compiler RTOSs Networking Protocols Java Support Graphics Support Project & Code Mgmt. RTOS Simulation Rapid Prototyping Real-time Data Visualization Memory Leak Detection CPU Profiling Post-mortem Debug Semiconductor Co-funded Development Hardware Coverage Board Bring-Up Board Diagnostics & Manufacturing Test Source-level Debugging Real-time System Analysis & Triggering Execution Tracing Code Coverage Analysis In-field Debugging © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    21. 21. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Application Areas </li></ul><ul><li>ESD Development Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Microcontroller </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    22. 22. Choosing a Microcontroller © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    23. 23. Growth of 32-bit market © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved | www.panetchsolutions.net
    24. 24. Basics of Designing a system <ul><li>Market Analyzes Market Needs/Drivers & Develops New Product specification </li></ul><ul><li>Environment sensors, Motors, LCD Display, Keypad, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Determines what functions required of microcontroller to meet specification </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Team searches for MCU & other system components that will deliver End System to specification. </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    25. 25. Choosing a Microcontroller <ul><li>Up-Front System Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feature requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation Boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Hardware Vs Software </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of MCU </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    26. 26. Choosing a Microcontroller: Parametric Aspects <ul><li>Features / On-chip Peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>ADC </li></ul><ul><li>DAC </li></ul><ul><li>Analog Comparator </li></ul><ul><li>PWM </li></ul><ul><li>LCD Control </li></ul><ul><li>Timers </li></ul><ul><li>JTAG </li></ul><ul><li>I/Os </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved <ul><li>Communication Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Package </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Pins </li></ul>
    27. 27. Choosing a Microcontroller : Parametric Aspects <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep Modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt Latency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Demands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    28. 28. Choosing a Microcontroller : Other Aspects <ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>-Personal Experience </li></ul><ul><li>-Senior Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>-Device </li></ul><ul><li>-Volume </li></ul><ul><li>-Software Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDE, Debugger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compiler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Available Kits </li></ul><ul><li>-Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>-Development </li></ul><ul><li>-Reference Design </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    29. 29. Choosing a Microcontroller : Other Aspects <ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White papers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Designs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example code, User Guide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Errata sheet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apps Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response Times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portability / Scalability </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    30. 30. Selection of Processors MICROPROCESSORS/ MICROCONTROLLERS DSP CPLD/FPGA GENERAL PURPOSE PROCESSORS © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    31. 31. Selection of Packages DIP QFP BGA PLCC SOLDERING IRON SOLDERING STATION OVEN © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    32. 32. Hardware design flow © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    33. 33. Software Design Flow © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved Evaluation Emulation Simulation
    34. 34. I/O : Serial Interfaces <ul><li>Allow communication with other devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USB(Universal Serial Bus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN(Controller Area Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPI(Serial Peripheral Interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I2C(Inter Integrated Circuit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UART(Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIN(Local Interconnect Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also wireless interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zigbee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    35. 35. On-Chip Peripherals <ul><li>Timer </li></ul><ul><li>LCD Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Touchscreen Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Keypad Controller </li></ul><ul><li>GPIO pins </li></ul><ul><li>A/D Converter </li></ul><ul><li>D/A Converter </li></ul><ul><li>Analog Comparator </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse Width Modulator(PWM) </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    36. 36. Licensed Cores <ul><li>8051 (MCS-51) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-NXP, Atmel, Silicon Labs, Dallas/Maxim, Infineon, ST, Rabbit, and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ARM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-NXP, ST, Luminary Micro, Freescale, Atmel, Samsung, Texas Instruments, OKI, Energy Micro, and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microchip </li></ul></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved
    37. 37. Broad Range Vendors <ul><li>Renesas </li></ul><ul><li>Freescale </li></ul><ul><li>Infineon </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>ST Microelectronics </li></ul><ul><li>NEC </li></ul><ul><li>Microchip </li></ul><ul><li>Atmel </li></ul><ul><li>Fujitsu </li></ul><ul><li>Samsung </li></ul><ul><li>NXP </li></ul><ul><li>Toshiba </li></ul>© 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved <ul><li>Luminary Micro </li></ul><ul><li>Cyan </li></ul><ul><li>Maxim/Dallas </li></ul><ul><li>Cypress </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Micro </li></ul><ul><li>Analog Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Jennic </li></ul><ul><li>Zilog </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit </li></ul><ul><li>…… and many more </li></ul>
    38. 38. © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved | www.panetchsolutions.net
    39. 39. © 2008 Pantech Solutions™ | All rights reserved

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