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Social Network Analysis
Patti Anklam
Columbia IKNS 4305 Unit 3
April 2013
I’ve become convinced that understanding
how networks work is an essential 21st
century literacy.
Howard Rheingold
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Agenda
―The language of networks
―Networks in organizations
3
Social Network Analysis
I...
The New Language of Networks
http://www.dftdigest.com/images/Spyglass.jpg
We live in networks all the time
5
• We live in networks all the time:
communities, organizations,
teams
• There is scienc...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
The Premise: Networks Matter
• The complexity of work in today’s
world is such that no ...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
The Importance of Understanding Networks
7
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
The new science of networks
• Beginning in the 1990’s computer
science made it possible...
Network Perspective
9
• If it’s a network, you can map it:
– People-people
– Group-group
– Within organizations
– Across o...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Rob Cross’s Classic Case
10
From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, ...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
A Classic Case
11
From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bas...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
A Classic Case
From: The Hidden Power of SocialNetworks, Rob Cross and Andrew Parker, H...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
A Classic Case
13
From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bas...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
A Classic Case
14
From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bas...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
It’s all about Questions
15
Patterns provide
insights that provoke
good questions.
Full...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Map Patterns
Multi-Hub Hub and Spoke
Stove-piped (Siloed) Core/Periphery
16
The Unit of Analysis: The Relationship
17
Different Questions, Different Maps
18
“I interact with this person somewhat
frequently”
“I understand this person’s knowl...
• Look at the whole network
and its components
Network Analysis Also Provides Metrics
• Look at positions of
individuals i...
Structural Metrics
20
• Common measures:
–Density of interactions
–Average degree of separation
–Cross-group or cross-orga...
Interpreting Results
21
“I interact with this person twice a month
or more”
I understand this person’s knowledge and
skill...
How the Metrics Enhance the Maps
2010
2011
Year # Density Avg #
ties
2009 55 2.2% 1.2
2010 90 2.7% 2.4
2011 85 5.3% 4.5
20...
Centrality Metrics
23
Look at positions of individuals in the network
• Good for identifying people who are well
positione...
Identifying Key People
24
Who are the people who are best positioned to move information through the network?
In-degree: 1...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Positional Sleuthing in ONA
• Based on this data:
• Who should Jerry
appoint as his
suc...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
AB
DG
KF
KS
MK
NM
NS
PM
PP
RC
RR
SK
Diversity
• Organization
• Expertise
• Age, Tenure
...
The Importance of Diversity
People who live in the intersection of social
worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas. ...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Detecting Diversity
• Who is more likely to have
access to new ideas?
– Tom
– Marion
• ...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
KM Interventions
Ways to change patterns in
networks
Practices from the KM Repertoire
C...
Organizational Networks Summary
30
• The science of networks has brought insights into the structure
of organizational net...
Introduction to Organizational, Social,
and Network Analysis Tools
http://quilting.about.com/od/picturesofquilts/ig/Alzhei...
Basic Terminology
• Node: an individual person in the
network. Sometimes called a vertex.
• Tie: a relationship between tw...
Basic Terminology
• Degree: The number of ties a node
has is its degree, which can be
distinguished between in-degree
and ...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Basics of Network Map
Core
Periphery
Isolates
Structural Hole
Cluster
Math Behind the Science
• Relationships (ties) among people
(nodes) can be analyzed:
– Distances between nodes (and
averag...
What Sorts of Tools Are There?
36
• Range in complexity of
function & cost
• Let you access and map
your own network
Socia...
Mapping and Analysis Tools
Tool Basics – The Questions
• Improve collaboration
• Finding connectors and
influencers in organizations and
communities
...
Tool Basics – the Dataset
39
Information about the nodes (vertices) and the ties (edges)
Load and Draw…
40
Short List of Resources for SNA/ONA Tools
41
http://tinyurl.com/SNA-ONA-Tools
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Network Insights Don’t Require Fancy Software
• If it’s a network, you can draw it.
42
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Our Networks and Social Media
43
http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Where’s Kate?
44
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Facebook
45
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Understanding Your Personal Network
46
Focus Purpose How to Develop
Operational Getting...
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
The PNA (Personal Network Assessment)
47
Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013
Summary
• Social network analysis tools and methods are available to map
organizational...
Question
• patti@pattianklam.com
•http://www.pattianklam.com
Thank you.
49
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Social Network Analysis & an Introduction to Tools

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This presentation was delivered as part of an intense knowledge management curriculum. It covers the basics of network analysis and then goes into the different types of tool that support analyzing networks.

Published in: Business, Education, Technology

Transcript of "Social Network Analysis & an Introduction to Tools"

  1. 1. Social Network Analysis Patti Anklam Columbia IKNS 4305 Unit 3 April 2013
  2. 2. I’ve become convinced that understanding how networks work is an essential 21st century literacy. Howard Rheingold
  3. 3. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Agenda ―The language of networks ―Networks in organizations 3 Social Network Analysis Introduction to tools for social, organizational, and personal network analysis
  4. 4. The New Language of Networks http://www.dftdigest.com/images/Spyglass.jpg
  5. 5. We live in networks all the time 5 • We live in networks all the time: communities, organizations, teams • There is science to support the understanding of network structure • The structure of a network provides insights into how the network “works” • Once you understand the structure, you can make decisions about how to manage the network’s context • Network analysis tools help you understand the structure
  6. 6. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 The Premise: Networks Matter • The complexity of work in today’s world is such that no one can understand – let alone complete – a task alone – Individual-individual – Team-team – Company-company – Eco-system to eco-system • Strong networks are correlated with health: – People with stronger personal networks are more productive, happier, and better performers – Companies who know how to manage alliances are more flexible, adaptive and resilient – Our personal health and well-being is often tied to our social networks 6
  7. 7. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 The Importance of Understanding Networks 7
  8. 8. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 The new science of networks • Beginning in the 1990’s computer science made it possible to map and analyze large social networks. 2002 2002 2002 2003 2004 2004 2009 2009 • By 2009, network science and analysis are accepted practice in science and management • Insights became accessible to the public. 8
  9. 9. Network Perspective 9 • If it’s a network, you can map it: – People-people – Group-group – Within organizations – Across organizations • A network is a collection of entities linked by a type of relationship • All networks have common properties and can be analyzed – Information artifacts – Ideas & issues Node Tie
  10. 10. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Rob Cross’s Classic Case 10 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  11. 11. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 A Classic Case 11 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  12. 12. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 A Classic Case From: The Hidden Power of SocialNetworks, Rob Cross and Andrew Parker, Harvard Business School Press, 2004 12 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  13. 13. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 A Classic Case 13 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  14. 14. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 A Classic Case 14 From: The OrganizationalNetwork Fieldbook,Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010
  15. 15. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 It’s all about Questions 15 Patterns provide insights that provoke good questions. Full stop.
  16. 16. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Map Patterns Multi-Hub Hub and Spoke Stove-piped (Siloed) Core/Periphery 16
  17. 17. The Unit of Analysis: The Relationship 17
  18. 18. Different Questions, Different Maps 18 “I interact with this person somewhat frequently” “I understand this person’s knowledge and skills “ (Agree or Strongly Agree)
  19. 19. • Look at the whole network and its components Network Analysis Also Provides Metrics • Look at positions of individuals in the network Centrality Metrics Structural Metrics 19
  20. 20. Structural Metrics 20 • Common measures: –Density of interactions –Average degree of separation –Cross-group or cross-organization connectivity • Good for comparing questions, groups within networks or for comparing changes in a network over time Look at the whole network and its components
  21. 21. Interpreting Results 21 “I interact with this person twice a month or more” I understand this person’s knowledge and skills (Agree or Strongly Agree) Density: 11% Distance: 2.7 Density: 28% Distance: 1.8
  22. 22. How the Metrics Enhance the Maps 2010 2011 Year # Density Avg # ties 2009 55 2.2% 1.2 2010 90 2.7% 2.4 2011 85 5.3% 4.5 2012 82 8% 6.88 2009 2012 22
  23. 23. Centrality Metrics 23 Look at positions of individuals in the network • Good for identifying people who are well positioned to influence the network or to move information around • Common measures: –Number of connections –Frequency of occurrence on paths between others –Diversity of connections
  24. 24. Identifying Key People 24 Who are the people who are best positioned to move information through the network? In-degree: 16 Betweenness: 1125 In-degree: 5 Betweenness: 586 In-degree: 11 Betweenness: 469 In-degree: 9 Betweenness: 415
  25. 25. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Positional Sleuthing in ONA • Based on this data: • Who should Jerry appoint as his successor? • Who do you think Jerry actually appointed as his successor? Why? 25
  26. 26. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 AB DG KF KS MK NM NS PM PP RC RR SK Diversity • Organization • Expertise • Age, Tenure 26 AB AL BG DC GP MB PM SA • Social Ties • Geographic location • Hierarchical position
  27. 27. The Importance of Diversity People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas. – Ron Burt 27
  28. 28. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Detecting Diversity • Who is more likely to have access to new ideas? – Tom – Marion • Why? 28
  29. 29. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 KM Interventions Ways to change patterns in networks Practices from the KM Repertoire Create more connections Make introductions through meetings and webinars, face-to-face events (like knowledge fairs); implement social software or social network referral software; social network stimulation Increase the flow of knowledge Establish collaborative workspaces, install instant messaging systems, make existing knowledge bases more accessible and usable Discover connections Implement expertise location and/or; discovery systems; social software; social networking applications Decentralize Social software; blogs, wikis; shift knowledge to the edge Connect disconnected clusters Establish knowledge brokering roles; expand communication channels Create more trusted relationships Assign people to work on projects together Alter the behavior of individual nodes Create awareness of the impact of an individual’s place in a network; educate employees on personal knowledge networking Increase diversity Add nodes; connect and create networks; encourage people to bring knowledge in from their networks in the world 29
  30. 30. Organizational Networks Summary 30 • The science of networks has brought insights into the structure of organizational networks • Organizational network analysis lets us map relationships that reveal the informal networks through which work gets done • Developing and sharing these maps helps organizations improve collaborative capacity, overcome obstacles to effective sharing, and redesign their work relationships • Results are a guide to asking good questions and should never be interpreted as an “answer”
  31. 31. Introduction to Organizational, Social, and Network Analysis Tools http://quilting.about.com/od/picturesofquilts/ig/Alzheimer-s-Quilts/The-Ties-that-Bind.htm
  32. 32. Basic Terminology • Node: an individual person in the network. Sometimes called a vertex. • Tie: a relationship between two nodes. Sometimes called a link, sometimes an edge. • Ties are either directed, in which case the arrows provide “from – to” information, or undirected • The complete set of nodes and ties is often called the social graph, or simply the graph Nodes and ties: the graph
  33. 33. Basic Terminology • Degree: The number of ties a node has is its degree, which can be distinguished between in-degree and out-degree. Node B has an in-degree of 4. Node E has an out-degree of 2 • Path: The sequence of ties and nodes between one node and another. Node D has two paths to Node C • Path length: number of degrees between two nodes. Often called the distance between two nodes. Paths and degrees
  34. 34. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Basics of Network Map Core Periphery Isolates Structural Hole Cluster
  35. 35. Math Behind the Science • Relationships (ties) among people (nodes) can be analyzed: – Distances between nodes (and averages) – Centrality of nodes – Average density of interactions • Mathematical formulas identify patterns, clusters, cliques
  36. 36. What Sorts of Tools Are There? 36 • Range in complexity of function & cost • Let you access and map your own network Social Media Applications Tools Designed for SNA/ONA Specialized assessment instruments • PNA (personal network assessment) tool offers individualized results
  37. 37. Mapping and Analysis Tools
  38. 38. Tool Basics – The Questions • Improve collaboration • Finding connectors and influencers in organizations and communities • Leadership development • Performance benchmarking • Integration of units following merger/acquisition Problem (Examples) Relationships of Interest • Access to expertise • Innovative & capacity • Collaborative capacity • Ease of knowledge flow • Decision-making and task flow • Innovation potential • Energy Shares new ideas with Seeks help for problem-solvingWorks closely with Knows expertise of Questions: the art of the network analysis
  39. 39. Tool Basics – the Dataset 39 Information about the nodes (vertices) and the ties (edges)
  40. 40. Load and Draw… 40
  41. 41. Short List of Resources for SNA/ONA Tools 41 http://tinyurl.com/SNA-ONA-Tools
  42. 42. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Network Insights Don’t Require Fancy Software • If it’s a network, you can draw it. 42
  43. 43. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Our Networks and Social Media 43 http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/
  44. 44. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Where’s Kate? 44
  45. 45. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Facebook 45
  46. 46. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Understanding Your Personal Network 46 Focus Purpose How to Develop Operational Getting work done efficiently Identify people who can block or support a project Personal Develop and maintain professional skills and reputation Participate in professional associations, clubs, and physical and online communities Strategic Figure out and obtain support for future priorities and challenges Identify lateral and vertical relationships outside your immediate control Source: “How Leaders Create and Use Networks,” Herminia Ibarra and Mark Hunter, Harvard Business Review January 2007
  47. 47. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 The PNA (Personal Network Assessment) 47
  48. 48. Columbia IKNS Residency April 2013 Summary • Social network analysis tools and methods are available to map organizational as well as the individual’s personal network • The tools matter less than the network mindset – and the understanding that the structure of a network matters 48
  49. 49. Question • patti@pattianklam.com •http://www.pattianklam.com Thank you. 49
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