Towards application development for the internet of things updated

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The Internet of Things (IoT) integrates the physical world with the existing Internet, and is rapidly gaining popularity, thanks to the increased adoption of smart phones and sensing devices. One of …

The Internet of Things (IoT) integrates the physical world with the existing Internet, and is rapidly gaining popularity, thanks to the increased adoption of smart phones and sensing devices. One of the important challenges in this domain is to enable domain experts to easily specify applications for the IoT. As a
fi rst step towards developing a suitable programming
abstraction, in this paper we present a domain
model for applications in the Internet of Things, based on a
survey of recently proposed IoT applications from the real
world that represent a wide class of behaviors found in IoT
use cases.

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  • 1. Towards ApplicationDevelopment for the Internet ofThingsPankesh Patel, Animesh Pathak, Thiago Teixeira, and Valérie IssarnyARLES project-teamINRIA Paris-RocquencourtLisbon, December 12, 2011
  • 2. ``Things’’: Salient Features• May have sensors attached.• May have actuator attached.• Can communicate with other Things.• Can be involved in the information exchange between real/physical and ``digital/virtual’’ world. [IoTRoadMap] [IoTRoadMap] De Saint-Exupery, Internet of things, strategic research roadmap, Research report 2009. (URL: http://ec. europa. eu/information—society/policy/rfid/documents/in—. cerp. Pdf ) 2
  • 3. Internet of Things (IoT) ``A global network infrastructure that connects physical and virtual things” [CASAGRAS Project].[CASAGRAS Project] : http://www.rfidglobal.eu/userfiles/documents/CASAGRAS26022009.pdfFigure credit : http://www.leaderstudio.net/iot/images/internet-of-things.jpg 3
  • 4. IoT– Application Domains• Intelligent buildings • Automatic energy metering • Home automation • Wireless monitoring• Medical technology, Healthcare,• Retail, Logistics, Supply chain management• Environment monitoring• … 4
  • 5. Outline • Motivation • Related work • Initial research contributions • Behaviours in IoT applications • IoT domain model • Related work in IoT domain model • Concluding Remarks • Future work 5
  • 6. Motivation• Domain experts have to deal with • low-level system issues • low-level design of distributed protocols• Requires considerable CS background• Shifts their focus from application logic 6
  • 7. Previously addressed in:Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)• Hundreds to thousands of largely similar devices• Typically deployed in limited geographical area• Focus mostly on scale Figure credit : http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/~nchohan/rrc/, http://www.ece.cmu.edu/~agr/projects/saga/ 7
  • 8. Previously addressed in:Pervasive/ Ubiquitous computing• Focus mostly on heterogeneous devices. Figure credit : http://203crjameshowe.blogspot.com/2008/10/203cr-designing-for-usability-2-studio.html 8
  • 9. Origin of Challenges in Internet of Things • Heterogeneity • Diverse devices, many manufactures, different data types • Large scale • Millions of devices , very large amount of data, millions of users 9
  • 10. Goal of Our Research``Provide programming abstractions that allowdomain experts in the IoT to specify applicationsinvolving rich interactions among a large number ofheterogeneous devices’’. 10
  • 11. First step : Important Initial Questions 1. What are the key concepts in the domain ? 2. What are the associations (or relationships) among identified concepts? Answer : Domain Model (DM)[OldeldDM][OldeldDM] P. Oldeld. Domain Modelling. Technical report, Appropriate ProcessGroup, 2002. 11
  • 12. DM Benefits :Creates Common Understanding• IoT terms - with different meaning by different people • leads to confusion and hinders scientific discourse [Haller2010, IoTA]• DM provides common lexicon • Useful to domain experts, programmers , researchers.[Haller2010] S. Haller. The Things in the Internet of Things. IoT 2010 Poster Session.Tokyo, Japan, November, 2010.[IoTA] IoT-A Project: http://www.iot-a.eu 12
  • 13. DM Benefits :Enables Modular Design• DM clearly identifies capabilities of each concepts.• Application requirements tend to arrive in terms of behaviour [OldeldDM]. They can be broken down into concepts. Computational Sensor Physical entity and Actuation Sense the temeprature of a room and keep it steady 13
  • 14. DM Benefits : Models Invariant Properties • Models invariant associations [IoTA, SENSEI] – not change from one application to other. 1 Hosts * Device: Sensor:Application 1 Smart Phone Light Sensor Device: 1 Hosts * Sensor:Application 2 sunSPOT Temperature Sensor Invariant Association[IoTA] IoT-A Project: http://www.iot-a.eu/[SENSEI] SENSEI project: http://www.sensei-project.eu/ 14
  • 15. Our approach of Domain Model Construction App 11 App 10 App 1 App 12 Applications App 8 App 9 App 2 App 6 Classification App 7 App 3 of applications App 4 App 5 into behavioursBehaviour1 Behaviour3 c1 c2 c5 Behaviour2 c3 c4 c6 Identification of concepts c7 Our Domain Model 16
  • 16. Behaviours in the Internet of Things 17
  • 17. Data Collection• Smart things interact with user by stating information about themselves. • Periodically • on event • on demand• Found in • Patient monitoring [Niyato2009] • Food supply chain [Dada2008] • … [Niyato2009] D. Niyato, E. Hossain, and S. Camorlinga. Remote patient monitoring service using heterogeneous wireless access networks: architecture and optimization. Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, 27(4):412-423, may 2009. [Dada2008] A. Dada and F. Thiesse. Sensor applications in the supply chain: The example of quality-based issuing of perishables. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on The internet of things, pages 140-154. Springer-Verlag, 2008. 18
  • 18. Example: Talking with Plants [Botanicalls] • Plant notifies a user on his cell phone about whether it needs water. • Moisture sensor, Botanicalls device, Botanicalls service, Mobile phone, Twitter service, User • Also, precision agriculture [PresAg] [Botanicall] http://www.botanicalls.com/ [PresAg] http://www.precisionagriculture.com.au/
  • 19. Sense - Compute - Actuate• Smart things interact with each other at either in the local network or through the Internet.• They take corrective actions [Mattern2010] with no human originator, recipient or intermediary.• It may prompt users as required.• Found in • Optimizing power consumption costs [Buckl2009] • Work place safety [SENSEI] • … [Mattern2010] F. Mattern and C. Floerkemeier. From the Internet of Computers to the Internet of Things. From active data management to event-based systems and more, Springer pages 242- 259, 2010. [Buckl209] C. Buckl, S. Sommer, A. Scholz, A. Knoll, A. Kemper, J. Heuer, and A. Schmitt. Services to the eld: An approach for resource constrained sensor/actor networks. In International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops, pages 476-481. IEEE, 2009. 20
  • 20. Sense-Compute-Actuate Example:maintain temperature in room.[ParaHVAC] Temperature node Heater User enters Preferences [ParaHVAC] M. Feldmeier and J. Paradiso. Personalized HVAC control system. In Internet of Things (IOT), pages 1 -8, 29-dec., 2010. 21
  • 21. Intermittent Sensing• Centred around tag • RFID • (1D) Barcode • QR- code• Mostly in applications where things have an information shadow[ValhoIoT] on the Internet• Found in • Tourist information[RellTourist ] • Mobile ticketing[BroPerci] • ...[ValhoIoT] C. A. Valhouli. The Internet of Things: Networked Objects and Smart Devices. Technical report, the hammersmithgroup, February2011.[RellTourist D. Reilly, M. Welsman-Dinelle, C. Bate, and K. Inkpen. Just point and click?: using handhelds to interact with paper maps. InProceedings of the 7th international conference on Human computer interaction with mobile devices & services, pages 239-242.ACM, 2005.[BroPerci] G. Broll, E. Rukzio, M. Paolucci, M. Wagner, A. Schmidt, and H. Humann. Perci: Pervasive service interaction with the Internet ofthings. Internet Computing, IEEE, 13(6):74- 81, 2009. 22
  • 22. Intermittent Sensing example: Reviewing consumer’s product [my2cents] When user wants to When user wants to read write other users’ comments, scan comments, writes barcode, queries to storage and sends to service. 2 storage service 3 1 User scans barcode through mobile device[my2cents] S. Karpischek and F. Michahelles. my2cents-Digitizingconsumer opinions and comments about retail products. InInternet of Things (IOT), 2010, pages 1-7. IEEE, 2010. 23
  • 23. Domain model of IoT 24
  • 24. Basic IoT InteractionEntity of real world objects.Interest e.g. room, book, plant User 30
  • 25. Sensing Observable property Entity of 1 Consists-of 1..* Interest Phenomenon of entity of interest 1..* e.g. temperature Observes 1 * Produces 1 Raw data Sensor 1 Accessed-by 1 Sensor driverRepresentation of sensor 1 generatesobservation, without no 1explicit meaning. E.g. 25 Sensor measurement Attach metadata to raw data. e.g. unit of measurement, time User of sensing 31
  • 26. Actuation 1..*Entity of 1 Consists-of 1..* affects PhenomenonInterest 1..* Observes 1 * * Produces 1 1 1 Perfoms Raw data Sensor Actuator Action 1 1 Accessed-by actuated-by 1 1 Actuator Sensor driver driver Translates actuation 1 1 generates command and triggers consumes 1 1 the actuator. Command Sensor measurement instruction that describes a desired outcome. e.g. Switch ON heater User 32
  • 27. Sensing and ActuationEntity of 1 Consists-of 1..* 1..* affectsInterest Phenomenon 1..* Observes 1 * * Produces 1 1 1 Perfoms Raw data Sensor Actuator Action 1 Accessed-by 1 Extends Extends actuated-by 1 1 Resource Sensor Actuator driver driver 1 It is a conceptual representation 1 generates consumes of a sensor or an actuator. 1 1 Command Sensor measurement Extends Extends It is any data that is meaningful by itself. Information User 33
  • 28. Role of Device as Resource Host 1 Consists-of 1..* 1..*Entity of affects PhenomenonInterest 1..* Observes 1 * * Produces 1 1 1 Perfoms Raw data Sensor Actuator Action 1 Accessed-by 1 Extends Extends actuated-by 1 1 Resource Sensor Actuator driver driver * 1 Hosts 1 Device 1 generates consumes 1 1 Command Sensor Provides the ability of measurement communication. e.g. mobile phone, tag Extends Extends readers, personal computer Information User 34
  • 29. Role of Device as software host 1..*Entity of 1 Consists-of 1..* affects PhenomenonInterest 1..* Observes 1 * * Produces 1 1 1 Perfoms Raw data Sensor Actuator Action 1 1 Accessed-by Extends Extends actuated-by 1 1 Resource Sensor Actuator driver driver * 1 Hosts 1 Device 1 generates consumes 1 1 1 Sensor Command measurement 1..* Runs-on Software Component Extends Extends User Information 36
  • 30. Software Components Encapsulate system’s functionalities , Provides interface Communicates-with * 1 consumes 1..* 1 Software Traditional 1 generates 1 Information ComponentInternet concepts Extends Extends Extends Extends End-user Storage Computational Driver Application Service service 1 1 Interacts Provides Extends Extends with access to 1 1..* Sensor Actuator User Store Driver Driver ``Things’’- oriented concepts 37
  • 31. Our IoT Domain Model 1..* Entity of 1 Consists-of 1..* affects Phenomenon Interest 1..* Observes 1 * * Produces 1 1 1 Perfoms Raw data Sensor Actuator Action 1 1 Accessed-by Extends Extends actuated-by 1 1 Resource Sensor Actuator 1 Hosts driver * driver Device Communicates-with 1 1 generates 1 consumes 1 1 Runs-on 1..* Software Command Sensor Component extends measurement End-user Storage ComputationalApplication Service Driver Service Extends Extends Information User Store 38
  • 32. Related Work on IoT Domain Model• Haller [Haller2010] has defined the relationship among things, devices, resources, and services. • Aim: common understanding • We add an explicit “user”, traditional internet concepts.• A more detailed model is in [IoTA2011] • Direct association between user and physical entity • We add software components between them [Haller2010] S. Haller. The Things in the Internet of Things. IoT 2010 Poster Session. Tokyo, Japan, November, 2010. [IoTA2011] www.iot-a.eu/ 39
  • 33. Concluding Remarks• Developed a better understanding of IoT challenges• Identified IoT application behaviours• Captured the concepts (physical world and traditional internet) and associations of IoT domain• Domain Model benefits • Captured terminology of IoT concepts. • Modeled invariant properties of IoT domain • Modular design 41
  • 34. Future work• Make the domain model more complete • Expand the scope of the application survey • Explore sub-class of ``communicate-with’’ association: Publish/subscribe, procedure call, notification, etc. • Explore effect of large scale• Propose IoT Programming Abstractions 42
  • 35. Merci, thank you, obrigado, , σας ευχαριστώ, grazie, 謝謝, dank u, danke, gracias, , ありがとう, , . Thanks for listening me  email: pankesh.patel@inria.fr •This work was supported in part by the European Commission FP7 CHOReOS and NESSOS projects, and the ANR Murphy project. • The authors are grateful to the reviewers for their helpful comments.