Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Mobile
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Mobile

847
views

Published on

Traces the mobile phone systems through the various generations.

Traces the mobile phone systems through the various generations.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
847
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
41
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT MOBILE PHONE GENERATIONS PHONES & SYSTEMS This document explains the different generations of mobile telephony with simplified block diagrams.
  • 2. 1. Figure 1 shows simplified block diagrams of the different Generations of mobile phones – 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G & 3.5G, 4G, and 5G. 2. Figure 2 shows the simplified block diagrams of the different Generations of mobile phone systems – 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G & 3.5, 4G, and 5G. 3. Uniform numbering has been used throughout so that the differences may be easily perceptible. 4. The first basic difference in the different generation phones and systems lies in the manner signals from the phone are transported through the radio spectrum available – FDMA, FDMA/TDMA, CDMA, LTE, and LTE Advanced. 5. The second basic difference lies in circuit switching voice and IP data sent alternately through a single radio channel, and simultaneous transmission of voice and data either using circuit switched voice and IP data through a channel splitter, or using packetised voice sent along with data packets in queue over the single radio channel. 6. The receiving system from the BTS (tower) onwards have to adapt to these different types of signals received through the radio spectrum. 7. Fig.1a shows the 1G phone block diagram and Fig. 2a shows the 1G system block diagram. 8. Fig. 1b shows the 2G phone block diagram and Fig. 2b shows the 2G system block diagram. 9. Fig. 1c shows the 2.5G phone block diagram and Fig. 2c shows the 2.5G system block diagram. 10. Fig. 1d shows the 3G phone block diagram and Fig. 2d shows the 3G system block diagram. 11. Fig. 1e shows the 3.5 and 3.9G phone block diagram and Fig. 2e shows the 3.5 and 3.9G system block diagram. 12. Fig. 1f shows the 4G and 5G phone block diagram and Fig. 2f shows the 4G and 5G system block diagram.
  • 3. 13. Fig.3a shows the simplified block diagram of the cdmaOne phone (IS 95) and Fig.3b shows the corresponding system diagram. 14. Fig.3c shows the simplified block diagram of the W-CDMA (CDMA 2000) and Fig.3b shows the corresponding system diagram. 15. In the 3G, 3.5G, 3.9G, and the CDMA2000 phones simultaneous voice and data is carried out over a single radio channel through a channel splitter (12) shown in the block diagrams. The voice is circuit switched end-to-end. 3G uses FDMA/TDMA transmission protocol over the radio spectrum. 3.5G and 3.9G use the 3GPP LTE protocol over radio spectrum, a scalable frequency spectrum of 1.5 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both FDD (frequency division duplexing) and TDD (time division duplexing) and can produce a download speed of 100Mbps and an upload speed of 50 Mbps with a round trip delay of 10 ms. 16. In the 4G, 5G, onward phones the voice is packetised and aggregated with the data packets and the combined packets are routed via the LTE Advanced transportation across the radio frequency spectrum. Various techniques like MIMO are used to get higher spectral efficiency, and lower latency, to get better performance on real time communications like voice and video. Besides the system works with higher bandwidth and works over a range of frequency spectrum from 20 MHz to 100 MHz. Using 100 MHz frequency bandwidth it is possible to achieve 5 Gbps download to a mobile station moving at 10 Km./Hr. 17.The basic difference between 3.5G/3.9G phone and the 4G flat IP phone is the channel splitter is replaced by the voice Packetiser and Packet Aggregator, and the replacement of LTE with LTE Advanced.
  • 4. Fig. 1 SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAMS EXPLAINING DIFFERENT GENERATIONS OF MOBILE PHONES 1a 1 3 4 5 2a 2 15 Fig. 1a -1G (Analogue Mobile Phone) 1a 1 3 6 7 8 4 9 5 15 2a 2 Fig. 1b - 2G (Digital Mobile Phone) 1a 1 3 6 7 8 4 9 2 5 15 2a IP 10 11 Fig. 1c - 2.5 G (GPRS) 15 1a 1 3 6 7 8 4 9 2a 2 12 5 IP 10 11 Fig. 1d – 3G 15 1a 1 3 6 7 8 2a 2 12 28 5 IP 10 11 Fig 1e - 3.5G & 3.9G 1a 1 15 IP 3 6 7 8 14 28 2a 2 13 A 5 IP 10 11 Fig 1f - 4G & 5G
  • 5. Index 1. Ear transducer a. Audio waves to ear 2. Mouth transducer a. Audio waves from mouth 3. Duplexer 4. FDMA frequency allocator 5. Modulator 6. Voice codec 7. Channel coder 8. Interleaving device (convolution coding) 9. TDMA time slice allocator 10. Mobile phone data application or Laptop 11. Packetiser for digital data 12. Channel splitter (multiplexer) 13. Packet aggregator 14. Digital voice Packetiser 15. Radio spectrum 16. BTS Tower 17. BSC – Digital PCM TDM switch for base station 18. Codec for each analogue signal from FDMA at BTS 19. Digital trunks for connecting to MSC. 20. MSC – Digital PCM TDM master switching station of MSP (mobile service provider) 21. IP Backbone of MSP / TSP 22. Internet interconnected with MSP IP Backbone 23. IP Trunk card in BSC, MSC, and LEX of PSTN which has the packetising / de-packetising capability and link the VoIP telephony with Circuit Switched telephony. 24. Note that the MSC supports the entire circuit switched mobile network of the MSP from 2G to 3.5G, whereas the 4G, 5G onwards as planned will route packet voice through the IP Backbone and connects to MSC through IP Trunk cards.
  • 6. 25. Base Station Building containing Packet aggregator, Data Packetiser, Voice Packetiser, and connection to POP of IP Backbone 26. LEX (local exchange) of PSTN . 27. CDMA multiplexer 28. LTE 28A. LTE Advanced
  • 7. Fig 2 SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF SYSTEM CONFIGURATION OF DIFFERENT MOBIL PHONE GENERATIONS FDMA P 1 1 TDM TDM 16 5 4 S Ana CS 8 17 9 20 T FDMA N 1 TDM 5 4 1 16 FDMA Ana CS 8 17 9 Fig.2a -1G (Analogue Mobile Phone) System TDMA / FDMA Digi CS TDM P 9 6 1 1 TDM 16 5 4 8 17 9 S 20 8 7 T TDMA / FDMA N Digi CS TDM 9 6 1 1 16 5 4 8 17 9 8 7 Fig 2b - 2G (Digital Mobile Phone) System TDMA / FDMA Digi CS 8 7 P 1 TDM TDM 16 9 6 1 S 5 4 8 17 9 20 T IP N TDM Digi CS TDMA / FDMA 8 7 5 9 6 1 1 16 4 8 17 9 21 IP 22 Fig 2c - 2.5G (GPRS) System
  • 8. Fig 2 (Contd.) 3G – FDMA/TDMA 3.5G/3.9G - LTE 8 7 16 9 6 1 1 1 4 5 2 8 17 9 20 26 23 23 2 8 3G – FDMA/TDMA 3.5G/3.9G - LTE 8 7 9 6 1 1 21 5 1 4 TDM / SDH 16 2 8 17 9 TRANSPORT NETWORK 2 8 22 Fig 2d / e - 3G & 3.5G/3.9G(Simultaneous Voice & Data Communication) System With Circuit Switched Voice and Packet Switched Data Communications The difference between 3G and 3.5G/3.9G is only in the transport protocol through radio spectrum and bandwidth LTE Adv 24 2 16 5 8 13 17 20 A 26 23 23 23 LTE Adv 24 2 16 5 1 17 8 3 21 A 23 TDM/SDH TRANSPORT NETWORK 22 Fig 2f - 4G & 5G(Simultaneous Voice & Data Communication) System With Packet Switched Voice and Packet Switched Data Communications Interconnects with BSC, MSC, PSTN through IP Trunks
  • 9. Fig 3 CDMA PHONE & SYSTEM 1a 1 3 6 7 8 27 2a 2 5 15 10 11 Fig. 3a - 2.5 G cdmaOne (IS95)PHONE CDMA P 8 7 16 6 1 1 S 5 27 17 20 8 9 T N CDMA 16 8 7 1 6 1 5 27 8 17 9 21 Fig.3b - 2.5G cdmaOne (IS95)System 22 1a 1 1 3 6 7 8 2 27 2a 2 5 15 10 11 Fig.3c – W-CDMA (CDMA2000)PHONE CDMA 8 7 16 1 6 1 5 27 17 2 9 20 26 23 23 CDMA 8 7 16 6 1 21 TDM / SDH 5 27 1 17 2 9 TRANSPORT NETWORK 22 Fig.3d – W-CDMA (CDMA2000) System