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Mail services and mail commands in linux

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It is about different commands and uses of Mail used in Linux

It is about different commands and uses of Mail used in Linux

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  • Custom animation effects: overlapping, transparent text(Intermediate)Tip: In the beginning of the instructions, the text boxes are referred to as “first,” “second,” and “third” based on the order in which they are created. Later on, in the animation reproduction instructions, they are referred to as “first,” “second,” and “third” based on the order in which they appear in the Selection and Visibility pane. To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click TextBox. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter the text. (Note: To match the example above, enter transparent.)Select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select CenturyGothic.In the FontSize box, enter 90.Click Bold.Select the text box. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the WordArtStyles group, click the FormatTextEffects dialog box launcher. In the FormatTextEffects dialog box, click TextFill in the left pane, click Solidfill in the TextFill pane, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 40%.Drag the text box to the left side of the slide. Select the text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate.Drag the second, duplicate text box to the right side of the slide.Right-click the second text box, click Edit Text,and edit the text. (Note: To match the example above, enter overlapping.)On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click SelectionPane.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box you created. (Note: Objects you created earlier will show up at the bottom of the list in the pane, and objects you created later will show up at the top.) Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom left corner of the WordArtStyles group, click the FormatTextEffects dialog box launcher. In the FormatTextEffects dialog box, click TextFill in the left pane, and in the TextFill pane do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 40%.In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select both text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Top.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box you created. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate.In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select the second and third (black) text boxes you created. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Top.ClickAlignLeft.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first (white) text box you created. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click BringForward.To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:To view beyond the edges of the slide, on the View tab, in the Zoom group, select Zoom. In the Zoom dialog box, select 50%.On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the animation effect (fade effect for the second text box). Under Modify: Fade,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select VeryFast.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Right.Select the second animation effect (right motion path for the second text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Right dialog box,do the following:On the Effect tab, select Auto-Reverse. On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious. In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the second animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide: Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the thirdtext box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the third animation effect (fade effect for the third text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Effect Options. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the thirdtext box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Left.Select the fourth animation effect (motion path for the third text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Left dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the fourth animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide:Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade. Select the fifth animation effect (fade effect for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 3.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Right. Select the sixth animation effect (motion path for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Motion Path dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious. In the Delay box, enter 3.5.In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the sixth animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide:Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1, Darker 35% (fifth row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 15% (fifth row, second option from the left).
  • Custom animation effects: overlapping, transparent text(Intermediate)Tip: In the beginning of the instructions, the text boxes are referred to as “first,” “second,” and “third” based on the order in which they are created. Later on, in the animation reproduction instructions, they are referred to as “first,” “second,” and “third” based on the order in which they appear in the Selection and Visibility pane. To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click TextBox. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter the text. (Note: To match the example above, enter transparent.)Select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select CenturyGothic.In the FontSize box, enter 90.Click Bold.Select the text box. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the WordArtStyles group, click the FormatTextEffects dialog box launcher. In the FormatTextEffects dialog box, click TextFill in the left pane, click Solidfill in the TextFill pane, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 40%.Drag the text box to the left side of the slide. Select the text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate.Drag the second, duplicate text box to the right side of the slide.Right-click the second text box, click Edit Text,and edit the text. (Note: To match the example above, enter overlapping.)On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click SelectionPane.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box you created. (Note: Objects you created earlier will show up at the bottom of the list in the pane, and objects you created later will show up at the top.) Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom left corner of the WordArtStyles group, click the FormatTextEffects dialog box launcher. In the FormatTextEffects dialog box, click TextFill in the left pane, and in the TextFill pane do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 40%.In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select both text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Top.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box you created. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate.In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select the second and third (black) text boxes you created. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Top.ClickAlignLeft.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first (white) text box you created. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click BringForward.To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:To view beyond the edges of the slide, on the View tab, in the Zoom group, select Zoom. In the Zoom dialog box, select 50%.On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the animation effect (fade effect for the second text box). Under Modify: Fade,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select VeryFast.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Right.Select the second animation effect (right motion path for the second text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Right dialog box,do the following:On the Effect tab, select Auto-Reverse. On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious. In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the second animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide: Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the thirdtext box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the third animation effect (fade effect for the third text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Effect Options. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the thirdtext box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Left.Select the fourth animation effect (motion path for the third text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Left dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the fourth animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide:Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade. Select the fifth animation effect (fade effect for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 3.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Right. Select the sixth animation effect (motion path for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Motion Path dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious. In the Delay box, enter 3.5.In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the sixth animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide:Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1, Darker 35% (fifth row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 15% (fifth row, second option from the left).
  • Custom animation effects: overlapping, transparent text(Intermediate)Tip: In the beginning of the instructions, the text boxes are referred to as “first,” “second,” and “third” based on the order in which they are created. Later on, in the animation reproduction instructions, they are referred to as “first,” “second,” and “third” based on the order in which they appear in the Selection and Visibility pane. To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click TextBox. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter the text. (Note: To match the example above, enter transparent.)Select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select CenturyGothic.In the FontSize box, enter 90.Click Bold.Select the text box. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the WordArtStyles group, click the FormatTextEffects dialog box launcher. In the FormatTextEffects dialog box, click TextFill in the left pane, click Solidfill in the TextFill pane, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 40%.Drag the text box to the left side of the slide. Select the text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate.Drag the second, duplicate text box to the right side of the slide.Right-click the second text box, click Edit Text,and edit the text. (Note: To match the example above, enter overlapping.)On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click SelectionPane.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box you created. (Note: Objects you created earlier will show up at the bottom of the list in the pane, and objects you created later will show up at the top.) Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom left corner of the WordArtStyles group, click the FormatTextEffects dialog box launcher. In the FormatTextEffects dialog box, click TextFill in the left pane, and in the TextFill pane do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 40%.In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select both text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Top.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box you created. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate.In the Selection and Visibility pane, press and hold CTRL, and then select the second and third (black) text boxes you created. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Selected Objects.Click Align Top.ClickAlignLeft.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first (white) text box you created. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then click BringForward.To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:To view beyond the edges of the slide, on the View tab, in the Zoom group, select Zoom. In the Zoom dialog box, select 50%.On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the animation effect (fade effect for the second text box). Under Modify: Fade,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select VeryFast.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the second text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Right.Select the second animation effect (right motion path for the second text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Right dialog box,do the following:On the Effect tab, select Auto-Reverse. On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious. In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the second animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide: Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the thirdtext box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the third animation effect (fade effect for the third text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Effect Options. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the thirdtext box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Left.Select the fourth animation effect (motion path for the third text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Left dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 0.5.In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the fourth animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide:Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade. Select the fifth animation effect (fade effect for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 3.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (VeryFast).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the first text box in the list. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Right. Select the sixth animation effect (motion path for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Motion Path dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious. In the Delay box, enter 3.5.In the Speed list, select 3 seconds (Slow).With the sixth animation effect still selected in the Custom Animation task pane, do the following on the slide:Point to the endpoint (red arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the endpoint approximately 5” beyond the left edge of the slide.Point to the starting point (green arrow) of the selected motion path until the cursor becomes a two-headed arrow. Press and hold SHIFT, and then drag the starting point approximately 5” beyond the right edge of the slide.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Down (first row, second option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1, Darker 35% (fifth row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 15% (fifth row, second option from the left).
  • Transcript

    • 1. H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 2. H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux21HarshKhandelwal39KomalTiwari41Lopa Sejpal47NirajGurnani49Pankaj Lilan
    • 3. Introduction and Basics of Mail in LinuxThe ProcedureWorking With mail in LinuxMailing Commands and DescriptionH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 4. ONE TWO THREE FOUR• 3. WORKING WITH MAILS IN LINUX1. When an email is sent, the message is routed from serverto server, all the way to the recipients email server.2. The message is sent to the mail server tasked withtransporting emails (called the MTA, for Mail TransportAgent) to the recipients MTA.3. The recipients MTA then delivers the email to the incomingmail server (called the MDA, for Mail Delivery Agent),which stores the email as it waits for the user to accept it.4. Retrieving mail is done using a software program calledan MUA (Mail User Agent)• 1. Introduction and Basics of Mail in Linux1. Linux is the first applications that UNIX users arefamiliar with.2. An email message never appears on your terminalthe moment it is received.3. Email is deposited in your mailbox even when youare not logged in.• 2. The Procedure1. It helps to know that an Internet mail messageconsists of two parts; mail headers and a mailbody, separated by a blank line.2. The mail headers contain the source anddestination of the mail, a user-supplied subjectline, the date it was sent, and various other kindsof useful information.• 4. MAILING COMMANDS AND DESCRIPTION1. mail - send and receive mail2. Task: Compose mail3. Use following format:mail -s <subject> <mailaddress>SummaryH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 5. H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 6. H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 7. H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 8. ServicesRendered ByLinux MailH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 9. H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 10. Linux Mail v/s Internet MailMechanism used to move mail on theinternet is quiet complexTELNET and SSH work within a simpleclient-server frameworkInternet Mail Handlings requires thework of at least three agenciesLinux is flexible but windows is flexibleLinux has centralized applicationinstallation whereas the latter hasdecentralized oneH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 11. InternetMailHandlingsMUAMTAMDAH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 12. • Stands for MAIL USER AGENT• It is for reading the mailbox andsending mailMUA• Stands for MAIL TRANSPORTAGENT• It is for transporting mail betweenmachinesMTA• Stands for MAIL DELIVERYAGENT• It is for delivering mail to therecipients’ mailboxesMDAOverviewH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 13. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 14. LINUXINTERNETSERVERSH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux• Web - Apache HTTP Server, ApacheTomcat• Databases - MySQL, PostgreSQL,Oracle• Programming and scripting - PHP,Java, Perl, JavaScript, CSS, XHTML,Bash• FTP - ProFTPD, Pure-FTPd, vsftpd• SMTP (outgoing email) - exim,postfix, qmail, sendmail• POP3 and IMAP (incoming email) -qpopper, UW IMAP, Courier-IMAP• DNS (Domain Name System) -BIND, djbdns• Web control panels - cPanel andWebHost Manager, Plesk,DirectAdmin, Webmin
    • 15. LINUXINTERNALNETWORKSERVERS File server - Samba(SMB, CIFS), NFS, iSCSI LDAP (directory services) –OpenLDAP DHCP - ISC DHCP Routing -Quagga, OSPF, RIP, VRRP, CARPH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 16. And its typesMailing ListH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 17. Mailing List• A mailing list is a collection ofnames and addresses used byan individual or an organizationto send material to multiplerecipients. The term is oftenextendedto include the peoplesubscribed to such a list, so thegroup of subscribers is referredto as "the mailing list", or simply"the list".H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 18. One WayAnnouncementTwo WayDiscussionModeratedMailing List TypesH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 19. One-Way AnnouncementH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 20. The owner(s) and/or editor(s) of the list arethe only people who are allowed to sendmessages to the subscribers.From the list administrators to the listsubscribers, The communication flows inone direction.This type of list is primarily used fornewsletters, product announcements, anddissemination of information that does notrequire feedback from the subscriber.One-Way AnnouncementH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 21. Two Way DiscussionH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 22. The list administrators and the list subscribersare both permitted to post messages to the list.Between the administrators and thesubscribers, and back and forth betweendifferent subscribers, the communication flowstwo ways.This type of list is primarily used for discussiongroups engaged in the exchange of ideas andinformation centered on a specific topic.Two Way DiscussionH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 23. ModeratedH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 24. This type of discussion list has an editor oreditors who review all incoming messages.The editor can then decide to allow the messageto be sent to all the subscribers on the list, ornot allow the message to be posted to the list.Moderated lists can be used to control thediscussion by keeping off topic, inflammatory, orotherwise inappropriate messages from thereaching subscribers.ModeratedH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 25. In LinuxWorking of E-mailH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 26. Working of E-mail In Linux• You will need to make sure that thesendmail, sendmail-cf and m4 software RPMs areinstalled.• Incoming mail servers are called POPservers or IMAP servers, depending on whichprotocol is used.• It is not necessary for recipients to be connected inorder for them to be sent email.• To keep everyone from checking other usersemails, MDA is protected by a user name calleda login and by a passwordH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 27. Working of E-mail In Linux• Email is based around the use of electronicmailboxes. When an email is sent, the message isrouted from server to server, all the way to therecipients email server.• More precisely, the message is sent to the mailserver tasked with transporting emails called theMTA(Mail Transport Agent), to the recipientsMTA. On the Internet, MTAs communicate withone another using the protocol SMTP, and so arelogically called SMTP servers.H.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 28. Working of E-mail In Linux• The recipients MTA then delivers the email tothe incoming mail server called MDA(MailDelivery Agent), which stores the email as itwaits for the user to accept it.• There are two main protocols used forretrieving email on an MDA:i. POP3 (Post Office Protocol)ii. IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)H.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 29. MDA(Mail Delivery Agent)POP3(Post Office Protocol)• POP3 is used for retrievingemail and, in certaincases, leaving a copy of it onthe server.IMAP(Internet Message Access Protocol)• IMAP is used forcoordinating the status ofemails(read, deleted, moved)across multiple emailclients.H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 30. o MTAs act as the postoffice (the sorting areaand mail carrier, whichhandle messagetransportation)o MDAs act asmailboxes, which storemessages until therecipients check thebox. It is not necessaryfor recipients to beconnected in order forthem to be sent email.Working process of POP3 & IMAP Server :H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 31. And DescriptionsMailing CommandsH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 32. : mail - send and receive mail Task: Compose mail Use following format:mail -s <subject> <mailaddress> For example write mail to boss@yahoo.com:$ mail - "Hello" boss@yahoo.comYou are then expected to type in your message, followed by an ‘control-D’ at the beginning ofa line. To stop simply type dot (.): Output:Hi,This is a testmail [-iInv ] [-s subject ] [-c cc-addr ] [-b bcc-addr ] to-addr...mail [-iInNv -f ] [name ]mail [-iInNv [-u user ] ]H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 33.  -sSpecify subject on command line (only the first argument after the -s flag isused as a subject; be careful to quote subjects containing spaces.) -cSend carbon copies to list of users. -bSend blind carbon copies to list List should be a comma-separated list ofnames. -fRead in the contents of your mbox (or the specified file) for processing; whenyou quitmail writes undeleted messages back to this file.H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 34.  -vVerbose mode. The details of delivery are displayed on the users terminal. -iIgnore tty interrupt signals. This is particularly useful when using mail on noisy phonelines. -IForces mail to run in interactive mode even when input isnt a terminal. Inparticular, the `~ special character when sending mail is only active in interactivemode. -nInhibits reading /etc/mail.rc upon startup. -NInhibits the initial display of message headers when reading mail or editing a mailfolder.H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 35. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• Mail is an intelligent mail processing system, whichhas a command syntax reminiscent of ed1 with linesreplaced by messages.mail [-s subject ] [-c cc-addr ] [-b bcc-addr ] to-addr...mail [-f name ]mail [-u user ]H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 36. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• -v :- Verbose mode. The details ofdelivery are displayed on the usersterminal.• -I :- Ignore tty interrupt signals. This isparticularly useful when using mail onnoisy phone lines.• -c :- Send carbon copies to list of users.H.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 37. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• -b :- Send blind carbon copies to list List shouldbe a comma-separated list of names.• -f :- Read in the contents of your mbox (or thespecified file) for processing; whenyou quitmail writes undeleted messages backto this file.• -c :- Send carbon copies to list of users.• -N :- Inhibits the initial display of messageheaders when reading mail or editing a mailfolder.H.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 38. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• - :- Print out the preceding message. Ifgiven a numeric argument n goes tothe n th previous message and prints it.• ? :- Prints a brief summary of commands.• ! :- Executes the shell (see sh(1)and csh(1)) command which follows.H.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 39. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• Print(P ) Like print but also prints out ignoredheader fields. See also print ignore and retain• Reply(R ) Reply to originator. Does not reply to otherrecipients of the original message.• Type(T ) Identical to the Print command.H.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 40. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• edit(e ) Takes a list of messages and points thetext editor at each one in turn. On returnfrom the editor, the message is read backin.• exit(ex) Effects an immediate return to theShell without modifying the users systemmailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file in -fH.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 41. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• preserve(pre ) A synonym for hold• print(p ) Takes a message list and types out eachmessage on the users terminal.• type(t ) A synonym for printH.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 42. Mailing Commands and Descriptions• copy(co ) The copy command does the same thingthat save does, except that it does not mark themessages it is used on for deletion when you quit.• Delete(d ) Takes a list of messages as argument and marksthem all as deleted. Deleted messages will not besaved in mbox nor will they be available for mostother commands.• exit(x ) A synonym for exitH.L. Institute of Computer ApplicationsContinueMail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 43. How to Retrieve an E-mail?• Retrieving mail is done using a softwareprogram called an MUA (Mail User Agent).• When the MUA is a program installed on theusers system, it is called an email client (suchas Mozilla Thunderbird, Microsoft Outlook).• When it is a web interface used for interactingwith the incoming mail server, it iscalled webmailH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 44. SENDING MAIL FROM A SHELL SCRIPT• Now, with the basics covered you can sendmails from your shell scripts. Here’s a simpleshell script that gives you a reading of theusage of space on your partitions and mailsthe data to you.#!/bin/bashdf -h | mail -s “disk space report”pankaj.lilan@gmail.comH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 45. Reading Mail• In normal usage mail is given no arguments and checksyour mail out of the post office, then prints out a oneline header of each message found. The currentmessage is initially the first message (numbered 1) andcan be printed using the print command (which can beabbreviated `p ) . You can move among the messagesmuch as you move between lines in ed1, with thecommands `+ and `- moving backwards andforwards, and simple numbers.H.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 46. Disposing of MailH.L. Institute of Computer Applications• After examining a message you can delete `d )the message or reply `r ) to it. Deletion causesthe mail program to forget about the message.This is not irreversible; the message canbe undeleted `u ) by giving its number, orthe mail session can be aborted by givingtheexit `x ) command. Deleted messages will,however, usually disappear never to be seenagain.Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux
    • 47. Any Questions ?????Thank - YouH.L. Institute of Computer Applications Mail Services and Mail Commands in Linux