INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS A SHORT REVIEW

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A SHORT REVIEW ABOUT INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS ALTHOUGH ITS A VAST TOPIC

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INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS A SHORT REVIEW

  1. 1. • Accumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances due to manifestations of metabolic derangements of the cell
  2. 2. INTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS NORMAL CELLULAR COMPONENTS lipid, carbohydrates ABNORMAL SUBSTANCES Endogenous and Exogenous
  3. 3. SITES • Cytoplasm (phagolysosomes) • Nucleus
  4. 4. MECHANISM OF ACCUMULATIONS • Due to overproduction • Due to inadequate metabolism • Lack of enzyme machinery to remove
  5. 5. Normal substance produced at normal or increase rate Metabolism is inadequate to remove it Fatty change in liver Accumulation
  6. 6. Mutated gene Abnormal protein folding Inability to degrade abnormal protein Accumulation Alpha 1 antitrypsin def.
  7. 7. Normal endogenous substance Enzyme Deficiency Metabolite Accumulation Storage disorders
  8. 8. Exogenous substance No enzymatic machinery for its degradation or transport Accumulation Accumulation of carbon in lungs
  9. 9. ACCUMULATION OF LIPIDS
  10. 10. Normal lipid metabolism Free fatty acids from adipose tissue or ingested food Transported to hepatocytes Esterified Triglycerides Converted to Cholesterol or phospholipids Oxidized to Ketone bodies
  11. 11. STEATOSIS OR FATTY CHANGE • Abnormal accumulation of triglycerides in liver parenchyma
  12. 12. Alcohol Mitochondria Toxin and Malnutrition Apoproteins Hypoxia Starvation Inhibit oxidation Mobilization Accumulation of lipids Fatty change or steatosis
  13. 13. FATTY CHANGE - LIVER Grossly • Liver enlarges, become increasingly yellow, soft and greasy. Microscopically • Small vacuoles in cytoplasm around the nucleus • Vacuoles coalesce displacing the nucleus to periphery • Occasionally fatty cysts are formed
  14. 14. FATTY CHANGE - HEART • Occurs due to prolonged moderate hypoxia as in anemia • In case of infectious myocarditis like of diphtheria.
  15. 15. Grossly • Bands of yellow myocardium alternating with bands of darker red brown uninvolved myocardium • Tigered effect Microscopically • Intracellular deposits of fat
  16. 16. CHOLESTEROL AND CHOLESTEROL ESTERS • Atheromatous plaque
  17. 17. • Cholesterolosis
  18. 18. Xanthomas
  19. 19. PROTEIN Intracellular accumulation of protein usually appear as • Round eosinophilic droplets, • Vacuoles or • Aggregates in cytoplasm
  20. 20. GLYCOGEN • It’s a readily available energy source in cytoplasm of cells • Excessive intracellular accumulation occurs in abnormal glucose or glycogen metabolism • DM (renal tubular epithelial cells, liver, beta cells, heart muscles) • Glycogen storage disorders
  21. 21. Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (Fabry's disease)
  22. 22. EWINGS SARCOMA
  23. 23. PIGMENT • Exogenous • Endogenous
  24. 24. Exogenous • • • • • Most common is carbon (coal dust). Common air pollutant. Inhaled by macrophages within alveoli Leads to Anthracosis (blackening of lungs) Severe accumulation like in coal miners leads to coal worker’s pneumoconiosis
  25. 25. Pneumoconiosis • Silicosis – Silica dust, stone and sandblasters • Asbestosis – Asbestos dust in shipbuilding workers • Byssinosis – Cotton dust
  26. 26. Endogenous Lipofuscin • Lipochrome or wear and tear pigment • Derived through lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated lipids of membranes • Telltale sign of lipid peroxidation and free radical injury • In sections appears as yellow brown, finely granular, cytoplasmic, often perinuclear pigment
  27. 27. • Seen in cells undergoing slow regressive changes as in liver and heart of aging patients or patient with severe malnutrition or cachexia.
  28. 28. Other pigments Melanin Hemosiderin Bilirubin

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