‘complex’ banks, viz., those which are diversified into areas other than conventional banking; are parts of a large group/conglomerate; undertake significant cross-border transactions; act as market makers; and are counter-parties to complex transactions.
RBI should re-introduce the concept of uniform assetclassification across the banking system such that if anexposure to a counterparty becomes NPA in any bank, allbanks having an exposure to that counterparty shouldclassify the exposure as NPA.
The central bank has raised the external commercial borrowing limit to $10 billion A withholding tax of 20% is paid by the investor at the time of receiving the annual coupon payment on the bond which has to be reduced.To monitor derivative transactions that all forward transactions and swaps between banks and theirclients, worth over $1 lakh, should be reported to the CCIL.FIIs have been permitted by RBI to take position in IRFs up to their respective cash market exposure in the GoI securities (book value) plus an additional USD 100 million each.For improving the interest rate swap market, the group has recommended introduction of interest rate futures linked to the call money rate. FIIs must be allowed to take trading positions in such interest rate futures product.
The Reserve Bank of India today said that it has proposed to extend the period of short sale in the central government securities from the present five days to the maximum of three-months.The foreign institutional investors’ investment limit in government securities by $5 billion to $20 billion of which $10 billion is reserved for investment in securities with residual maturities not less than three years.Tax StructureLong term capital gains1 20% plus surcharge and cessShort term capital gains 40% plus surcharge and cessThe ceiling for overall investment for FIIs is 24 per cent of the paid up capital of the Indian company and 10 per cent for NRIs/PIOs. The limit is 20 per cent of the paid up capital in the case of public sector banks, including the State Bank of India.
RBIis also proposing allowing standalone primary dealers to invest up to 50 percent of funds borrowed from call money markets into corporate debt.The central bank said only those standalone PDs which have minimum net owned funds of 6 billion rupees ($108 million) would be eligible to be market makers and they need to conduct a minimum number of repo transactions.Stamp duties are typically 0.375% for debentures and, as they are strictly ad-valorem, there is no volume discount
Under the Liberalized Remittance Scheme, all resident individuals, including minors, are allowed to freely remit up to USD 200,000 per financial year (April – March) for any permissible current or capital account transaction or a combination of both.
Introduction Tarapore Committee was constituted by the RBI under the Chairmanship of Dr. S.S.Tarapore to prepare a roadmap towards Full Capital Account Convertibility (FCAC). The Committee submitted its report in May 1997. Result of “no clear definition of CAC “ in India. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 2
Capital account Convertibility(CAC) “Freedom of currency conversion in relation to capital transactions in terms of inflows and outflows” Committee’s version of CAC: ‘ CAC refers to the freedom to convert local financial assets into foreign financial assets and vice versa. It is associated with changes of ownership in foreign/domestic financial assets and liabilities and embodies the creation and liquidation of claims on, or by, the rest of the world. CAC can be, and is, coexistent with restrictions other than on external payments.’ Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 3
Need for 1997 Committee.. Tarapore committee observed that the capital controls can be useful in insulating the economy of the country from the volatile capital flows during the transitional periods. It recommended the implementation of CAC for a 3 year period i.e. 1997-1998,1998-1999 and 1999- 2000 and had set out detailed pre-conditions for moving towards CAC Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 4
Signposts for moving towardsCAC Gross Fiscal Deficit of the Centre as a percentage of GDP should be 3.5% for 1999-2000 (4.1% in 2005-2006) Inflation rate should remain between an average 3-5% for 3 years (1997-2000) (4.6% in 2005-2006) In Financing sector, the Gross NPA’s as a percentage of total advances of the public sector public banking system should be 5% by 2000 (5.2% in 2004-2005) Average effective CRR for the banking system should be 3 % for 1999-2000 (5% in 2004-2005) A consolidated sinking fund set up to ensure smooth repayment of borrowings. Monitoring Exchange Rate band of +/-5.0 % around the neutral Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) with no intervene of RBI. Designing external sector policies to increase current receipts to GDP ratio such that DSR comes down to 20% from 25%. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 5
Source: RBI appointed Tarapore11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 6
Move towards FCAC The report of this committee was made public by RBI on 1st September 2006.Three phased adoption of CACscheme: 2006-07 (Phase I) 2007-08 and 2008-09 (Phase II) 2009-10 and 2010-11 (Phase III) Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 7
Objectives of FCAC To facilitate the economic growth through higher investment by minimising the cost of both equity and debt capital. To improve the efficiency of the financial sector through greater competition. To provide opportunities for diversification of investments by residents. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 8
Recommendations…RBI didn’t implement all the recommendations andtook a number of additional measures like: Removal of tax benefits to NRIs. Greater autonomy to RBI. Complete cheek on fiscal deficit. Disallowing investment channel led through a particular country (like Mauritius). Reduction of government stake in banks from 51 per cent to 33 per cent. Allowing industrial houses a stake in existing banks or allowing them to open a new banks. Allowing enhanced presence of foreign banks. 10 per cent voting limit for investment in banks should be scrapped. Non-resident corporates should be allowed to invest in Indian markets. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 9
Continued… All individual NRIs should also be allowed to invest in Indian Market. Revenue deficit of both central and states should be eliminated by 2008-09 and building a revenue surplus of 1 percent by Financial Year 2011. Raising the ceiling on External Commercial Borrowing (ECB). Banning Participatory Notes (PNs) and phasing out the existing PNs within one year. Enhancing the ceiling on government debt from $2 billion to 10 percent of issuance and $1-5 billion to 25 per cent of new issuances in a year of corporate debt. Building adequate reserve and limiting the current account deficit to under 3% of GDP. All banks should be brought under Companies Act. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 10
The committee has suggested for providing greater financial freedom for all the three key stakeholders: ◦ resident individuals, ◦ domestic companies and ◦ foreign investors. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 11
Proposed Changes by Tarapore Committee Investment Phase-I Phase-II Phase-III Relaxation 2006-07 2007-09 2009-11 Gradual increase, Gradual increase, but External commercial Status quo on ECB but automatic limit limit to be raised to borrowing limit of $18 billion to be raised from $1 billion per $500 million to financial year Resident individual’s $25,000 limit should $750 million overseas be hiked to $50,000 Raised to $2,00,000 investment per calendar year Raised to $1,00,000 $2 billion investment MFs overseas Further raised to $5 limit to be raised to billion investment $3 billion Further raised to $4 billion Fresh participatory FII investment notes should be Ban to continue banned Ban to continue G-Sec investment FIIs’ debt limit of $2 billion to 10 per cent of gross investment be modified as 6 per 8 per cent of total borrowing cent of gross gross borrowing borrowing JVs / Wholly-owned 200 per cent of net Further raised to 300 Further raised to 400 subsidiary abroad worth limit should be per cent investment raised to 250 per cent of net worth percent Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 12Source: RBI appointed Tarapore Committee Report 2006
INTERACTION OF MONETARY POLICY AND EXCHANGE RATE POLICY Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 14
There has been upsurge of capital inflows with the relaxation of capital accounts controls Impossible trinity – independent monetary policy, open capital account, and a managed exchange rate cannot be attained, but Indian authorities have been trying to find out intermediate solutions. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 15
Monetary Policy Instruments andOperations Indian real interest rates needs to be better aligned with international interest rates OMOs should be used to for modulating liquidity conditions, correct any serious misalignments between short term and long term rates RBI needs to control the interest rate changes during the capital inflows and outflows to contain the inflationary expectations SLR to be altered to below 25% when felt necessary Liquidity Adjustment facility should be used as an instrument of equilibrating very short term liquidity RBI should operate variable rate repo/reverse repo auctions. 1997 committee recommended that, RBI should have a monitoring exchange rate band of +/- 5% around NEER. If Current Account Deficit moves beyond 3% of GDP, the exchange rate policy should be reviewed. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 16
Banking system needs to be strengthened with appropriate regulatory measures in place since capital inflows and outflows bring risks along with them. Strong & Resilient banking system, efficient clearing and settlement arrangement, appropriate accounting, public disclosure standards, auditing standards. Banks be able to manage multidimensional risk ( their risk as well as the company’s risk) Resident and non-resident banks to undertake transactions in multiple currencies which exposes the economy to risks such as currency, counterparty Source: RBI appointed Tarapore credit, transfer, legal, arbitrage, derivatives 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 18
Prudential Regulation Improvements in financial institutions liquidity management and disclosures practices, corporate governance in PSBs. Issuing restricted banking licenses rather than whole banking licenses to enable banks to exploit core competencies. Introduce higher core capital ratio, pricing risks efficiently, keeping high capital requirements(currently 9%). Differential treatment of complex banks. RBI to allow banks to undertake market making, deal with derivatives, large cross border borrowing & lending. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 19
Measures for Strengthening Regulation andSupervision Proposed MeasuresLiquidity Risk Monitored at Head/Corporate office level Monitor liquidity position at granular level, at territory level. Examine the need for limit on short term borrowings of banksInterest Rate Risk(IRR) Fix appropriate internal limits for IRR Banks adopt Duration gap analysis to measure IRR in their Balance Sheet. Compute volatility of equity and earnings under various IRR scenariosForex Open Position Review the open position limits for banks in Forex.Asset Concentration To ensure diversification, fix internal limits for exposure to Particular industry, country, region, counterparty category etc.Income Recognition To make provisions for non fund based commitments in NPAAsset accounts. Banks should make a higher level of provisions forClassification and the contingent liabilities. Introduce Uniform assetProvisioning classification. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore(IRAC) Norms 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 20
Proposed MeasuresCapital Adequacy To keep differential CRAR for different banks Increase core capital ratio to 66% RBI should decide on the methodology for setting off the losses against capital funds.Risk Mitigants Use and monitor Interest Rate Futures and options, Credit Derivatives, Commodity Derivatives, Equity DerivativesLevel of Computerisation Online connectivity to all major branches, MISand Branch content should support the risk managementInterconnectivity requirementsOff-balance sheet Ensure strict norms are in place for issuingExposures – comfort comfort letters and also to plan to meetLetters demands of the sameAccounting Standards Full Compliance with AS-11Type of Supervision the Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings and Liquidity System (CAMELS) approach should be adjusted to accommodate the proposed focus and become Capital Adequacy, Source: RBI appointedRisk Asset Quality, Tarapore Management, Earnings and Liquidity System 21 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006
Proposed MeasuresTypes of Supervision Put in framework to ensure adherence to Anti Money laundering/ KYC requirements. Introduce the concept of Central point of contact(CPOC) in RBI for a dedicated official tracking developments in alloted bank.Financial Soundness To reduce the compilation of FSI from 6 months toIndicators(FSI) 2 months Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 22
TIMING AND SEQUENCING OFMEASURES FOR FULLERCAPITAL ACCOUNTCONVERTIBILITY Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 23
The Approval limit for ECB should be raised gradually over the ` span of 5 yrs and ECBs over maturity of 10 yrs and 7 yrs should be kept outside the ECB ceiling. Firms investing overseas: Increase the limit from 200 to 400% ( of net worth) gradually The EEFC limit should be raised from 50% to 100% The FDI norms should be liberalized. Disinvestments procedures to be simplified to provide symmetry between investments and disinvestments. Authorized Dealers limit of borrowing from overseas banks should be raised from 25% to 100% of the paid of capital + free reserves with a sub-limit of 1/3rd for short term. Aggregate ceiling on investment overseas by mutual funds should be raised from 2 billion to 5 billion $ FII should be allowed to invest in upto 10% of the Govt Securities issued and 25% of the Corporate Bonds issued Residents individuals limit to freely remit $ abroad should be increased from 25000$ to 2,00,000 $ Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 24
RFC account holders to be allowed to move foreign currency balances to overseas banks Repatriation of proceeds from the sale of inheritance of assets upto a limit of 1 million should be allowed from the balances held out in NRO accounts. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 25
Development of Financial Markets Any country intending to introduce FCAC needs to ensure that different market segments are not only well developed but also that they are well integrated so that the entire financial system is able to absorb the shocks with minimal damage. Three main dimensions of a well developed financial system Vibrancy and strength of the physical infrastructure of markets as reflected by the IT systems, communication networks Skill and competency levels of people who man the offices of financial intermediaries like commercial and investment banks Quality of regulatory and supervisory arrangements. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 26
Recommendations on developingMoney Market Policy initiatives should be taken to facilitate development of different financial markets to encourage capital inflows. Prudential regulations on inflows of foreign capital, segment-wise would be desirable. Suitable regulatory changes need to be progressively introduced to enable more players to have access to the repo market. There is a need to set up a dedicated cell within the RBI for tighter monitoring of all derivatives. This would be specially important as demand for derivatives could increase manifold to meet larger hedging requirements Efforts may be made to activate the market in interest rate futures to all participants including foreign investors. Permitted derivatives should include interest rate options, initially OTC and subsequently exchange traded. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 27
Recommendations on developingGovt. Securities Market Promoting a two-way market movement would require permitting participants to freely undertake short-selling. To stimulate retail investments in gilts, either directly or through gilt mutual funds, the gilt funds should be exempted from the dividend distribution tax and income up to a limit from direct investment in gilts could be exempted from tax. Expanding investor base would be strengthened by allowing, inter alia, entry to non-resident investors, especially longer term investors like foreign central banks, endowment funds, retirement funds, etc. To impart liquidity to government stocks, the class of holders of G- secs needs to be widened and repo facility allowed to all market players without any restrictions on the minimum duration of the repo Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 28
Recommendations on developing Corporate Bond and Securitized Debt Market GOI, RBI and SEBI should be able to evolve a concerted approach to deal with the complex issues identified by the High Level Committee on Corporate Bond Market. Stamp duty at the time of bond issues as also on securitized debt should be abolished by all the state governments. Corporate bonds may be permitted as eligible securities for repo transactions subject to strengthening of regulatory policies. The limitations on FIIs to invest in securities issued by Asset Reconstruction Companies should be on par with their investments in listed debt securities. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 29
Recommendations on developing Forex Markets Authorities need to be concerned about bank margins on Forex transactions of smaller customers. The best way to reduce margins would be first to separate Forex business from lending transactions Introducing an electronic trading platform on which Forex transactions could take place, the customer having the choice of trading with the bank quoting the best price. Allow more flexibility for banks to borrow and lend overseas both on short-term and long-term and increase the limits that are prescribed now to promote more interest parity with international markets. Banking should be allowed to hedge currency swaps by buying and selling without any monetary limits. Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 30
CURRENT STATUS AS PER THE BENCHMARKSSET UP BY THE COMMITTEE (2012): GDP Growth Rate :6.9% Debt Service Ratio: 5.6% External Debt:20%of GDP CRR:4.5% Inflation Rate:6.87% Forex Reserves:290 Bn $ Source: RBI appointed Tarapore 11/10/2012 Committee Report 2006 31