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working of various types of pumps

working of various types of pumps

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    This PowerPoint presentation can be used to train people about the basics of refrigeration and air condonditioning. The information on the slides is the minimum information that should be explained. The trainer notes for each slide provide more detailed information, but it is up to the trainer to decide if and how much of this information is presented also.
    Additional materials that can be used for the training session are available on www.energyefficiencyasia.org under “Energy Equipment” and include:
    Textbook chapter on this energy equipment that forms the basis of this PowerPoint presentation but has more detailed information
    Quiz – ten multiple choice questions that trainees can answer after the training session
    Option checklist – a list of the most important options to improve energy efficiency of this equipment
  • Positive displacement pumps are distinguished by the way they operate: liquid is taken from one end and positively discharged at the other end for every revolution.
    Reciprocating pump if the displacement is by reciprocation of a piston plunger. Reciprocating pumps are used only for pumping viscous liquids and oil wells.
    Rotary pumps if the displacement is by rotary action of a gear, cam or vanes in a chamber of diaphragm in a fixed casing. Rotary pumps are further classified such as internal gear, external gear, lobe and slide vane etc. These pumps are used for special services with particular conditions existing in industrial sites.
  • A centrifugal pump is one of the simplest pieces of equipment in any process plant. The figure shows how this type of pump operates:
    Liquid is forced into an impeller either by atmospheric pressure, or in case of a jet pump by artificial pressure.
    The vanes of impeller pass kinetic energy to the liquid, thereby causing the liquid to rotate. The liquid leaves the impeller at high velocity.
    The impeller is surrounded by a volute casing or in case of a turbine pump a stationary diffuser ring. The volute or stationary diffuser ring converts the kinetic energy into pressure energy.


  • 1. PumpsPumps 1 Prepare by:-Shivkumar PanjabiPrepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 2. INTRODUCTION The pump is mechanical device which conveys liquid from one place to another place. It can be defined as a hydraulic machines which converts the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. The pump is power absorbing machine.The power can be supplied to the pump by a prime mover like an electric motor, an internal combussion engine or turbine.. 2 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 3. It is classified into positive displacement pumps and rotodynamic pumps. • In positive displacement pumps-its operate on a principle of liquid discharge or displaced due to the positive or real displacement of working element. In rotodynamic pumps-its operate on a principle of the rise in pressure energy of liquid by dynamic action of liquid which is carried out by impeller. Classification of pumps 3 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 4. Pumps Classifications 4Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 5. Head:Head: Pressure is needed to pump the liquid through the system at a certain rate. This pressure has to be high enough to overcome the resistance of the system, which is also called “head”. .Different Types of Pump HeadDifferent Types of Pump Head  Static Suction HeadStatic Suction Head – It is the vertical height of the center line of pump shaft above the surface of liquid or it is energy required to lift liquid from sump to pump.  Static Discharge HeadStatic Discharge Head - – It is the vertical height of the center line of pump shaft to where liquid is delivered or it is energy required to lift liquid from pump to end of delivery pipe.  Total Static HeadTotal Static Head -  Total head when the pump is not runnig.  h = hs + hd  Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head)Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) - Total head when the pump is running  Velocity headVelocity head-Kinetic energy carried away by the liquid at the end of delivery pipe.  hv = V^2/2g  Manometric head-Manometric head-The total head required to developed by the pump.  Hm = hs +hd +hfs + hfd +hv  Water power (PwWater power (Pw) = Power required by pimp to handle the liquid to devlope manometric head.  Shaft power(Ps)Shaft power(Ps) –it is the power input by shaft of the pump by motor.  Efficiency = Pw / PsEfficiency = Pw / Ps 5 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 6. Static Suction Head Pump HeadPump Head Static Delivery Head Total Head 6 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 7. Operations of single acting reciprocating pump 7 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 8. Single Acting Reciprocating Pump Working of single acting Reciprocating Pump 8 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 9. Operation of double acting reciprocating pump 9 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 10. Double Acting Reciprocating pump Discharge Pipe Piston Rod Inlet Valves Outlet Valves 10 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 11. Air vessel is a closed chamber containing compressed air in the upper part and liquid being pumped in the Lower part. Purpose: To get continuous supply of liquid at a uniform rate To save considerable amount of work in overcoming the frictional resistance in suction and deliver pipes. To run the pump at much higher speed without any danger of separation. Air Vessels 11 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 12. 12 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 13. Principle: When a certain mass of fluid is rotated by an external source, it is thrown away from the central axis of rotation and a centrifugal head is impressed which enables it to rise to a higher level. •A device which used to converted mechanical energy into pressure energy by means of centrifugal force acting on the fluid,for conveying liquid from one place to nother is called centrifugal pump. Working Principle of Centrifugal pump 13 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 14. Main parts of a centrifugal pump Impeller Casing Suction pipe with foot-valve and a stainer Delivery pipe 14 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 15. 15 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 16. Centrifugal Pumps 16 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 17. Types of centrifugal pumps  According to type of casting 1. Volute type pump 2. Vortex type pump 3. Diffuser type pump  According to number of stages 1. Single stage 2. Multi stage 17 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 18. 18 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 19. 19 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 20. 20 Centrifugal Pumps How do they work? • Liquid forced into impeller • Vanes pass kinetic energy to liquid: liquid rotates and leaves impeller • Volute casing converts kinetic energy into pressure energy Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 21. Centrifugal Pump - Working 21 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 22. Volute Casing: In this type of casing the area of flow gradually increases from the impeller outlet to the delivery pipe. Vortex Casing: If a circular chamber is provided between the impeller and volute chamber the casing is known as Vortex Chamber. Diffuser Casinng : The impeller is surrounded by a diffuser. The guide vanes are designed in such a way that the water from the impeller enters the guide vanes without shock.  It reduces the vibration of the pump.  Diffuser casing, the diffuser and the outer casing are stationery parts. Volute and Diffuser casing 22 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 23. The operation of filling the suction pipe, casing and a portion of delivery pipe with the liquid to be raised, before starting the pump is known as Priming It is done to remove any air, gas or vapour from these parts of pump. Priming of a centrifugal Pump 23 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 24. Rotary pumps A rotary pump is a positive-displacement pump that consists of vanes mounted to a rotor that rotates inside of a cavity. In some cases these vanes can be variable length and/or tensioned to maintain contact with the walls as the pump rotates 24 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 25. Classification of rotary pump Gear pump Vane pump Screw pump 25 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 26. • Gear pumps are primarily used for high-viscosity liquids. Two or more gears trap liquid in the space between the gear teeth and the casing wall and convey it from inlet to outlet. Obviously, it is essential to minimize paths through which liquid could flow backward. 26 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 27. 27 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 28. Sliding vane pumps 28 The vanes are a sliding fit in slots cut in the rotor. The rotor turns eccentric to the casing, causing the cavities to decrease in volume. Vanes can be forced out by centrifugal force, use springs or utilise the pressure of the discharge liquid. Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 29. 29 Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 30. Twin-screw pumps 30 Due to the imbalance of forces, this type of pump often has the suction arranged at the centre of the Shdft screws and the delivery at either end, and is often driven through timing gears, which keep the screws from contacting each other. Prepare by:-Shivkumar Panjabi
  • 31. Thank you for your attention