Paraphrasing
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Paraphrasing

on

  • 1,386 views

Advice and exercises to help you to learn how to paraphrase.

Advice and exercises to help you to learn how to paraphrase.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,386
Views on SlideShare
1,359
Embed Views
27

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
132
Comments
0

2 Embeds 27

http://moodle.nottingham.ac.uk 26
https://sdccd.blackboard.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike LicenseCC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Presentation Transcript

  • (or How Do I Stop Myself From Plagiarising?)
  • 1. So what isparaphrasing?
  • 1. So what isparaphrasing?2. Why should werewrite somethingwhen we have someoneelses perfectly goodpiece of writing?
  • 1. So what is 3. Is paraphrasing justparaphrasing? changing a couple of words?2. Why should werewrite somethingwhen we have someoneelses perfectly goodpiece of writing?
  • 1. So what is 3. Is paraphrasing justparaphrasing? changing a couple of words?2. Why should werewrite something 4. How do I paraphrasewhen we have someone and is it difficult toelses perfectly good learn?piece of writing?
  • 1. So what isparaphrasing?
  • Paraphrasing is the art of taking1. So what is information or an idea or ideasparaphrasing? that other people have written about and expressing it or them in your own words.
  • Paraphrasing is the art of taking1. So what is information or an idea or ideasparaphrasing? that other people have written about and expressing it or them in your own words. Being able to express something clearly and concisely yourself, using your own words, is not only a clear example of your ability to write, but also gives you as a writer a great deal of satisfaction.
  • 2. Why should werewrite somethingwhen we havesomeone elsesperfectly goodpiece of writing?
  • 2. Why should we A completely fair question, butrewrite something you are university students andwhen we have the whole point of being at ansomeone elses institution of higher learning is toperfectly good be educated and surely to be ablepiece of writing? to demonstrate to employers, your peers, parents and to yourselves, that you are an educated, capable person.
  • 2. Why should we A completely fair question, butrewrite something you are university students andwhen we have the whole point of being at ansomeone elses institution of higher learning is toperfectly good be educated and surely to be ablepiece of writing? to demonstrate to employers, your peers, parents and to yourselves, that you are an educated, capable person. Simply copying the ideas of others demonstrates that you will be good at taking orders, good at replicating what has happened before… and would be a most successful worker at KFC.
  • 2. Why should we However, to get employment in arewrite something position that leads somewhere,when we have that gets respect and thatsomeone elses provides personal satisfactionperfectly good (one of the job requirements thatpiece of writing? is most overlooked but also most important) you really need to be innovative and able to express yourself in interesting and original ways. So, you need to paraphrase so you will get both short and long term benefits from learning how to do something by and for yourself.
  • 3. Is paraphrasingjust changing acouple of words?
  • 3. Is paraphrasing Paraphrasing is much, muchjust changing a more than changing a few keycouple of words? words.
  • 3. Is paraphrasing Paraphrasing is much, muchjust changing a more than changing a few keycouple of words? words. Paraphrasing is about you taking ideas and writing about them yourself.
  • 3. Is paraphrasing Paraphrasing is much, muchjust changing a more than changing a few keycouple of words? words. Paraphrasing is about you taking ideas and writing about them yourself. It involves reading and understanding a text or texts, or listening to other people and being able convey the ideas or information that they have put forward using your own words.
  • 4. How do Iparaphrase and is itdifficult to learn?
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice.
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice. To paraphrase you need to:
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice. To paraphrase you need to: •read and understand
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice. To paraphrase you need to: •read and understand •have a wide knowledge of synonyms and word choice
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice. To paraphrase you need to: •read and understand •have a wide knowledge of synonyms and word choice •be comfortable with the use of different word forms
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice. To paraphrase you need to: •read and understand •have a wide knowledge of synonyms and word choice •be comfortable with the use of different word forms •be able to re-order and re- structure sentences
  • Paraphrasing isnt the easiest skill4. How do I in academic writing, but it isparaphrase and is it essential and it becomes muchdifficult to learn? easier with practice. To paraphrase you need to: •read and understand •have a wide knowledge of synonyms and word choice •be comfortable with the use of different word forms •be able to re-order and re- structure sentences •be concise
  • The following exercises are in themselves notparaphrasing, but taken as a whole or using all 3together is the beginnings of being able toparaphrase.
  • The following exercises are in themselves notparaphrasing, but taken as a whole or using all 3together is the beginnings of being able toparaphrase.Some words cannot be changed when you areparaphrasing. "The internet," for example, cannotbe changed to "computer controlled pc to pccommunication and information interface" nor can"Nottingham University" be changed to "theinstitution of higher learning located in Nottingham"
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, youare aiming toreplace one ortwo words withsynonyms.
  • VOCABULARYIn these 1. Many well known multinationalsentences, you companies are located in Neware aiming to York.replace one ortwo words with 2. International cooperation issynonyms. needed to put a stop to world poverty. 3. Computer games take up too much time of many students.
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, you 1. Many well knownare aiming to multinational companies arereplace one or located in New York.two words withsynonyms.
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, you 1. Many well knownare aiming to multinational companies arereplace one or located in New York.two words withsynonyms. Many famous multinational companies are situated in New York.
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, you 2. International cooperation isare aiming to needed to put a stop to worldreplace one or poverty.two words withsynonyms.
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, you 2. International cooperation isare aiming to needed to put a stop to worldreplace one or poverty.two words withsynonyms. International cooperation is necessary to put a stop to global poverty.
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, you 3. Computer games take up tooare aiming to much time of manyreplace one or students.two words withsynonyms.
  • VOCABULARYIn thesesentences, you 3. Computer games take up tooare aiming to much time of manyreplace one or students.two words withsynonyms. Computer games waste too much time of many pupils.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming tochange the wordform of one ortwo of the wordsin the sentenceand then rewritethe sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORM 1. It is not easy to manage aIn these football team.sentences, you 2. You are required to completeare aiming to your coursework essay beforechange the word the end of the semester.form of one or 3. There are many dangers whentwo of the words travelling in Central America.in the sentenceand then rewrite 4. Being poor often results in athe sentence. You greater chance ofdo not need to malnutrition and disease.use synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 1. It is not easy to manage achange the word football team.form of one ortwo of the wordsin the sentenceand then rewritethe sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 1. It is not easy to manage achange the word football team.form of one ortwo of the words The management of ain the sentence football team is not easy.and then rewritethe sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 2. You are required to completechange the word your coursework essay beforeform of one or the end of the semester.two of the wordsin the sentenceand then rewritethe sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 2. You are required to completechange the word your coursework essay beforeform of one or the end of the semester.two of the wordsin the sentence The completion of yourand then rewrite coursework essay isthe sentence. You required before the end ofdo not need to the semester.use synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 3. There are many dangers whenchange the word travelling in Central America.form of one ortwo of the wordsin the sentenceand then rewritethe sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 3. There are many dangers whenchange the word travelling in Central America.form of one ortwo of the words It is dangerous whenin the sentence travelling in Centraland then rewrite America.the sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 4. Being poor often results in achange the word greater chance ofform of one or malnutrition and disease.two of the wordsin the sentenceand then rewritethe sentence. Youdo not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • WORD FORMIn thesesentences, youare aiming to 4. Being poor often results in achange the word greater chance ofform of one or malnutrition and disease.two of the wordsin the sentence A greater chance ofand then rewrite malnutrition and diseasethe sentence. You often results from poverty.do not need touse synonyms ofthose words.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentencestructure, butdont change themeaning.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTURE 1. Toyotas are made in Japan.In thesesentences change 2. It is illegal to sell heroin inthe sentence Australia.structure, butdont change themeaning. 3. A lot of people dont know the effect of antibiotics. 4. People would buy fewer goods if they were shown less advertising.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 1. Toyotas are made in Japan.structure, butdont change themeaning.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 1. Toyotas are made in Japan.structure, butdont change the They make Toyotas in Japan.meaning.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 2. It is illegal to sell heroin instructure, but Australia.dont change themeaning.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 2. It is illegal to sell heroin instructure, but Australia.dont change themeaning. Selling heroin in Australia is illegal.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 3. A lot of people dont knowstructure, but the effect of antibiotics.dont change themeaning.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 3. A lot of people dont knowstructure, but the effect of antibiotics.dont change themeaning. The effects of antibiotics are not known by a lot of people.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 4. People would buy fewerstructure, but goods if they were showndont change the less advertising.meaning.
  • SENTENCESTRUCTUREIn thesesentences changethe sentence 4. People would buy fewerstructure, but goods if they were showndont change the less advertising.meaning. If people were shown less advertising they would buy fewer goods.
  • WORD LEVELIn these exercises you have to rewrite thesentences.Often quite a few words can be replaced with just1 or 2 words that accurately express the mainidea(s) of the sentence.(This is one of the key parts of paraphrasing –rewriting and using as few words as possible.
  • 1. Some employees have to work long hours in hot, overcrowded conditions for low pay.2. Computers can process information quicker and with less mistakes than people.3. The process of large numbers of people moving from the countryside into cities means that the amount of housing, roading, schools, hospitals, electricity, water and sewerage, for example, has to improve.4. People attend higher learning institutions so that they gain lots of knowledge about a wide range of subjects and to get diplomas and bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees.
  • 1. Some employees have to work long hours in hot, overcrowded conditions for low pay.
  • 1. Some employees have to work long hours in hot, overcrowded conditions for low pay. Some workers are exploited.
  • 2. Computers can process information quicker and with less mistakes than people.
  • 2. Computers can process information quicker and with less mistakes than people.Computers are more efficient than people.
  • 3. The process of large numbers of people moving from the countryside into cities means that the amount of housing, roading, schools, hospitals, electri city, water and sewerage, for example, has to improve.
  • 3. The process of large numbers of people moving from the countryside into cities means that the amount of housing, roading, schools, hospitals, electricity, water and sewerage, for example, has to improve.Increased urbanisation requires improved infrastructure.
  • 4. People attend higher learning institutions so that they gain lots of knowledge about a wide range of subjects and to get diplomas and bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees.
  • 4. People attend higher learning institutions so that they gain lots of knowledge about a wide range of subjects and to get diplomas and bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees. People go to tertiary institutions to get educated and gain qualifications.
  • Now try to rewrite these 3 sentences using your ownwords – try to use all the paraphrasing techniques youhave been practicing.1. Globally, businesses, national and local governments, and property owners have begun to retrofit millions of older buildings in a bid to cut down on energy use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.2. Firefighters have spent Friday afternoon and evening trying to contain the front of a fire that is threatening communities in Western Australias south-west.3. A fifth of universities in England have made last- minute cuts to the tuition fees they will charge students next year, triggering potential chaos for
  • Once you have completed these exercises you are on the way to be beingable to paraphrase, although you still need to keep practicing.There are many ways to practice paraphrasing. You could:• take sentences, paragraphs or short sections from a textbook andrewrite them in your own words• look back at some of your own essays or those of your classmates andrewrite sections of them• take short extracts from novels, magazines, websites or any otherwritten material and paraphrase themParaphrasing is not an easy skill, but with practice you will become goodat it, and your essay, dissertation and thesis writing will be much betteras a result.