The State ofPhilippine ForeignAffairsRonald M Joves, MNSA22 September 2007Philippine Foreign Affairs (IS-39)
The terms of reference ofPhilippine foreign policy The Constitution National Interests
The 1987 PhilippineConstitution The State shall pursue and independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interests, and the right to self-determination (Section 7, Article II).
The National Interests The sum total of all national economic, political, socio-cultural, techno- scientific, and environmental goals. The very core of foreign policy formulation and implementation. Without national interests, the country will be in a state of flux.
Charting Future Directions:The “835” Approach The Eight Realities The Three Pillars The Five Dimensions
The Eight Realities: 1, 2, 3 The determining influence of China, Japan, and the US in the security and economic evolution in East Asia. Foreign policy decisions within the ASEAN context. The importance of the international Islamic community.
The Eight Realities: 4, 5, 6 The dependence on foreign investments. The role of multilateral and inter- regional organizations in securing common interests. The defense of sovereignty and protection of environment and natural resources.
The Eight Realities: 7 & 8 The benefits derived international tourism and strength of human resources. The crucial role of overseas Filipino workers.
The Three Pillars of PFA National Security Development Diplomacy Overseas Filipino Workers
The Five Dimensions Political Economic Socio-Cultural Techno-Scientific Environmental Military
The 835 Approach … Determines the course of action taken by decision-makers Decisions are made on the basis of what looms large in the radar screen of Philippine affairs Juxtaposed with National Interests
8 + 3 + 5 = Ideal FP
Foreign PolicyResponses in theMacapagal-ArroyoAdministration
The Contending Views The decisions were criticized. The decisions were controversial and unconventional. The decisions have put the country close to harm’s way.
The Contending Views The decisions or initiatives were bold and trailblazing. The decisions enabled the country to gain political and economic advantages and opportunities.
Whether they werecontroversial or bold, the aimof the State was to addresswhat it considered a matter ofnational interest.
Foreign policy responsesconditioned and influenced by Domestic and international terrorism Transnational issues Insurgency and separatist movements Growing incidence of poverty
Step taken by the ForeignOffice Seek a permanent solution to problems in southern Philippines and the insurgency problem Combat terrorism Resolve the South China Sea issue Cooperate in multilateral forums to establish peace and development
Step taken by the ForeignOffice Cooperate in multilateral forums to establish regional peace and development Participation in the Coalition of the Willing Active participation in the United Nations and other international organizations.
Seeking a lasting peacefulsolution to the MILF and CPP-NPA-NDF problems andcombating threats posed by theAbu Sayyaf and other terroristgroups
Seeking a lasting solution… The most visible and gripping issue faced by the State. The issue has festered the State since the Marcos Administration. Assistance was sought from the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
Seeking a lasting solution… The Aquino Administration freed all political detainees The Ramos Administration forged a peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front of Chairman Nur Misuari. The Estrada Administration launched an all-out military offensive in Mindanao.
Seeking a lasting solution… The Arroyo Administration sought a holistic approach in the quest for a lasting solution. A humanitarian offensive alongside a military offensive. Forged a Final Peace Agreement with both the MILF and the CPP-NPA-NDF
Festering controversy Does the involvement of foreign countries encourage the interference in the domestic affairs of State?
Festering controversy Foreign countries aided local insurgents by providing weapons, ammunition, cash to advance the cause of their local brothers and comrades.
The re-channeling of assistance With the help of foreign countries, support to local insurgents have dramatically diminished. Foreign assistance now channeled to socio-economic programs and projects for the greater advantage of the affected civilians. Prevented the spawning of new groups.
The re-channeling of assistance The Visiting Forces Agreement addresses the training and modernization of the AFP in combating terrorism and threats to national security. The US Institute of Peace and USAID committed funds in support of quality education and sustainable microfinance to former rebels.
September 11, 1991 a.k.a. 9/11 Altered the political landscape and historical course of the world. Impacted on foreign policy priorities.
September 11, 1991 a.k.a. 9/11 President Arroyo was first Asian to throw its support in the call to combat global terrorism. The State exerted efforts to strengthen political and security cooperation to reduce local threat and reinforce regional cooperation.
September 11, 1991 a.k.a. 9/11 Bilateral counter-terrorism agreements were concluded with the United States, Australia, and Russia. Regional agreements were likewise concluded with ASEAN, ASEM, APEC, and the UN.
The ASEAN, ARF, ASEAN+3
The ASEAN, ARF, ASEAN+3 ASEAN is the cornerstone of Philippine foreign policy ASEAN is the political core of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
The ASEAN, ARF, ASEAN+3 The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is a venue for the Philippines to dialogue with 21 countries on development, economic, political, a nd security issues.
The ASEAN, ARF, ASEAN+3 The Philippines takes the lead in ASEAN in areas of good governance, human rights, human resource development, transnational issues, poverty alleviation, financial reform, maritime cooperation, socio- economic cooperation, and information technology.
Regional Peaceand Security
The Flashpoints ofPhilippine foreign affairs
The Flashpoints The Philippines hopes to promote regional peace by espousing conflict resolution and prevention through confidence building measures (CBMs) CBMs include the Declaration of Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea signed by ASEAN and China
The Korean Peninsula The vestige of the Cold War era. The remaining “Wall or Curtain” between the East and West Conflict. Stems from the continued nuclear program initiated by North Korea. The Philippines actively involved in the ASEAN’s “Six Party Talks.”
The Taiwan Straits The One-China Policy with Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) as a renegade province under PROC sovereignty. The current Kuomintang leadership are Taiwan-born, thus fueling local nationalism and independence. Formal declaration of independence could result in a PROC offensive.
The South China Sea The flashpoint closest to home. The contested Kalayaan Island Group (KIG) is only a few nautical miles off Palawan. The flashpoint stems from overlapping claims of neighboring states.
The South China Sea The Philippine stake on the SCS is great due to potential oil and gas deposits in the water. More importantly, the Philippines must first settle the issue of adherence between the Treaty of Paris and UNCLOS.
The India-Pakistan Conflict Stems from ethno-religious animosity between the two states. The battle space of the conflict lies in Kashmir over accession issue in 1947. Regional Nuclear Arms Race: A mini US-USSR rivalry sans resources.
Coalition of the Willing Guided by twin desire: to ensure immediate and long-term safety of Filipinos in the Middle East and to deprive terrorists of the ability to use or threaten the use of weapons of mass destruction
Coalition of the Willing UNSC Resolution 1472 of 28 March 2003 which states that the UN “calls on the international community to provide immediate humanitarian assistance to the people of Iraq….”
Coalition of the Willing The case of Angelo De La Cruz put to the balance international commitments as against national interest The withdrawal of Philippine contingent caused a stir both locally and internationally A classic example of the primordial value of human life, particularly of a Filipino life, prevailing over an international commitment
An Inconvenient Truth:Addressing EnvironmentalConcerns in the PhilippineForeign Affairs
The Keystone: SustainableDevelopment Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED 1987).
The Keystone: SustainableDevelopment Entails social and structural economic transformations which optimize the economic and societal benefits available in the present, without jeopardizing or compromising the likely potential for similar benefits in the future.
The Keystone: SustainableDevelopment Providing a quality of life that is sustained from generation-to- generation. Ensuring the survival of all species within the biosphere even those that do not benefit the human life form.
http://www.cornwall.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=12148 Retrieved 21 September 2007
The Kyoto Protocol Amendment to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Sets mandatory emission limitations for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the signatory nations The Philippines ratified the agreement on 16 February 2005
The Montreal Protocol A landmark agreement designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. Stipulates the production and consumption of compounds that deplete the ozone in the stratosphere, e.g., CFCs Ratified by the Philippines on 17 July 1991
The Rio Declaration Also known as the Earth Summit Adopted in Stockholm on 18 June 1972 Intended to guide future sustainable development around the world Translated in Philippine context into the Philippine Agenda 21
Blue Print for SustainableDevelopment:Philippine Agenda 21
Philippine Agenda 21 In line with the World Summit on Sustainable Development which was held in Johannesburg a decade after the Rio Summit, Identified 5 priority environmental issues: water supply and sanitation Energy Biodiversity Poverty Alleviation and Health Desertification.
Philippine Agenda 21 Envisions a better quality of life for all, through the development of a just, moral, creative, spiritual, economically- vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society Characterized by appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.
PhilippineLegislations onthe Environment
Philippine Legislations Responses of the Legislative Branch to address environmental concerns locally and internationally. Aids in providing an atmosphere conducive to foreign investments. Stands as a testimony to the State’s commitment to international obligations.
Philippine Legislations The Clean Air Act The National Integrated Protected Areas Systems (NIPA) Act The Conservation and Protection of Wildlife and Their Habitats Act The Ecological Waste Management Act The Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Act
Conclusion The Cold War is over No more brinkmanship and East-West tension In a sense, diplomacy seemed easier and more manageable then. Everything was either black or white.
Conclusion There is only one superpower Peace and security remains elusive Who is now the “enemy or enemies of the State?” Is it another State? A person? A contentious issue? A natural phenomenon? Or an ill-timed, ill- advised decision?
One thing is certain In this Global, Transnational Age, acts or decisions made by one State can have tremendous and implications impact not only locally, but more importantly, internationally. States need to formulate policies that are responsive to the current reality and needs.
The take of the Philippines The Philippines should carefully balance its international commitment with what it identifies as its national interests. Between the two, the primordial concern ought to be the promotion and protection of national interests.
Up next…. The Threats and Opportunities of Philippine Foreign Affairs Philippine Foreign Policy and the Universal Good: The Ethical, Ideal Perspective in a Global Age
Principal Sources Philippine Diplomacy in the 21st Century, Conference Proceedings, 28 November 2003 (April 2004). Makati: Hanns Seidel Foundation Almonte, Jose T. New Directions and Priorities in Philippine Foreign Relations (1998). Asia Society.
The Decision-Making Process<http://www.geocities.com/cfidarren/crmfund.htm> Retrieved 20 September 2007