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Techniques of teaching by Shams pandrani SS Kalat college
 

Techniques of teaching by Shams pandrani SS Kalat college

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    Techniques of teaching by Shams pandrani SS Kalat college Techniques of teaching by Shams pandrani SS Kalat college Presentation Transcript

    • TEACHING TECHNIQUES ANDTEACHING TECHNIQUES AND METHODSMETHODS
    • Presented by Shams ud din pandraniPresented by Shams ud din pandrani  BrainstormingBrainstorming  Problem Solving MethodProblem Solving Method  Cooperative Learning TechniqueCooperative Learning Technique  Case MethodCase Method  Drama TechniqueDrama Technique
    • Brainstorming:Brainstorming:
    • OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  Students will be able to say possible problems ofStudents will be able to say possible problems of the given case using brainstorming technique.the given case using brainstorming technique.  Students will be able to say the possibleStudents will be able to say the possible solutions for the problems for the given casesolutions for the problems for the given case using brainstorming technique.using brainstorming technique.
    • CASE:CASE: Mrs. has a very passive character, she reflects itMrs. has a very passive character, she reflects it to the class and it affects her classroomto the class and it affects her classroom management in a negative way. Her studentsmanagement in a negative way. Her students also have realized this situation and it leads heralso have realized this situation and it leads her to come across with some problems in the class.to come across with some problems in the class.  What are the possible problems and solutionsWhat are the possible problems and solutions for this case?for this case?
    • PROBLEMS:PROBLEMS:  Lack of student involvementLack of student involvement  NoiseNoise  Cheating in examsCheating in exams  The students may not attend the classThe students may not attend the class  The students may not listen to the teacherThe students may not listen to the teacher  The students may not do their homeworks or tasksThe students may not do their homeworks or tasks  The students may come to the class on purposeThe students may come to the class on purpose  The students do different kinds of things in the classThe students do different kinds of things in the class such as sleeping or drawing pictures etc.such as sleeping or drawing pictures etc.
    • SOLUTIONS:SOLUTIONS:  The teacher should choose activities which appeal toThe teacher should choose activities which appeal to the studentsthe students  The teacher may set some classroom rules with theThe teacher may set some classroom rules with the studentsstudents  The teacher should try to keep the students as busy asThe teacher should try to keep the students as busy as possible and should not let them to be interested inpossible and should not let them to be interested in different thingsdifferent things  The teacher should attend personal developmentThe teacher should attend personal development coursescourses  The teacher may want one of her collegues to help herThe teacher may want one of her collegues to help her
    •  The teacher should take the attendance regularlyThe teacher should take the attendance regularly to solve the problems about attending the classto solve the problems about attending the class  The teacher should talk with the students andThe teacher should talk with the students and decide what to do with the late comersdecide what to do with the late comers  The teacher may ask for one of her collegue’sThe teacher may ask for one of her collegue’s help in the exams in order to prevent cheatinghelp in the exams in order to prevent cheating  The teacher may talk to some studentsThe teacher may talk to some students individually, if it is necessaryindividually, if it is necessary  The teacher should work cooperatively with theThe teacher should work cooperatively with the ministryministry
    • SUMMARY OFSUMMARY OF BRAINSTORMING:BRAINSTORMING: BrainstormingBrainstorming is a group creativity technique that wasis a group creativity technique that was designed to generate a large number of ideas for thedesigned to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problemsolution of a problem.. It is particularly helpful when you need to break out ofIt is particularly helpful when you need to break out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you canstale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways of looking at things. This can bedevelop new ways of looking at things. This can be when you need to develop new opportunities, wherewhen you need to develop new opportunities, where you want to improve the service that you offer, or whenyou want to improve the service that you offer, or when existing approaches just aren't giving you the resultsexisting approaches just aren't giving you the results you want.you want.
    • Used with your team, it helps you bring theUsed with your team, it helps you bring the experience of all team members into play duringexperience of all team members into play during problem solvingproblem solving There are four basic rules inThere are four basic rules in brainstorming.These are intended to reduce thebrainstorming.These are intended to reduce the social inhibitions that occur in groups andsocial inhibitions that occur in groups and therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas.therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas. The expected result is a dynamic synergy thatThe expected result is a dynamic synergy that will dramatically increase the creativity of thewill dramatically increase the creativity of the group.group.
    • RULES OF BRAINSTORMINGRULES OF BRAINSTORMING  Focus on quantityFocus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing: This rule is a means of enhancing divergent production, aiming to facilitate problem solvingdivergent production, aiming to facilitate problem solving through the maxim,through the maxim, quantity breeds qualityquantity breeds quality. The assumption is. The assumption is that the greater the number of ideas generated, the greaterthat the greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution.the chance of producing a radical and effective solution.  No criticismNo criticism: It is often emphasized that in group: It is often emphasized that in group brainstorming, criticism should be put 'on hold'. Instead ofbrainstorming, criticism should be put 'on hold'. Instead of immediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, theimmediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, the participants focus on extending or adding to it, reservingparticipants focus on extending or adding to it, reserving criticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. Bycriticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. By suspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmospheresuspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmosphere where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas.where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas.
    •  Unusual ideas are welcomeUnusual ideas are welcome: To get a good and: To get a good and long list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. Theylong list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. They may open new ways of thinking and provide bettermay open new ways of thinking and provide better solutions than regular ideas. They can be generated bysolutions than regular ideas. They can be generated by looking from another perspective or setting asidelooking from another perspective or setting aside assumptions.assumptions.  Combine and improve ideasCombine and improve ideas: Good ideas can be: Good ideas can be combined to form a single very good idea, ascombined to form a single very good idea, as suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach issuggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach is assumed to lead to better and more complete ideasassumed to lead to better and more complete ideas than merely generating new ideas alone. It is believedthan merely generating new ideas alone. It is believed to stimulate the building of ideas by a process ofto stimulate the building of ideas by a process of association.association.
    • OUTLINE OF THE METHODOUTLINE OF THE METHOD  Set the problemSet the problem One of the most important things to do before aOne of the most important things to do before a session is to define the problem. The problemsession is to define the problem. The problem must be clear, not too big, and captured in amust be clear, not too big, and captured in a definite question such asdefinite question such as “What service for mobile“What service for mobile phones is not available now, but needed?“phones is not available now, but needed?“. If the. If the problem is too big, the chairman should divide itproblem is too big, the chairman should divide it into smaller components, each with its owninto smaller components, each with its own question.question.
    •  Create a background memoCreate a background memo The background memo is the invitation andThe background memo is the invitation and informational letter for the participants,informational letter for the participants, containing the session name, problem, time,containing the session name, problem, time, date, and place. The problem is described in thedate, and place. The problem is described in the form of a question, and some example ideas areform of a question, and some example ideas are given. The ideas are solutions to the problem,given. The ideas are solutions to the problem, and used when the session slows down or goesand used when the session slows down or goes off-track.off-track.
    •  Select participantsSelect participants The chairman composes the brainstormingThe chairman composes the brainstorming panel, consisting of the participants and an ideapanel, consisting of the participants and an idea collector. Ten or fewer group members arecollector. Ten or fewer group members are generally more productive than larger groups.generally more productive than larger groups. Many variations are possible but the followingMany variations are possible but the following composition is suggested.composition is suggested.
    •  Several core members of the project who haveSeveral core members of the project who have proved themselves.proved themselves.  Several guests from outside the project, withSeveral guests from outside the project, with affinity to the problem.affinity to the problem.  One idea collector who records the suggestedOne idea collector who records the suggested ideas.ideas.
    •  Create a list of lead questionsCreate a list of lead questions During the brainstorm session the creativity mayDuring the brainstorm session the creativity may decrease. At this moment, the chairman shoulddecrease. At this moment, the chairman should stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead questionstimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question to answer, such asto answer, such as Can we combine these ideas?Can we combine these ideas? oror How about a look from another perspective?How about a look from another perspective?. It is. It is advised to prepare a list of such leads before theadvised to prepare a list of such leads before the session begins.session begins.
    •  Session conductSession conduct The chairman leads the brainstorming sessionThe chairman leads the brainstorming session and ensures that the basic rules are followed.and ensures that the basic rules are followed. The activities of a typical session are:The activities of a typical session are: A warm-up session, to expose noviceA warm-up session, to expose novice participants to the criticism-free environment. Aparticipants to the criticism-free environment. A simple problem is brainstormed, for examplesimple problem is brainstormed, for example What should be the next corporate Christmas present?What should be the next corporate Christmas present? oror What can be improved in Microsoft Windows?What can be improved in Microsoft Windows?..
    •  The chairman presents the problem and gives aThe chairman presents the problem and gives a further explanation if needed.further explanation if needed.  The chairman asks the brainstorming panel for theirThe chairman asks the brainstorming panel for their ideas.ideas.  If no ideas are coming out, the chairman suggests aIf no ideas are coming out, the chairman suggests a lead to encourage creativity.lead to encourage creativity.  Every participant presents his or her idea, and theEvery participant presents his or her idea, and the idea collector records them.idea collector records them.  If more than one participant has ideas, the chairmanIf more than one participant has ideas, the chairman lets the most associated idea be presented first. Thislets the most associated idea be presented first. This selection can be done by looking at the body languageselection can be done by looking at the body language of the participants, or just by asking for the mostof the participants, or just by asking for the most associated idea.associated idea.
    •  The participants try to elaborate on the idea, toThe participants try to elaborate on the idea, to improve the quality.improve the quality.  When time is up, the chairman organizes theWhen time is up, the chairman organizes the ideas based on the topic goal and encouragesideas based on the topic goal and encourages discussion. Additional ideas may be generated.discussion. Additional ideas may be generated.  Ideas are categorized.Ideas are categorized.  The whole list is reviewed to ensure thatThe whole list is reviewed to ensure that everyone understands the ideas. Duplicate ideaseveryone understands the ideas. Duplicate ideas and obviously infeasible solutions are removed.and obviously infeasible solutions are removed.  The chairman thanks all participants and givesThe chairman thanks all participants and gives each a token of appreciationeach a token of appreciation
    • The processThe process::  Participants who have an idea but no possibility toParticipants who have an idea but no possibility to present it are encouraged to write down their ideapresent it are encouraged to write down their idea and present it later.and present it later.  The idea collector should number the ideas, so thatThe idea collector should number the ideas, so that the chairman can use the number to encouragethe chairman can use the number to encourage quantitative idea generation, for example:quantitative idea generation, for example: We have 44We have 44 ideas now, let’s get it to 50!ideas now, let’s get it to 50!..  The idea collector should repeat the idea in the wordsThe idea collector should repeat the idea in the words he or she has written it, to confirm that it expresseshe or she has written it, to confirm that it expresses the meaning intended by the originator.the meaning intended by the originator.
    •  When more participants are having ideas, the oneWhen more participants are having ideas, the one with the most associated idea should have priority.with the most associated idea should have priority. This to encourage elaboration on previous ideas.This to encourage elaboration on previous ideas.  During the brainstorming session the attendance ofDuring the brainstorming session the attendance of managers and superiors is strongly discouraged, as itmanagers and superiors is strongly discouraged, as it may inhibit and reduce the effect of the four basicmay inhibit and reduce the effect of the four basic rules, especially the generation of unusual ideasrules, especially the generation of unusual ideas
    • QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS: 1.1. Which one of the followings is not one of theWhich one of the followings is not one of the rules of brainstorming?rules of brainstorming?  combine and improve ideascombine and improve ideas  no critisismno critisism  the chairman selects ideasthe chairman selects ideas  focus on quantityfocus on quantity
    • 2.2. Which one of the followings is not one of theWhich one of the followings is not one of the possible compositions for selectingpossible compositions for selecting participants in brainstorming technique?participants in brainstorming technique?  One idea collector who records the suggestedOne idea collector who records the suggested ideasideas  Whomever wants can attendWhomever wants can attend  Several core members of the project who haveSeveral core members of the project who have proved themselvesproved themselves  Several guests from outside the project, withSeveral guests from outside the project, with affinity to the problemaffinity to the problem
    • 3.3. What is the role of a chairman inWhat is the role of a chairman in brainstorming technique?brainstorming technique? 4.4. What happens in creating a background memoWhat happens in creating a background memo step in brainstorming?step in brainstorming?
    • Problem-Solving Method:Problem-Solving Method:
    • OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  This method helps students to gain the ability ofThis method helps students to gain the ability of scientific problem solving and using it in thescientific problem solving and using it in the every area of life.every area of life.  Whit this method,teachers aim is to raise a youthWhit this method,teachers aim is to raise a youth which can solve problems in scientific way notwhich can solve problems in scientific way not just creating problems.just creating problems.
    • CASECASE Mr.Goodluck is a teacher.He teaches English in a high school. He carefullyMr.Goodluck is a teacher.He teaches English in a high school. He carefully plans and prepares his lessons the day before.If something lasts longerplans and prepares his lessons the day before.If something lasts longer than he expected and planned,he feels rather irritated.He likes his studentsthan he expected and planned,he feels rather irritated.He likes his students but he thinks that it is waste of time to chat with students at the beginningbut he thinks that it is waste of time to chat with students at the beginning of the lesson.He prefers to start the lesson immediately.During theof the lesson.He prefers to start the lesson immediately.During the lessons,he tells everything in front of the classroom.He asks questions butlessons,he tells everything in front of the classroom.He asks questions but does not give any time to students to think on it and answers it himself.Hedoes not give any time to students to think on it and answers it himself.He always implements the lessons in the same way:he is the centre of thealways implements the lessons in the same way:he is the centre of the lesson,students just listen to him.He sometimes ask questions butlesson,students just listen to him.He sometimes ask questions but whenever students give wrong answers,he gets angry.So the studentwhenever students give wrong answers,he gets angry.So the student hesitate to say something.If a problem emerges,he can not solve it,he is sohesitate to say something.If a problem emerges,he can not solve it,he is so helpless.He never makes jokes or smiles during the lesson.So the lessonshelpless.He never makes jokes or smiles during the lesson.So the lessons are boring. Because of this,students get bored and start to talk to eachare boring. Because of this,students get bored and start to talk to each other and of course this causenoise in the classroom and makes himother and of course this causenoise in the classroom and makes him angry,too.Sometimes he wants students to form groups and give themangry,too.Sometimes he wants students to form groups and give them tasks but while students are wrking on it they make noise and he stops thetasks but while students are wrking on it they make noise and he stops the activity.He turns back his traditional way...activity.He turns back his traditional way...
    • WHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVINGWHAT IS PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD?METHOD?  Problem solving is a process to choose and useProblem solving is a process to choose and use the effective and benefical tool and behavioursthe effective and benefical tool and behaviours among the different potentialities to reach theamong the different potentialities to reach the target.target.  It contains scientific method,criticalIt contains scientific method,critical thinking,taking decision,examining and reflectivethinking,taking decision,examining and reflective thinking.thinking.  This method is used in the process of solving aThis method is used in the process of solving a problem to generalize or to make synthesis.problem to generalize or to make synthesis.
    • STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVINGSTEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESSPROCESS 1-Choosing the topic and emergence of problem.1-Choosing the topic and emergence of problem. 2-Delimitation of the problem.2-Delimitation of the problem. 3-Planning the application.3-Planning the application. 4-Preparing the working guide.4-Preparing the working guide. 5-Providing the sources.5-Providing the sources. 6-Examining the problem.6-Examining the problem. 7-Getting a conclusion.7-Getting a conclusion. 8-Disputating the topics,views and findings.8-Disputating the topics,views and findings.
    • ADVANTAGES OF PROBLEMADVANTAGES OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHODSOLVING METHOD  It provides the active participation of the students inIt provides the active participation of the students in teaching-learning activity.teaching-learning activity.  It habituates student to study regularly and organized.It habituates student to study regularly and organized.  It provides students o gain scientific view and thinking.It provides students o gain scientific view and thinking.  It makes students to be interested in learning.It makes students to be interested in learning.  It helps to improve the sense of responsibility ofIt helps to improve the sense of responsibility of students.students.  It provides students to face the problems boldly and toIt provides students to face the problems boldly and to deal with it in a scientific approach.deal with it in a scientific approach.
    •  It helps students to adopt the view of benefitIt helps students to adopt the view of benefit from others ideas and to help each other.from others ideas and to help each other.  It predicates the learning to a more logical andIt predicates the learning to a more logical and doughty foundation.doughty foundation.  It improves the ability of making proposes andIt improves the ability of making proposes and putting forward the hypothesis.putting forward the hypothesis.  It helps students to adopt the idea of not to beIt helps students to adopt the idea of not to be hurry to make a decision.hurry to make a decision.
    • DISADVANTAGES OF PROBLEMDISADVANTAGES OF PROBLEM SOLVING METHODSOLVING METHOD  It takes too much time.It takes too much time.  It is not possible to apply this method to allIt is not possible to apply this method to all disciplines.disciplines.  It can load some worldly burdensomes toIt can load some worldly burdensomes to students.students.  It can be diffucult for students to provide theIt can be diffucult for students to provide the materials and sources which is required formaterials and sources which is required for solving the problem.solving the problem.  Evaluating the learning can be difficult.Evaluating the learning can be difficult.
    • TECHNIQUES USED INTECHNIQUES USED IN PROBLEM SOLVING METHODPROBLEM SOLVING METHOD A) INDUCTIONA) INDUCTION It is like teaching with discovering method.CasesIt is like teaching with discovering method.Cases are observed carefully.The similarities andare observed carefully.The similarities and dissimilarities are found.Then you can reach thedissimilarities are found.Then you can reach the general rule or law with the techniquesgeneral rule or law with the techniques "generalization" or "making abstract" from the"generalization" or "making abstract" from the similarities.similarities.
    • B) DEDUCTIONB) DEDUCTION It is reverse of induction technique.Some generalIt is reverse of induction technique.Some general laws and rules which are reached before arelaws and rules which are reached before are given to the students and want them to applygiven to the students and want them to apply this method to different singular case.Thethis method to different singular case.The convenience of it to the one of the case isconvenience of it to the one of the case is controlled mentally.controlled mentally.
    • QUESTIONSQUESTIONS 1-Which one is wrong about the problem solving1-Which one is wrong about the problem solving method?method?  It takes too much time.It takes too much time.  It is not possible to apply this method to allIt is not possible to apply this method to all disciplines.disciplines.  Evaluating the learning is easy.Evaluating the learning is easy.  It has some worldly burdens.It has some worldly burdens.
    • 2-Which one is not the step of problem solving2-Which one is not the step of problem solving method?method?  Delimitation of the problemDelimitation of the problem  Planning the applicationPlanning the application  Preparing the working guidePreparing the working guide  DeductionDeduction
    •  3-Discuss the importance of problem-solving3-Discuss the importance of problem-solving method.method.  4-Explain the limitations of the problem solving4-Explain the limitations of the problem solving method and solutions for them.method and solutions for them.
    • Cooperative Learning Technique:Cooperative Learning Technique:
    • OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson students will be able toAt the end of the lesson students will be able to  develop positive interdepencedevelop positive interdepence  contribute each others’ learningcontribute each others’ learning  take responsibilities in group Workstake responsibilities in group Works
    • CASE:CASE: Mr. Tutumlu first used cooperative learning technique. HeMr. Tutumlu first used cooperative learning technique. He wanted students to turn to their friends, who were sittingwanted students to turn to their friends, who were sitting behind them to make groups of four. After that he only saidbehind them to make groups of four. After that he only said the subject on which we were going to study. Also, he saidthe subject on which we were going to study. Also, he said that he rewarded the most succesful group. He did not dothat he rewarded the most succesful group. He did not do responsibility disribution. We did not know what we do.responsibility disribution. We did not know what we do. Furthermore, we only had ten minutes. Then he sat hisFurthermore, we only had ten minutes. Then he sat his table and started to read his newspaper. After two minutestable and started to read his newspaper. After two minutes passed, for all hell to break loose. Everything was sopassed, for all hell to break loose. Everything was so unsystematic. Nobody listened to each other and everybodyunsystematic. Nobody listened to each other and everybody wanted to speak. There was an awfulnoisy in the class sowanted to speak. There was an awfulnoisy in the class so Mr. Tutumlu got angry, dispelled the groups and he saidMr. Tutumlu got angry, dispelled the groups and he said that ‘ I put forth an effort for you uselessly.’that ‘ I put forth an effort for you uselessly.’
    • PROBLEMSPROBLEMS 1.noisy1.noisy 2.insufficient time2.insufficient time 3.inappropriate classroom setting for the cooperative3.inappropriate classroom setting for the cooperative learning activitylearning activity 4.lack of instinct motivation4.lack of instinct motivation 5.uncertanities of responsibilities5.uncertanities of responsibilities 6.lack of communication6.lack of communication 7.undetermined, unclearly stated task7.undetermined, unclearly stated task 8.there is no encouragement and direction from the8.there is no encouragement and direction from the teacherteacher 9.competition between the groups9.competition between the groups
    • POSSIBLE SOLUTIONSPOSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 1.The task can be clearly defined and understood1.The task can be clearly defined and understood by all the members of groups.by all the members of groups. 2.Roles and individual assigments can be clearly2.Roles and individual assigments can be clearly understood, needed sources can be madeunderstood, needed sources can be made available.available. 3.Realistic time Schedule can be developed with3.Realistic time Schedule can be developed with appropriate progress.appropriate progress. 4.Classroom setting can be arranged according to4.Classroom setting can be arranged according to activity.activity.
    • 5.The teacher can create and maintain a mutual5.The teacher can create and maintain a mutual feeling of resposibility to achieve group goals.feeling of resposibility to achieve group goals. 6.Careful encouragement and direction which is6.Careful encouragement and direction which is needed constantly can be given to the students.needed constantly can be given to the students. 7.The teacher can observe the group members7.The teacher can observe the group members studies.studies.
    • COOPERATIVE LEARNINGCOOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUETECHNIQUE  Coopeartive learning is asuccesful teaching strategy inCoopeartive learning is asuccesful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of differentwhich small teams, each with students of different levels of ability,use variety of learning activities tolevels of ability,use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.Each memberimprove their understanding of a subject.Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what isof a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught buut also for helping teammates learning,thustaught buut also for helping teammates learning,thus creating and atmosphere of achivement.Student workcreating and atmosphere of achivement.Student work trough the assignment until all the members succesfulytrough the assignment until all the members succesfuly understand and complete it.Cooperative efforts result inunderstand and complete it.Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all groupparticipants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members ;members ;
    • 1.gain confidence from each other’s effort (yuor1.gain confidence from each other’s effort (yuor success benefits me and my success benefitssuccess benefits me and my success benefits you.)you.) 2.recognize that all group members share a2.recognize that all group members share a commen fate ( we all sin kor swim togetherhere.)commen fate ( we all sin kor swim togetherhere.) 3. know that one’s performance is mutually caudes3. know that one’s performance is mutually caudes by oneself and one’s team members(we can notby oneself and one’s team members(we can not do it without you.)do it without you.) 4.feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group4.feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement.(we allmember is recognized for achievement.(we all congratulate you on your accoplishment.)congratulate you on your accoplishment.)
    • WHY WE USE COOPERATIVEWHY WE USE COOPERATIVE LEARNING?LEARNING? Research has shown that cooperative learningResearch has shown that cooperative learning techniques;techniques; 1.promote sts learning and academic achievement1.promote sts learning and academic achievement 2.increase sts retention2.increase sts retention 3.enchance sts satisfaction with learning experience3.enchance sts satisfaction with learning experience 4.help sts develop skills in oral communication4.help sts develop skills in oral communication 5.develop sts social skills5.develop sts social skills 6.promete sts self-esteem6.promete sts self-esteem 7.help to promote positive race relations.7.help to promote positive race relations.
    • ELEMENTS OF COOPERATIVEELEMENTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNINGLEARNING 1.Positive interdepence1.Positive interdepence 2.Face to face interaction2.Face to face interaction 3.Individual and group accountability3.Individual and group accountability 4.Interpersonal and small-group skilss4.Interpersonal and small-group skilss 5.Group processing5.Group processing
    • CLASSROOM ACTIVIES THATCLASSROOM ACTIVIES THAT USE COOPERATIVE LEARNINGUSE COOPERATIVE LEARNING 1.Jigsaw1.Jigsaw 2.Three-step interview2.Three-step interview 3.Think-pair-share3.Think-pair-share 4.Round robin brainstorming4.Round robin brainstorming 5.Three-minute review5.Three-minute review 6.Numbered heads6.Numbered heads 7.Team pair solo7.Team pair solo 8.Circle the sage8.Circle the sage 9.Partners9.Partners
    • ADVANTAGES OFADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNINGCOOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUETECHNIQUE 1.The group provides each member with an1.The group provides each member with an oppotunity to participate and therebyoppotunity to participate and thereby influences decison making.influences decison making. 2.Face to face learning situations promote an2.Face to face learning situations promote an atmosphere of cooperation and empathyatmosphere of cooperation and empathy seldom achieved in other learning situations.seldom achieved in other learning situations. 3.Personal relationships are usually less3.Personal relationships are usually less problematic. There is also a greater chance ofproblematic. There is also a greater chance of different opinions and varied contributions.different opinions and varied contributions.
    • 4.It encourages broader skills of cooperation and4.It encourages broader skills of cooperation and nagotition.nagotition. 5.It promotes learner autonomy by allowing sts to5.It promotes learner autonomy by allowing sts to make their own decisions in the group withoutmake their own decisions in the group without being told what to do by the teacher.being told what to do by the teacher. 6.Although we do not wish any individuals in6.Although we do not wish any individuals in groups to be completely passive neverthlessgroups to be completely passive neverthless some sts can choose their level of participationsome sts can choose their level of participation more readily than in a whole-class or pairworkmore readily than in a whole-class or pairwork situation.situation.
    • DISADVANTAGES OFDISADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNINGCOOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUETECHNIQUE 1.It is likely to be noisy.Some teachers feel that1.It is likely to be noisy.Some teachers feel that they lose control., and the whole-class feelingthey lose control., and the whole-class feeling which has been painstakingly built up maywhich has been painstakingly built up may dissipate when the class is split into smallerdissipate when the class is split into smaller entities.entities. 2.Notall the students enjoy it, since they would2.Notall the students enjoy it, since they would prefer to be the focus of the teacher’s attentionprefer to be the focus of the teacher’s attention rather than working with their peers.Sometimesrather than working with their peers.Sometimes sts find themselves in uncongenial groups andsts find themselves in uncongenial groups and wish the could be somewhere else.wish the could be somewhere else.
    • WHAT ROLE THE TEACHERWHAT ROLE THE TEACHER PLAY?PLAY? 1.The teacher can merelyprovides a setting and1.The teacher can merelyprovides a setting and atmosphere in which such attitudes andatmosphere in which such attitudes and behaviours may develop.behaviours may develop. 2.Careful encouragement and direction is needed2.Careful encouragement and direction is needed constantly by the teacher.constantly by the teacher. 3.The teacher creates and maintains a mutual3.The teacher creates and maintains a mutual feeling of responsibility to achieve group goals.feeling of responsibility to achieve group goals. 4.The teacher is responsible for contributing4.The teacher is responsible for contributing specific info when needed.specific info when needed.
    • SUMMARYSUMMARY Cooperative learning is a succesful teaching strategy inCooperative learning is a succesful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of diffrentwhich small teams, each with students of diffrent levels of ability, use variety of learning activities tolevels of ability, use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. All groupimprove their understanding of a subject. All group members:members: -gain confidence from each other’s effort.-gain confidence from each other’s effort. -all group members share a common fate.-all group members share a common fate. -know that one’s performance is mutually caused by-know that one’s performance is mutually caused by oneself and one’s team members.oneself and one’s team members. -feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member-feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognised for achievement.is recognised for achievement.
    • QUESTIONSQUESTIONS 1.What are the benefits of cooperative learning?1.What are the benefits of cooperative learning? 2.What are the elements of cooperative learning2.What are the elements of cooperative learning
    • 3.Which is the following statements not related to3.Which is the following statements not related to the cooperative learning?the cooperative learning? a-Your success benefits me and my successa-Your success benefits me and my success benefits you.benefits you. b-We all sin kor swim together here.b-We all sin kor swim together here. c-We all congratulate you on yourc-We all congratulate you on your accomplishment.accomplishment. d-Every group member is responsible for hisherd-Every group member is responsible for hisher own learning.own learning. e-We can not do it without you.e-We can not do it without you.
    • 4.Which one of the following activities is not used4.Which one of the following activities is not used in cooperative learning?in cooperative learning? a-jigsawa-jigsaw b-role playb-role play c-think-pair-soloc-think-pair-solo d-three-step interviewd-three-step interview e-circle the sagee-circle the sage
    • Case Method:Case Method:
    • OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  Students will be able to explain what the caseStudents will be able to explain what the case method become.method become.  Students will be able to express what theStudents will be able to express what the limitations and values of the case methodlimitations and values of the case method  Students will be able to express the role ofStudents will be able to express the role of teacher in the process of the case method.teacher in the process of the case method.
    • CASECASE He was said that 5/C is the most problem class in the school. When the bellHe was said that 5/C is the most problem class in the school. When the bell rang , some teachers looked at him pityingly.rang , some teachers looked at him pityingly. When he entered the class he saw that the students did not realize him.When he entered the class he saw that the students did not realize him. Everybody was laughing , joking with each other and shouting .HeEverybody was laughing , joking with each other and shouting .He remembered what other teachers had said and how they had looked atremembered what other teachers had said and how they had looked at him. He got angry . He would not permit of teachers’ making joke withhim. He got angry . He would not permit of teachers’ making joke with him.He would deal with these naughty students.He catched the studenthim.He would deal with these naughty students.He catched the student who was the nearest to him and shouted at and told them to sit downwho was the nearest to him and shouted at and told them to sit down .When he saw that the students didn’t listened to him , he took the ruler.When he saw that the students didn’t listened to him , he took the ruler and hit on the desk angrily.and hit on the desk angrily. The students stopped making noise in the class and sat down.They wereThe students stopped making noise in the class and sat down.They were anxious about what the teacher would do.The teacher told them not toanxious about what the teacher would do.The teacher told them not to talk with each other.İf it weren’t , he would do everything to make themtalk with each other.İf it weren’t , he would do everything to make them be silent.be silent. After the lesson , he met a colleague and told what he had done in the class.After the lesson , he met a colleague and told what he had done in the class. He said that the students listened to him during the lesson , they didn’tHe said that the students listened to him during the lesson , they didn’t talk with each other.talk with each other. And then they walked to the teachers’ room by going on their talking.And then they walked to the teachers’ room by going on their talking.
    • PROBLEMSPROBLEMS  Classroom ManagementClassroom Management lack of communicationlack of communication discipline problem in the classdiscipline problem in the class
    • SOLUTIONSSOLUTIONS  determining some rules with students in thedetermining some rules with students in the classclass  empathy in studentsempathy in students
    • WHAT IS THE CASE METHOD ?WHAT IS THE CASE METHOD ?  A case is an account of an actual problem orA case is an account of an actual problem or situation which has been experienced by ansituation which has been experienced by an individual or a group.individual or a group.  It includes facts available to those facing theIt includes facts available to those facing the problem, along with a description of perceptionsproblem, along with a description of perceptions and attitudes of those who are confronted withand attitudes of those who are confronted with the problemthe problem
    • HOW IS THE CASE METHOD’SHOW IS THE CASE METHOD’S ANALYSIS ?ANALYSIS ?  The discussion analysis is initiated when theThe discussion analysis is initiated when the teacher asks, in some manner , “what is the issueteacher asks, in some manner , “what is the issue or the problem in this case ?”or the problem in this case ?”  The second step is the analysis of the facts in theThe second step is the analysis of the facts in the situation.Here the emphasis is upon the whatsituation.Here the emphasis is upon the what actually happened rather than personal opinionactually happened rather than personal opinion of the facts. Iof the facts. I
    •  A third step in the analysis may be conceived asA third step in the analysis may be conceived as sentiments and beliefs .Here expressed feelingssentiments and beliefs .Here expressed feelings or attitudes are considered.or attitudes are considered.  The strongest proposal is chosen , sometimes itThe strongest proposal is chosen , sometimes it becomes apparent that more than one decisionbecomes apparent that more than one decision is best.is best.
    • ROLES OF THE TEACHERROLES OF THE TEACHER TeacherTeacher  should be flexible. Accept the fact that this isshould be flexible. Accept the fact that this is necessary in using case materials.necessary in using case materials.  should ask questions when necessary,should ask questions when necessary,  should never become emotionally involved inshould never become emotionally involved in the case discussionthe case discussion  should summarize at the end and leave time toshould summarize at the end and leave time to pull together the key points of the casepull together the key points of the case
    • ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES  The case method is realistic.The case method is realistic.  By capturing and analyzing real problems , theBy capturing and analyzing real problems , the student is able to bridge the gap between schoolstudent is able to bridge the gap between school and real-life experiences.and real-life experiences.  Case analysis treats feelings as factsCase analysis treats feelings as facts  By treating human emotion and feelings, theBy treating human emotion and feelings, the case approach captures the interest andcase approach captures the interest and imagination of thr learner.imagination of thr learner.
    • DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES  Although the case method is realistic it is notAlthough the case method is realistic it is not actual realityactual reality  The case method tends to collapse time andThe case method tends to collapse time and space dimensionsspace dimensions  If used extensively, it will definitely limit theIf used extensively, it will definitely limit the content material which can be covered.content material which can be covered.  Use of already prepared , fictional cases mayUse of already prepared , fictional cases may limit the realism of case sitiation.limit the realism of case sitiation.
    • QUESTIONSQUESTIONS  What are the roles of the teacher in the caseWhat are the roles of the teacher in the case method ?method ?
    • Which of them is not between the advantages ofWhich of them is not between the advantages of the case method ?the case method ?  Case method is realistic. Case problems , takenCase method is realistic. Case problems , taken from real life experiences.from real life experiences.  Case analysis treats feelings as factsCase analysis treats feelings as facts  Use of already prepared , fictional cases mayUse of already prepared , fictional cases may limit the realism of case sitiation.limit the realism of case sitiation.  By capturing and analyzing real problems , theBy capturing and analyzing real problems , the student is able to bridge the gap between schoolstudent is able to bridge the gap between school and real-life experiences.and real-life experiences.
    • Drama Technique:Drama Technique:
    • OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES  Students will be able to recognise and practiceStudents will be able to recognise and practice individual skillsindividual skills  Students will be able to communicate with otherStudents will be able to communicate with other group members,easilygroup members,easily  Students will be able to gain an understanding ofStudents will be able to gain an understanding of ththee feeling of othersfeeling of others  Students will be able to learn to use bodyStudents will be able to learn to use body languagelanguage
    • DDRAMATRAMATIIZATZATIIONON  One of the teaching techniques which teachOne of the teaching techniques which teach students how to behave in which situation bystudents how to behave in which situation by living itliving it  Physical environment/costumes/ accessories arePhysical environment/costumes/ accessories are important,effects the concentration of studentsimportant,effects the concentration of students  Students use their own imagination thusStudents use their own imagination thus improve their creativenessimprove their creativeness
    • SOME SUB-TECHNSOME SUB-TECHNIIQUESQUES ARE USEDARE USED;;  Informal drama:Informal drama: no preparation,no writtenno preparation,no written material.for ex;traffic accident,material.for ex;traffic accident,  Role playing:Role playing: students may get preparation forstudents may get preparation for their role before acting,their role before acting,  Formal drama:Formal drama: completely under the teachercompletely under the teacher control. Everybody uses written materialcontrol. Everybody uses written material
    •  Puppets:Puppets: students use puppets and say whatstudents use puppets and say what they want from behind of the puppetsthey want from behind of the puppets  Pantomime:Pantomime: students use only mime andstudents use only mime and gestures, no oral actsgestures, no oral acts,,such as washing hissuch as washing his face,eating something..face,eating something..  Finger game:Finger game: especially for younger students.especially for younger students. A story is given and want students to complete itA story is given and want students to complete it by making their fingers talkby making their fingers talk
    • ADVANTAGES;ADVANTAGES;  IIt is funt is fun  Provides direct involvement in learning on theProvides direct involvement in learning on the part of all studentspart of all students  IImproves language usingmproves language using  Communicating/speaking and listening skills areCommunicating/speaking and listening skills are improvedimproved  Allows for exploration on solutionsAllows for exploration on solutions
    • DDIISADVANTAGES:SADVANTAGES:  Needs too much timeNeeds too much time  Costumes,decors and preparation of physicalCostumes,decors and preparation of physical environment may create difficultiesenvironment may create difficulties  IIf students be limited, it may be boringf students be limited, it may be boring  Students may be too self-consciousStudents may be too self-conscious  Not appropriate for large groupsNot appropriate for large groups  Students may feel threatenedStudents may feel threatened
    • Summary:Summary:  Provides opportunity to recognise and practiseProvides opportunity to recognise and practise the skillsthe skills  IImproves using languagemproves using language  Allows for exploration of solutionsAllows for exploration of solutions  The more students involve,the more they learnThe more students involve,the more they learn
    • QUESTIONS:QUESTIONS: 1.1. What is the role of the physical environtmentWhat is the role of the physical environtment in dramatisation technique?in dramatisation technique? 2.2. What are the benefits of dramatization?What are the benefits of dramatization?
    • 3.3.Which is not one of the sub-techniques ofWhich is not one of the sub-techniques of daramatization?daramatization? A)Informal dramaA)Informal drama B)PantomimeB)Pantomime C)DrawingC)Drawing D)PuppetsD)Puppets E)Finger gameE)Finger game
    • 4.4.Which one is one of the disadvantages ofWhich one is one of the disadvantages of dramatization?dramatization? A)It is funA)It is fun B)Sts may feel threatenedB)Sts may feel threatened C)Sts use their imaginationC)Sts use their imagination D)Not teacherD)Not teacher--centeredcentered E)Helps sts’ concentratingE)Helps sts’ concentrating
    • REFERENCES:REFERENCES:  brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007 from http://www.mindtools.com/brainstm.htmlfrom http://www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html  brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007 fromfrom http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorminghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brainstorming  http://www.gencbilim.com/odev/odevgoster.php?http://www.gencbilim.com/odev/odevgoster.php? il=eskisehir&id=8317il=eskisehir&id=8317  http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=59http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=59
    •  http://www.onlinefizik.cm/content/view/40/110/http://www.onlinefizik.cm/content/view/40/110/  ÖZDAŞ,Ali.Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri, İstanbul,1997ÖZDAŞ,Ali.Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri, İstanbul,1997  KÖKSAL,Güler.Orta Doğu Teknik Üni.,EğitimdeKÖKSAL,Güler.Orta Doğu Teknik Üni.,Eğitimde Toplam Kalite Yöntemi Semineri,Yalova,Haziran 2001Toplam Kalite Yöntemi Semineri,Yalova,Haziran 2001  TAN,Şeref,Yard.Doç.Dr,KAYABAŞI,YücelTAN,Şeref,Yard.Doç.Dr,KAYABAŞI,Yücel Dr,ERDOĞAN,Alaattin.Öğretimi Planlama veDr,ERDOĞAN,Alaattin.Öğretimi Planlama ve DeğerlendirmeDeğerlendirme  Cooperative learning.(Online article).Retrieved AprilCooperative learning.(Online article).Retrieved April 13,2007, from the World Wide13,2007, from the World Wide Web:http://edtech.kennesaw.eduintechcoopeartiveleWeb:http://edtech.kennesaw.eduintechcoopeartivele arning.htmarning.htm  Sınıf Yönetimi, Doc.Dr.Ayhan Aydın,1998, Page 58-60Sınıf Yönetimi, Doc.Dr.Ayhan Aydın,1998, Page 58-60
    •  Cooperative learning.(Online article).Retrieved AprilCooperative learning.(Online article).Retrieved April 13,2007, from the Word Wide Web:http:// www.co-13,2007, from the Word Wide Web:http:// www.co- operation.orgpagescl.htmoperation.orgpagescl.htm  Harmer,J.(2001)The Practice of English LanguageHarmer,J.(2001)The Practice of English Language Teaching.(pp.114-124).England:Person EducationTeaching.(pp.114-124).England:Person Education Limited.Limited.  Kenneth H.H.The Professional Teacher’sKenneth H.H.The Professional Teacher’s Handbook(2nd ed.) (pp.315-330)Handbook(2nd ed.) (pp.315-330)  Emmer, E.T., Clemets,B.S.&Worsham,M.S. ClassroomEmmer, E.T., Clemets,B.S.&Worsham,M.S. Classroom Management for Secondary Teachers.(3th ed.) (pp.175-Management for Secondary Teachers.(3th ed.) (pp.175- 177)177)  The Professional Teacher’s handbook, Kenneth H.The Professional Teacher’s handbook, Kenneth H. Hoover, 1976, page 207-224Hoover, 1976, page 207-224
    •  KARADAĞ,Asiye.Dramatizasyon Öyküleri,KARADAĞ,Asiye.Dramatizasyon Öyküleri, Kostümleri,Aksesuarları.Anı Yayıncılık,ŞubatKostümleri,Aksesuarları.Anı Yayıncılık,Şubat 2006,ANK2006,ANK  ÜSTÜNDAĞ,Tülay.Yaratıcı Drama-ÖğretmeninÜSTÜNDAĞ,Tülay.Yaratıcı Drama-Öğretmenin Günlüğü.Başak Matbaacılık, 3.Baskı,TemmuzGünlüğü.Başak Matbaacılık, 3.Baskı,Temmuz 2002,ANK2002,ANK  http://www.egitim.aku.edu.tr/metod02.htmhttp://www.egitim.aku.edu.tr/metod02.htm  http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=38http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=38  http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=36http://www.dersimiz.com/eyazim/yazi.asp?id=36  http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/Fachttp://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/Fac DevCom/guidebk/teachtip/comteach.htmDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/comteach.htm  http://www.four-http://www.four- h.purdue.edu/downloads/Volunteer/4-H-687-W%20-h.purdue.edu/downloads/Volunteer/4-H-687-W%20- %20teaching%20tech.pdf%20teaching%20tech.pdf
    • Prepared by:Prepared by:  Birsen KayaBirsen Kaya  Güzin YahaneciGüzin Yahaneci  E.Fatma YıldırımE.Fatma Yıldırım  Erden ÇınarErden Çınar  Özlem KarabacakÖzlem Karabacak