Teaching methodologies


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Teaching methodologies

  1. 1. Shams ud din pandrani subject specialist cell no. 03013796386 .03337996286 Email.shamskalati@yahoo.com Researched by
  2. 2. Teaching Methodology
  3. 3. Objectives At the end of the module the participants will be able to; • Discuss classroom teaching methods. • Differentiate various methods and strategies of teaching, their strengths and weaknesses. • Explain various teaching techniques. • Know about thirty methods of teaching of the holy prophet (PBUH) • Explain learning abilities and the factors affecting and enhancing the abilities.
  4. 4. What is Teaching?
  5. 5. • Teaching is a purposeful activity of influencing the thinking and habits of others by using and manipulating certain principles and methods
  6. 6. Define teaching method The principles and methods of instruction used by a teacher to process a LESSON
  7. 7. Teaching method • Method is a cluster of teaching procedures utilized in classroom situation. • Method is a set of techniques, based on a course of study, which uses certain type of materials.
  8. 8. • "O Mankind! There has come to you from your Guardian-Lord an exhortation, a prescription for the minds, a guidance and beneficence for those who believe" [10:57].
  9. 9. A Lesson Lessons vary depending on the material being taught, resources available, and the teacher. Generally a lesson consists of sequential certain steps.
  10. 10. Steps in a lesson • Preparation: the teacher starts the lesson with the general concept of the lesson, which is associated with something already known by the class. • Presentation: introducing the new material. • Association: the new material is compared with old material and logical connections are made. • Generalization: other examples of the new idea are presented. • Application: the news ideas are applied to further material or investigation (eg. practice problems, a critical thinking exercise, etc). • Evaluation
  11. 11. The objectives of teaching Teaching objectives extend from intellectual abilities and cognition (social insight) to psychomotor learning (learning practical skills) and affective learning (development of emotions, attitudes, morals, and values).
  12. 12. Cognition • It begins early, with the acquisition of basic language and math skills. • Cognition continues to develop throughout a student's schooling, and begins to dominate education at the secondary level. • Cognition allows us to generalize, abstract, infer, interpret, explain, and apply information. • It makes us critical thinkers capable of making appropriate decisions and judgments, and makes us aware of different viewpoints.
  13. 13. Affective • It helps develop values and attitudes. Theoretical, aesthetic, social, economic, political, and hedonistic values are considered in school curriculums.
  14. 14. Psychomotor • It encourages the development of physical skills and their appropriate and creative uses. Psychomotor development includes handwriting, art, and games at the elementary level, and practical science and vocational skills later on.
  15. 15. •Work in pairs and identify teaching techniques
  16. 16. Some Teaching Techniques • Direct instruction • Indirect instruction • Discussion • Cooperative learning • Self directed instruction
  17. 17. Direct Instruction • The traditional teacher-centered instruction technique is called direct instruction. The teacher provides the students with much of the information they need, often through lectures, explanations, examples, and problem-solving. • The main strength of direct instruction is that it is efficient, especially in quickly providing information to the students. It is also an effective way to allow students to achieve mastery when learning fundamental facts, rules, formulas, or sequences. • However, direct instruction is not an effective way to teach higher-level thinking, analysis or evaluation. It cannot be used to teach material over a long period of time, or present additional details to students who have already mastered the basic concepts.
  18. 18. Indirect Instruction • The indirect approach to teaching presents students with instructional stimuli in the form of materials, objects, and events, and requires students to go beyond the basic information that they are given to make their own conclusions and generalizations. Indirect instruction allows teachers to engage their students in activities which require the students to learn independently. • Students take an active role in their learning by developing ideas, testing their own conclusions, and discussing their results. This allows students to independently discover patterns and relationships in their learning and knowledge. It develops advanced levels of thinking and analysis.
  19. 19. Discussion • Discussion involves free, interactive dialogue between teachers and students. It is more than just a question-answer period, and requires the teacher to give control of the classroom to the students. • A successful discussion requires that all student responses and ideas be accepted and considered.
  20. 20. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is a technique that encourages collaboration, competition, and independence. One strength of cooperative learning is its social nature. Students are encouraged to interact and share with one another, which helps reduce the students' desire to talk with one another about unrelated topics. Cooperative learning helps students develop conceptual reasoning and
  21. 21. Self-Directed Instruction • Self-directed instruction teaches students to take learning into their own hands, apply their knowledge to real-world problems, monitor their own achievement, and go beyond the material that is presented to them. Predicting, questioning, summarizing, and clarifying are four important activities that shift the responsibility of the learning to the students.
  22. 22. •Discuss some teaching methods
  23. 23. 1. LECTURE METHOD • In this method the teacher present the subject contents to the students with the help of AV aids. The purpose of the method is to identify information to a large group of students in a short period of time.
  24. 24. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Factual material is presented in a direct, logical manner. May provide experiences that inspire - useful for large groups. Proficient oral skills are necessary. Audience is often passive. Learning is difficult to gauge. Communication is one-way. Not appropriate for children below grade 4. There should be a clear introduction and summary. Effectiveness related to time and scope of content. Is always audience specific; often includes examples, anecdotes.
  25. 25. Lecture Demonstration • This method is used when the teacher wants to explain the structure and function of a device or about an experiment or about specific procedures.
  26. 26. Merits: • It makes information regarding a device attractive. • The students understand • As more than one sense of the students is involved in this method therefore, maximum learning outcomes are expected. Demerits: • Carelessness may create problems • Costly because it may be used for small group of students • Time consuming
  27. 27. Discussion Method • It develops thinking process, promotes a positive attitude towards learning, and develops interpersonal skills. Group discussions foster interaction between students whose skills, attitudes, and interests differ, and allow the students to use democratic leadership skills to lead the direction of their discussion and participation. In this manner, discussion sessions help students extend their knowledge through higher-level independent thought.
  28. 28. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Involves students, at least after the lecture. Students can question, clarify and challenge. Lecture can be interspersed with discussion Time constraints may affect discussion opportunities. Effectiveness is connected to appropriate questions and discussion; Often requires teacher to "shift gears" quickly. Teacher should be prepared to allow questions during lecture, as appropriate. Teacher should also anticipate difficult questions Prepare appropriate responses in advance.
  29. 29. Brain Storming In this method the teacher chooses an issue and then asks questions from the students about that issue.
  30. 30. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas. Encourages full participation because all ideas are equally recorded. Draws on group's knowledge and experience. Spirit of cooperation is created. One idea can spark off other ideas. Better to use in mathematics Creative thinking for generating new ideas. One idea can spark other ideas. Can be unfocused. Needs to be limited to 5 - 7 minutes. Students may have difficulty getting away from known reality. If not managed well, criticism and negative evaluation may occur. Value to students depends in part on their maturity level. Can be unfocused Some time confusion is produced Teacher selects issue. Teacher must be ready to intervene when the process is hopelessly bogged down
  31. 31. Video tapes .• In this method a specific topic is delivered to the audience through video or CD player. This method is better for listening comprehension and also in scientific experiments
  32. 32. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Entertaining way of introducing content and raising issues Usually keeps group's attention Looks professional Stimulates discussion Interesting Keeps students Professional way of teaching Stimulates discussion Can raise too many issues to have a focused discussion Discussion may not have full participation Most effective when following discussion One way communication Costly Can raise too much issues Need to obtain and set up equipment Effective only if teacher prepares for discussion after the presentation
  33. 33. Class Debate • In this method an issue is given to the participants to debate on. The teacher plays the role of a facilitator. In a classroom situation topic may be given to the students before the commencement of the debate. The students may prepare theirself using various sources.
  34. 34. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Pools ideas and experiences from group Effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed Allows everyone to participate in an active process Views and expression of all the participants for discussion. Does not require too much audio-visual support. Effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to analyzed. Views and expression of all the participants for discussion. Not practical with more that 20 students A few students can dominate Some students may not participate Is time consuming Can get off the track Require considerable time Feasible only for groups Few people can dominate Disturbance in the class. Can get off the track Requires careful planning by teacher to guide discussion Requires question outline
  35. 35. Role Playing • It is a teaching technique that provides a problem- solving situation in which students • Explore the problem • Alternative available to them • A courtroom situation should be created in the classroom • Roles are assigned to the students • One role is assigned to two people because in case of absence of one person the program may not be affected • The teacher usually play the role of judge
  36. 36. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Introduces problem situation dramatically Provides opportunity for students to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view Allows for exploration of solutions Provides opportunity to practice skills Problems situations are defined dramatically It provide opportunity for people to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view Some students may be too self- conscious Not appropriate for large groups Some students may feel threatened Not appropriate for large groups Disturbance in classroom Teacher has to define problem situation and roles clearly Teacher must give very clear instructions
  37. 37. Demonstration • In this method a big picture is transmitted to relatively small group of students in a short time period. This method is particularly useful in teaching skills and is more teachers centered rather student centered. • The following questions should be kept in mind for determining the appropriateness • Does the leaner need to see the process? • How much time is available for preparation? • Is there positive support available? • Can you appeal more than one sense of the students? • Can you ask questions during the demonstration? • Will there be practice time for demonstration? • Will you permit the students to ask questions? • Will you support the demonstration with handouts?
  38. 38. Advantages Disadvantages Preparation Interactive More time for thinking Self directed Critical approach Creative More teacher centered Require more time for preparation Selection of topic Selection of resources Time division Task responsibility
  39. 39. •Teaching Methods of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)
  40. 40. 1. Repetition and enforcement 2. Memorization 3. Presentation 4. Questions and description 5. Exploration and description 6. Dialogue 7. Discussion 8. Debate 9. Dictation 10. Analogy 11. Story telling 12. Action and Imitation 13. Demonstration 14. Examples 15. Use of intellect 16. Problem solving 17. Individualization 18. Motivation 19. Enjoying the morally rights and forbidding the morally wrong 20. Preaching and reminding 21. Punishment 22. Play and leisure 23. Practice 24. Questioning 25. Persuasion and discouragement 26. Indication and physical movements 27. Drawing and demonstration 28. Similarities and contrast 29. Competition 30. Experimentation and observation
  41. 41. Questions and Answers
  42. 42. Thanks