Shams ud din pandrani
• Objective of curriculum
• Curriculum Development Cycle
• Overview of national curriculum
What is Curriculum?
• Curriculum simply means `a course of study.'
• Curriculum development is the process of designing a
course of study according to a set of requirements.
Let’s examine what happens in each step of the
curriculum development/revision cycle. This
cycle is a dynamic system that helps each school
re-vitalize and replenish what is taught to its
• For one child in special education, this would
include his test scores
• For a campus, this might include achievement
test data, attendance, graduation, collegegoing rate, and others
Types of assessments
Normative such as
• Achievement tests
• IQ tests, group and
• Learning styles
• Adaptive behavior
• Individual testing
• Individual or
Don’t forget the qualitative information.
For either one child or for a school, interest
inventories can tell a lot, as can opinion
Writing Goals (second step)
• Goals do not have to be
behavioral, but should
be translatable into
• Need enough goals to
point the way
Writing objectives (3rd)
• Objectives are more
• Audience, behavior, con
cognitive, affective, and
• Assessments should be
written from objectives
Selecting content (4th)
• For MRs, keep in mind the mental age of the person or
persons being written for. Chronological ages are deceiving.
• For special ed., keep it very utilitarian. The content must be
useful . . . These will remember, at the most, one-half of what
normal persons would.
• Build on students’ past experiences.
Organization of content (5)
• Logical sequencing of content always helps.
• Build in some repetition
• Provide for loop-backs for students to re-visit things that they
may have forgotten
• Spiral curriculum is one very effective plan
Selection of learning
• Learning experiences
do not stand alone-they must relate to
• Use technology as often
Adaptation to teaching
For campuses, this seventh section is where teachers
make adjustments to make the new curriculum their
own and in their own ways in their classrooms.
For special education, this is where the related
services sometimes come in; special
transportation, special technology, nurse
care, counseling on demand, wheelchairs, medical
Evaluation of curricula
• For many years, this
was the step never
• Check to see how many
students reached each
• For special
education, it’s the endof-year meeting
The evaluation at the end of one curriculum
cycle feeds right into the needs assessment of
the next. In this way, the curriculum of the
school--or for one child--is perpetually
replenished and revitalized.
Enrollment & Drop-outs up to Intermediate Level
2000 & 2005
Student Enrolment in Public Institutions
Up to Class 12
Up to Class 10
Up to Class 8
Inter & HSSC*
During Secondary (SSC)
Up to Class 5
Total: 20.339 Million
46.30% After Primary
Total: 16.941 Million
Total: 7.684 Million
Total: 5.512 Million
Note: (i) Total eligible for enrolment (3 to 16 age group):
(ii) Enrolment in Public and Private Institutions:
(iii) Enrolment in Public Sector:
(iv) Children do not enroll.
* Data for Inter/HSSC relate to Academic Year 2000-01.
Number of Deeni Madaris by Enrolment and
Madaris for Enrolment
Source: National Education Census (NEC), 2006
1. Uniform academic session from 1st of September
throughout the country.
2. Free education upto Matriculation.
3. Provision of free textbooks.
4. Grant of scholarships and incentives to girl
5. English language compulsory from Class-1
6. Composite examination at Matric level throughout
the country from 2007, province of Sindh will adopt
it in 2008.
7. Provision of missing facilities in schools through
PESR (Rs. 1.05 billion for 2006-07).
Introduction of English as medium of
instruction for Science, Mathematics and
Computer Science. Islamiyat and Pakistan
Studies in Urdu in all schools.
Social Studies for Classes VI-VIII bifurcated
into History and Geography as compulsory
10. New Scheme of Studies approved and notified
with effect from 2007.
11. Budgetary allocations for education increased.
Information Technology / Computer Education
All duplication in subjects eliminated.
Contents do not reflect thinking of any particular
sect / school of thought.
Ethics, moral education and Haqooq-ul-ibad
Curriculum upgraded to ensure latest
developments / ideas in science and technology.
Progressive with vertical and horizontal linkages.
New Groups i.e. Medical Technology Group and
Computer Science Group introduced in Class XIXII.
13. Ordinance issued for regulatory authority for
registration of private sector educational
14. Format of the question papers for the Board
examinations revised. The papers will have
20% objective questions. The questions will have
ii. 50% questions for short answers.
iii. 30% questions for descriptive answers.
During 2006 teachers being trained to prepare
children to answer questions on this pattern from
15. NAVTEC established to ensure:
Vocational Schools: at each Tehsil and at
industrial clusters. All dropout from schools be
encouraged to enroll.
ii. Polytechnic Institutes: at District level for
matriculates to produce technicians /supervisors.
iii. Technical Colleges: 4/5 in each province for F.Sc.
qualified students to produce technical graduates.
16. Teacher’s status improved, recruitment of female
teachers given priority.
17. National textbook policy formulated.
18. Curriculum for the following eleven core
compulsory subjects have been revised: