Established in 1999, in the wake of the 1997 Asian Financial
Crisis, to bring together major advanced and emerging
economies to stabilize the global financial market.
Bring together systemically important industrialized and
developing economies to discuss key issues in the global
Held annual Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors'
Discussed measures to promote the financial stability of the
world and to achieve a sustainable economic growth and
G20 Summits have been held in Washington in 2008, in London
and Pittsburgh in 2009, and in Toronto and Seoul in 2010
France is very honoured to chair the Group of Twenty in 2011
proposed by former Canadian Finance Minister , Paul Martin
Prior to the G-20 creation, similar groupings to promote dialogue and analysis had been established at the initiative of the G-7
G-22 met at Washington D.C. in April and October 1998. Its aim was to involve non-G-7 countries in the resolution of global aspects of the financial crisis then affecting emerging-market countries.
Two subsequent meetings comprising a larger group of participants (G-33) held in March and April 1999 discussed reforms of the global economy and the international financial system.
The proposals made by the G-22 and the G-33 to reduce the world economy's susceptibility to crises showed the potential benefits of a regular international consultative forum embracing the emerging-market countries resulted in the creation of the G-20 in 1999.
Support growth and development across globe
Strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies
International co-operation, and international financial institutions
Strengthen international cooperation.
Creation of the framework for a strong, sustainable and balanced growth designed to enhance macroeconomic cooperation among the G20 members
Members US Canada France Germany Italy UK Japan Russia Australia Brazil Mexico Argentina China India South Korea Indonesia Saudi Arabia Turkey South Africa EU/ECB IMF/World Bank Permanent guest: Spain Special guests WEED - PeWa
Attendees - Forums and Institutions
Represented by :
The Managing Director of International Monetary Fund
The Chairman of the International Monetary Fund
The President of the World Bank
International Monetary and Financial Committee
The Chairman of the Development Committee
The European Union, who is represented by the rotating Council presidency and the European Central Bank, is the 20th member of the G-20
To ensure global economic fora and institutions work together, the Managing Director IMF and the President of the World Bank, plus the chairs of the International Monetary and Financial Committee and Development Committee of the IMF and World Bank, also participate in G-20 meetings on an ex-officio basis
Together, member countries represent around 90 per cent of global GNP, 80 per cent of world trade (including EU intra-trade) as well as two-thirds of the world's population
In addition, experts from private-sector institutions and non-government organisations are invited to G-20 meetings on an ad hoc basis in order to exploit synergies in analysing selected topics and avoid overlap.
The G-20 has no permanent staff of its own
The G-20 chair rotates between members, and is selected from a different regional grouping of countries each year.
The chair is part of a revolving three-member management Troika of past, present and future chairs.
The incumbent chair establishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its term, which coordinates the group's work and organizes its meetings.
The role of the Troika is to ensure continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years.
France G-20 chair in 2011
In 2010, French President Nicolas Sarkozy proposed permanent secretariat – suggested Seoul and Paris
Former G-20 Chairs
2007 South Africa
2009 United Kingdom
2010 Republic of Korea
Schedules of G-20 meetings
Date Host country Host city
1 st Nov 2008 USA Washington, D.C.
2 nd April 2009 UK London
3 rd Sept 2009 USA Pittsburgh
4 th June 2010 Canada Toronto
5 th Nov 2010 South Korea Seoul
6 th Nov 2011 France Cannes
7 th 2012 Mexico TBD
Agreement about policies for growth
Reducing abuse of the financial system
Dealing with financial crises
Transparency of fiscal policy and combating money laundering and financing of terrorism
Combat abuses of the financial system and illicit activities including tax evasion
Develop a common view among members on issues related to further development of the global economic and financial system
Strengthen international cooperation
global governance dramatically improved to better take into consideration the role and the needs of emerging of developing countries through the ambitious reforms of the governance of the IMF and the World Bank.
2006 – Discussion points
Building and Sustaining Prosperity
Domestic reforms to achieve sustained growth
Resource commodity markets
‘ reform’ of the World Bank and IMF
Impact of demographic changes due to an aging population
1 st G20, Washington – Nov2008
Also Known as Bretton Woods II
Common understanding of the root causes of the global economic crisis and finding solution to the crisis
Review of countries' past and future actions addressing the immediate crisis and contributing to growth
Agreement on common principles for reforming
Action plan to implement those principles and to develop further specific recommendations for later review
Reaffirmation of commitment to free market principles
Competition in Financial markets
Fiscal elements of growth and development
2 nd G-20 Summit – outcome (London, Apr2009)
Triple IMF’s capacity to $ 750 billion to assist crisis-affected countries
- by moving ahead with bilateral arrangements
through bonds issued by the Fund
- through an expansion of the New Arrangement
Concessional lending to poor countries by IMF
Mandated the IMF to make a new general allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) which will increase global liquidity by injecting $250 billion into the world economy which will provide a significant boost to the international reserves of African countries
2 nd G-20 Summit – Outcome (London, Apr2009)-2
The G-20 also affirmed the need for coordinated action on fiscal policy through fiscal stimulus programs and improve regulation in financial markets in order to avoid a new crisis of the same kind.
Discussed the banking crisis and the need to clean up the balance sheet of the banks to achieve an economic recovery in early 2010.
IMF to conduct regular assessments of the world economies and provide an enhanced early warning system to avoid a new crisis and commitment by world governments to listen to the warnings, as well as a pledge to confidentiality within the Fund
3 rd G-20 Summit – Pittsburg (Sept 2009)
Framework for Strong, Sustainable, and Balanced Growth
Strengthening the International Financial Regulatory System
Modernizing Global Institutions to Reflect today's Global economy
Reforming the Mandate, Mission, and Governance of the IMF
Reforming the Mission, Mandate, and Governance of Development Banks
Energy Security and Climate Change
Strengthening Support for the Most Vulnerable
Putting Quality Jobs at the Heart of the Recovery
An Open Global Economy
4 th G20 Summit – Toronto, Canada (Jun2010)
Prime issue of the summit was the recovery from the ongoing global recession and the more recent European debt crisis
International aid to Africa and other developing nations
Key agreement made by developed nations to cut annual budget deficits in half by 2013 and reducing debt-to-GDP ratio in each economy by 2016
Financial institutions to keep a higher amount of financial capital in case of future financial shocks
Climate change and food security
Reiterated their commitment to “greener growth”
5 th G-20 Summit – Seoul, Nov2009 - Agenda
Following up on previous G20 commitments like :
Enhance international cooperation to generate strong, sustainable and balanced growth
Safeguarding the ongoing recovery and restoring fiscal
Building a stronger international financial regulatory
Ensuring Ongoing Global Economic Recovery
Strengthening the International Financial Regulatory system
Modernizing the International Financial Institutions
6 th G-20 Summit – Cannes (Nov2011)
2011 will be the occasion to build on the recent successes of the G20
Ensure an active follow-up on processes already underway.
To address other essential issues which are crucial to global stability such as the reform of the international monetary system and the volatility of commodity prices
Heads of the G-20 members at the London summit pledged to abstain from imposing any trade protectionist measures
Norwegian perspective - Even though one of the major contributor of development programs in the World Bank and United Nations, it is not a member of the E.U. and thus not represented in the G-20 , characterized the G-20 as a "self-appointment group”, arguing that it undermines the legitimacy of organizations like the IMF, World Bank and United Nations, composition is determined by the major countries and powers
Singapore - refusing to acknowledge the G20's legitimacy, or accepting that the G20 will be the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Singapore has taken a leading role in organizing an informal "Global Governance Group" of 28 non-G20 countries
The G20's transparency has also been questioned by critics who call attention to the absence of a charter and the fact that the most important meetings are closed-door
Critics - Proposal
Critics propose alternative such as an Economic Security Council within the United Nations , where members should be elected by the General Assembly based on their importance in the world economy and the contribution they are willing to provide to world economic development